ResearchPad - drug-administration https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Methamphetamine administration increases hepatic CYP1A2 but not CYP3A activity in female guinea pigs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7848 Methamphetamine use has increased over the past decade and the first use of methamphetamine is most often when women are of reproductive age. Methamphetamine accumulates in the liver; however, little is known about the effect of methamphetamine use on hepatic drug metabolism. Methamphetamine was administered on 3 occassions to female Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs of reproductive age, mimicking recreational drug use. Low doses of test drugs caffeine and midazolam were administered after the third dose of methamphetamine to assess the functional activity of cytochrome P450 1A2 and 3A, respectively. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the mRNA expression of factors involved in glucocorticoid signalling, inflammation, oxidative stress and drug transporters. This study showed that methamphetamine administration decreased hepatic CYP1A2 mRNA expression, but increased CYP1A2 enzyme activity. Methamphetamine had no effect on CYP3A enzyme activity. In addition, we found that methamphetamine may also result in changes in glucocorticoid bioavailability, as we found a decrease in 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 mRNA expression, which converts inactive cortisone into active cortisol. This study has shown that methamphetamine administration has the potential to alter drug metabolism via the CYP1A2 metabolic pathway in female guinea pigs. This may have clinical implications for drug dosing in female methamphetamine users of reproductive age.

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<![CDATA[Drug induced pancreatitis: A systematic review of case reports to determine potential drug associations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8c4889da-2d62-467b-8b66-b271dff2cf8d

Objective

A current assessment of case reports of possible drug-induced pancreatitis is needed. We systematically reviewed the case report literature to identify drugs with potential associations with acute pancreatitis and the burden of evidence supporting these associations.

Methods

A protocol was developed a priori (PROSPERO CRD42017060473). We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and additional sources to identify cases of drug-induced pancreatitis that met accepted diagnostic criteria of acute pancreatitis. Cases caused by multiple drugs or combination therapy were excluded. Established systematic review methods were used for screening and data extraction. A classification system for associated drugs was developed a priori based upon the number of cases, re-challenge, exclusion of non-drug causes of acute pancreatitis, and consistency of latency.

Results

Seven-hundred and thirteen cases of potential drug-induced pancreatitis were identified, implicating 213 unique drugs. The evidence base was poor: exclusion of non-drug causes of acute pancreatitis was incomplete or poorly reported in all cases, 47% had at least one underlying condition predisposing to acute pancreatitis, and causality assessment was not conducted in 81%. Forty-five drugs (21%) were classified as having the highest level of evidence regarding their association with acute pancreatitis; causality was deemed to be probable or definite for 19 of these drugs (42%). Fifty-seven drugs (27%) had the lowest level of evidence regarding an association with acute pancreatitis, being implicated in single case reports, without exclusion of other causes of acute pancreatitis.

Discussion

Much of the case report evidence upon which drug-induced pancreatitis associations are based is tenuous. A greater emphasis on exclusion of all non-drug causes of acute pancreatitis and on quality reporting would improve the evidence base. It should be recognized that reviews of case reports, are valuable scoping tools but have limited strength to establish drug-induced pancreatitis associations.

Registration

CRD42017060473.

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<![CDATA[The impact of targeted malaria elimination with mass drug administrations on falciparum malaria in Southeast Asia: A cluster randomised trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c706743d5eed0c4847c6ce8

Background

The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) threatens global malaria elimination efforts. Mass drug administration (MDA), the presumptive antimalarial treatment of an entire population to clear the subclinical parasite reservoir, is a strategy to accelerate malaria elimination. We report a cluster randomised trial to assess the effectiveness of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) MDA in reducing falciparum malaria incidence and prevalence in 16 remote village populations in Myanmar, Vietnam, Cambodia, and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, where artemisinin resistance is prevalent.

Methods and findings

After establishing vector control and community-based case management and following intensive community engagement, we used restricted randomisation within village pairs to select 8 villages to receive early DP MDA and 8 villages as controls for 12 months, after which the control villages received deferred DP MDA. The MDA comprised 3 monthly rounds of 3 daily doses of DP and, except in Cambodia, a single low dose of primaquine. We conducted exhaustive cross-sectional surveys of the entire population of each village at quarterly intervals using ultrasensitive quantitative PCR to detect Plasmodium infections. The study was conducted between May 2013 and July 2017. The investigators randomised 16 villages that had a total of 8,445 residents at the start of the study. Of these 8,445 residents, 4,135 (49%) residents living in 8 villages, plus an additional 288 newcomers to the villages, were randomised to receive early MDA; 3,790 out of the 4,423 (86%) participated in at least 1 MDA round, and 2,520 out of the 4,423 (57%) participated in all 3 rounds. The primary outcome, P. falciparum prevalence by month 3 (M3), fell by 92% (from 5.1% [171/3,340] to 0.4% [12/2,828]) in early MDA villages and by 29% (from 7.2% [246/3,405] to 5.1% [155/3,057]) in control villages. Over the following 9 months, the P. falciparum prevalence increased to 3.3% (96/2,881) in early MDA villages and to 6.1% (128/2,101) in control villages (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.41 [95% CI 0.20 to 0.84]; p = 0.015). Individual protection was proportional to the number of completed MDA rounds. Of 221 participants with subclinical P. falciparum infections who participated in MDA and could be followed up, 207 (94%) cleared their infections, including 9 of 10 with artemisinin- and piperaquine-resistant infections. The DP MDAs were well tolerated; 6 severe adverse events were detected during the follow-up period, but none was attributable to the intervention.

Conclusions

Added to community-based basic malaria control measures, 3 monthly rounds of DP MDA reduced the incidence and prevalence of falciparum malaria over a 1-year period in areas affected by artemisinin resistance. P. falciparum infections returned during the follow-up period as the remaining infections spread and malaria was reintroduced from surrounding areas. Limitations of this study include a relatively small sample of villages, heterogeneity between villages, and mobility of villagers that may have limited the impact of the intervention. These results suggest that, if used as part of a comprehensive, well-organised, and well-resourced elimination programme, DP MDA can be a useful additional tool to accelerate malaria elimination.

Trial registration

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01872702

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<![CDATA[Evaluating the quality of antihypertensive drugs in Lagos State, Nigeria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc98fd5eed0c484529e32

Background

As the burden of noncommunicable diseases grows, access to safe medical therapy is increasing in importance. The aim of this study was to develop a method for evaluating the quality of antihypertensive drugs and to examine whether this prevalence varies by socioeconomic variables.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional survey of registered pharmacies in 6 local government areas (LGAs) in Lagos State, Nigeria. In each LGA, we sampled 17 pharmacies from a list of all registered pharmacies derived from the Pharmacists Council of Nigeria. We assessed drug quality based on (1) the level of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), which identified falsely labeled drug samples; and (2) the amount of impurities, which revealed substandard drug samples in accordance with the international pharmacopoeia guidelines. Good-quality drugs met specifications for both API and impurity.

Results

Of the 102 drug samples collected, 30 (29.3%) were falsely labeled, 76 (74.5%) were substandard,78 (76.5%) were of poor quality and 24 (23.5%) were of good quality.Among the falsely labeled drugs, 2 samples met standards set for purity while 28 did not. Among the 76 substandard drug samples, 28 were also falsely labeled. Of the falsely labeled drugs, 17 (56.7%) came from LGAs with low socioeconomic status, and 40 (52.6%) of the substandard drug samples came from LGAs with high socioeconomic status. Most of the good-quality drug samples, 14 (58.3%), were from LGAs with low socioeconomic status. Eighteen (60%) of the falsely labeled samples, 37 (48.7%) of the substandard samples, and 15 (62.5%) of the good-quality drug samples were from manufacturers based in Asia. The average price was 375.67 Nigerian naira (NGN) for falsely labeled drugs, 383.33 NGN for substandard drugs, and 375.67 NGN for good-quality drugs. The prevalence of falsely labeled and substandard drug samples did not differ by LGA-level socioeconomic status (P = .39) or region of manufacturer (P = .24); however, there was a trend for a difference by price (P = .06).

Conclusion

The prevalence of falsely labeled and substandard drug samples was high in Lagos. Treatment of noncommunicable diseases in this setting will require efforts to monitor and assure drug quality.

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<![CDATA[Quantitative systems pharmacology of interferon alpha administration: A multi-scale approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9aad5eed0c484529f9d

The therapeutic effect of a drug is governed by its pharmacokinetics which determine the downstream pharmacodynamic response within the cellular network. A complete understanding of the drug-effect relationship therefore requires multi-scale models which integrate the properties of the different physiological scales. Computational modelling of these individual scales has been successfully established in the past. However, coupling of the scales remains challenging, although it will provide a unique possibility of mechanistic and holistic analyses of therapeutic outcomes for varied treatment scenarios. We present a methodology to combine whole-body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models with mechanistic intracellular models of signal transduction in the liver for therapeutic proteins. To this end, we developed a whole-body distribution model of IFN-α in human and a detailed intracellular model of the JAK/STAT signalling cascade in hepatocytes and coupled them at the liver of the whole-body human model. This integrated model infers the time-resolved concentration of IFN-α arriving at the liver after intravenous injection while simultaneously estimates the effect of this dose on the intracellular signalling behaviour in the liver. In our multi-scale physiologically-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model, receptor saturation is seen at low doses, thus giving mechanistic insights into the pharmacodynamic (PD) response. This model suggests a fourfold lower intracellular response after administration of a typical IFN-α dose to an individual as compared to the experimentally observed responses in in vitro setups. In conclusion, this work highlights clear differences between the observed in vitro and in vivo drug effects and provides important suggestions for future model-based study design.

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<![CDATA[Integrated seroprevalence-based assessment of Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus in two lymphatic filariasis evaluation units of Mali with the SD Bioline Onchocerciasis/LF IgG4 Rapid Test]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52c4d5eed0c4842bcfb9

Background

Mali has become increasingly interested in the evaluation of transmission of both Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus as prevalences of both infections move toward their respective elimination targets. The SD Bioline Onchocerciasis/LF IgG4 Rapid Test was used in 2 evaluation units (EU) to assess its performance as an integrated surveillance tool for elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis.

Methodology/Principal findings

A cross sectional survey with SD Bioline Onchocerciasis/LF IgG4 Rapid Test was piggy-backed onto a transmission assessment survey (TAS) (using the immunochromatographic card test (ICT) Binax Filariasis Now test for filarial adult circulating antigen (CFA) detection) for LF in Mali among 6–7 year old children in 2016 as part of the TAS in two EUs namely Kadiolo-Kolondieba in the region of Sikasso and Bafoulabe -Kita-Oussoubidiagna-Yelimane in the region of Kayes.

In the EU of Kadiolo- Kolondieba, of the 1,625 children tested, the overall prevalence of W. bancrofti CFA was 0.62% (10/1,625) [CI = 0.31–1.09]; while that of IgG4 to Wb123 was 0.19% (3/1,600) [CI = 0.04–0.50]. The number of positives tested with the two tests were statistically comparable (p = 0.09). In the EU of Bafoulabe-Kita-Oussoubidiagna-Yelimane, an overall prevalence of W. bancrofti CFA was 0% (0/1,700) and that of Wb123 IgG4 antibody was 0.06% (1/1,700), with no statistically significant difference between the two rates (p = 0.99).

In the EU of Kadiolo- Kolondieba, the prevalence of Ov16-specific IgG4 was 0.19% (3/1,600) [CI = 0.04–0.50]. All 3 positives were in the previously O. volvulus-hyperendemic district of Kolondieba. In the EU of Bafoulabe-Kita-Oussoubidiagna-Yelimane, an overall prevalence of Ov16-specific IgG4 was 0.18% (3/1,700) [CI = 0.04–0.47]. These 3 Ov16 IgG4 positives were from previously O.volvulus-mesoendemic district of Kita.

Conclusions/Significance

The SD Bioline Onchocerciasis/LF IgG4 Rapid test appears to be a good tool for integrated exposure measures of LF and onchocerciasis in co-endemic areas.

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<![CDATA[Economic benefits of subcutaneous trastuzumab administration: A single institutional study from Karolinska University Hospital in Sweden]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8f9d5eed0c48496f56c

Introduction

Adjuvant trastuzumab is a standard of care in the treatment of Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (HER2) positive early breast cancer (eBC). Initially trastuzumab could only be administered intravenously (IV), however since 2013, a subcutaneous (SC) formulation with comparable efficacy and safety profile is available and preferred by patients. Trastuzumab SC does not require pharmacy preparation and has shorter administration time. The objective of this study was to estimate the economic efficiency of the SC formulation of trastuzumab by assessing the economic benefits of actual SC-driven process changes at one single Swedish healthcare institution.

Methods

This study analyzes changes in trastuzumab administration practice after the SC formulation was introduced at the Karolinska University Hospital. Process changes were identified and introduced in order to capitalize on the inherent work efficiency benefits of the SC formulation. Actual hospital data for 2015 were used to quantitatively estimate the annual economic impact of the changes. It encompassed administrative (i.e. non-medical) data of 178 newly diagnosed HER2-positive eBC patients and a total of 2,769 SC administrations. Realized economic benefits were expressed in hours saved by nurses, direct monetary cost savings and potential infusion fee revenue that could be earned through infrastructural revenue gains.

Results

In 2015, the replacement of IV infusion to SC administration generated total time savings of more than 1,100 hours, and led to direct monetary cost savings of 603,000 EUR. It unlocked a capacity gain of 1–2 additional administrations daily within the existing facility infrastructure. Given the current remuneration structure per administration, this revenue gain translated into an incremental revenue potential of up to 3 million EUR.

Conclusion

Data from this study showed that the shift from trastuzumab IV to SC formulation resulted in significant economic effects in terms of departmental resources related to time, direct monetary cost savings, and infrastructural revenue gains.

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<![CDATA[Prescribing errors by junior doctors- A comparison of errors with high risk medicines and non-high risk medicines]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2ded5eed0c48441ebfd

Introduction

Prescribing errors in hospital are common. However, errors with high-risk-medicines (HRMs) have a greater propensity to cause harm compared to non-HRMs. We do not know if there are differences between the causes of errors with HRMs and non-HRMs but such knowledge might be useful in developing interventions to reduce errors and avoidable harm. Therefore, this study aims to compare and contrast junior doctors’ prescribing errors with HRMs to non-HRMs to establish any differences.

Methods

A secondary analysis of fifty-nine interviews with foundation year doctors, obtained from three studies, was conducted. Using a Framework Analysis approach, through NVivo software, a detailed comparison was conducted between the unsafe acts, error-causing-conditions (ECCs), latent conditions, and types of errors related to prescribing errors with HRMs and non-HRMs.

Results

In relation to unsafe acts, violations were described in the data with non-HRMs only. Differences in ECCs of HRMs and non-HRMs were identified and related to the complexity of prescribing HRMs, especially dosage calculations. There were also differences in the circumstances of communication failures: with HRMs ineffective communication arose with exchanges with individuals outside the immediate medical team while with non-HRMs these failures occurred with exchanges within that team. Differences were identified with the latent conditions: with non-HRMs there was a reluctance to seek seniors help and with HRMs latent conditions related to the organisational system such as the inclusion of trade names in hospital formularies. Moreover, prescribing during the on-call period was particularly challenging especially with HRMs.

Conclusion

From this secondary analysis, differences in the nature and type of prescribing errors with HRMs and non-HRMs were identified, although further research is needed to investigate their prevalence. As errors with HRMs have the potential to cause great harm it may be appropriate to target limited resources towards interventions that tackle the underlying causes of such errors. Equally concerning, however, was the sense that doctors regard the prescribing of non-HRMs as ‘safe’.

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<![CDATA[Completion of multiple-dose travel vaccine series and the availability of pharmacist immunizers: A retrospective analysis of administrative data in Alberta, Canada]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5217d4d5eed0c484794659

Pharmacists in a number of countries are being trained in the administration of injections with the aim of improving access and adherence to vaccinations. However, little is known about population-level adherence to multiple-dose travel vaccines, and whether the availability of pharmacist immunizers is associated with adherence. Health administrative data from Alberta, Canada, from April 2008 to May 2017 identified adults dispensed at least one vaccine for hepatitis A, hepatitis B, Japanese encephalitis, or rabies. Individuals were coded as completers or non-completers of the vaccine series based on the number of doses dispensed over a time period comprising the duration of the standard series plus 6 months to account for late doses. The association between the proportion of Alberta pharmacists with injection authorization (according to pharmacist registration data) and completion of vaccine series was assessed using linear regression. Over the study period, 24,164 patients initiated a vaccine series for hepatitis A monovalent, 195,480 for hepatitis B monovalent, 169,802 for combined hepatitis A&B, 1,726 for Japanese encephalitis, and 1,908 for rabies. There were fewer than 5 individuals receiving Japanese encephalitis vaccine per year from 2008–2010 or rabies vaccine from 2008–2009. While statistically significant positive associations were seen across all vaccines except for Japanese encephalitis, the magnitude of these associations was small. Each 1% increase in the proportion of injections-authorized pharmacists saw a corresponding increase in the proportion of individuals with completed vaccine series by 0.31% for hepatitis A monovalent, 0.19% for hepatitis B monovalent, 0.22% for combined hepatitis A&B, and 0.21% for rabies. This may suggest that challenges remain with implementing reminder systems to ensure adherence among travellers. Strategies to develop or improve patient and clinician reminder systems in pharmacies for travel vaccines should therefore be explored.

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<![CDATA[A rapid method for post-antibiotic bacterial susceptibility testing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f7bdd5eed0c4843867df

Antibiotic susceptibility testing is often performed to determine the most effective antibiotic treatment for a bacterial infection, or perhaps to determine if a particular strain of bacteria is becoming drug resistant. Such tests, and others used to determine efficacy of candidate antibiotics during the drug discovery process, have resulted in a demand for more rapid susceptibility testing methods. Here, we have developed a susceptibility test that utilizes chemiluminescent determination of ATP release from bacteria and the overall optical density (OD600) of the bacterial solution. Bacteria release ATP during a growth phase or when they are lysed in the presence of an effective antibiotic. Because optical density increases during growth phase, but does not change during bacterial lysing, an increase in the ATP:optical density ratio after the bacteria have reached the log phase of growth (which is steady) would indicate antibiotic efficacy. Specifically, after allowing a kanamycin-resistant strain of Escherichia coli (E.coli) to pass through the growth phase and reach steady state, the addition of levofloxacin, an antibiotic to which E. coli is susceptible, resulted in a significant increase in the ATP:OD600 ratio in comparison to the use of kanamycin alone (1.80 +/- 0.50 vs. 1.12 +/- 0.28). This difference could be measured 20 minutes after the addition of the antibiotic, to which the bacteria are susceptible, to the bacterial sample. Furthermore, this method also proved useful with gram positive bacteria, as the addition of kanamycin to a chloramphenicol-resistant strain of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) resulted in an ATP:OD600 ratio of 2.14 +/- 0.26 in comparison to 0.62 +/- 0.05 for bacteria not subjected to the antibiotic to which the bacteria are susceptible. Collectively, these results suggest that measurement of the ATP:OD600 ratio may provide a susceptibility test for antibiotic efficacy that is more rapid and quantitative than currently accepted techniques.

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<![CDATA[Determination of blood dexmedetomidine in dried blood spots by LC-MS/MS to screen therapeutic levels in paediatric patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c46655ed5eed0c484518d3c

Dexmedetomidine is an imidazole derivative, with high affinity for α2 adrenergic receptors, used for sedation, analgesia and adjuvant anaesthesia. In this study, an analytical method for the quantification of dexmedetomidine in dried blood spots was developed, validated and applied. The drug was extracted from dried blood spot by liquid extraction; the separation was carried out by ultra high-resolution liquid chromatography in reverse phase coupled to tandem mass spectrometry method. An X Select cyano 5 μm HSS column (2.1 X 150 mm, Waters) and a mobile phase composed of 0.1% formic acid: acetonitrile [50:50 v/v], were used. The test was linear over the concentration range of 50 to 2000 pg/mL. The coefficients of variation for the intra and interday trials were less than 15%. The drug was stable under the conditions tested. The method was successfully applied for the quantification of 6 patients, aged 0 to 2 years, with classification ASA I, who underwent ambulatory surgeries, receiving a dose of 1 μg/Kg dexmedetomidine IV. The drug concentrations in the different sampling times were in the range of 76 to 868 pg/mL.

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<![CDATA[Pulp response of rats submitted to bleaching and the use of different anti-inflammatory drugs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e503ad5eed0c484d7f09c

This study aimed to evaluate neuropeptide expression after bleaching treatment using histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses and the effects of hydrocortisone and acetaminophen on pulp inflammation, sine dental bleaching and inflammation first occur, and only then, the treatmentt. Sixty-three rats were divided into three groups (n = 21) according to the pain-relieving therapy used: I-control; II-topical application of Otosporin for 10 min after the bleaching treatment; III-oral administration of paracetamol 30 min before whitening and then every 12h. In all the study groups, placebo gel was applied to the left upper jaw (control) and a 35% H2O2-based whitening gel was applied to the right upper jaw for 45 min. Seven animals from each group were euthanized at different time points: 0h after treatment, 24h, and 48h. After euthanasia, the first molar on each side was analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry to assess the degree of inflammation and verify the presence of the neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). The data were analyzed using the statistical nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's test for individual comparisons. Extensive areas of necrosis were observed in the groups that received bleaching treatment only, whereas reduced damage were obtained in the group treated with Otosporin. The immunohistochemical analysis showed positive immunolabeling in all groups, including the control, but this was stronger in the groups that received bleaching treatment. The best results were obtained in the group that received treatment with Otosporin. The use of Otosporin after dental bleaching minimized the side effects of this treatment.

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<![CDATA[Effects of analgesic and noise stimulus in gait score assessment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b787d5eed0c48449032b

This experiment was carried out aiming to assess walking manner and speed of broiler chickens with different gait scores (GS), with or without sound stimulus, and with or without administration of analgesic. To that end, 1,000 birds were evaluated by the GS test and 74 were selected for walking speed analyses. Weight at slaughter and breast yield values were obtained for comparisons. Walking speed analyses, both with and without analgesic and with and without stimulus were performed. Non-parametric statistics was applied to the GS data that did not meet the assumptions of the statistical model (normality and homogenicity) using Fisher’s exact test according to the data behavior (P<0.05). The analyses of data on speed, weight at slaughter, and breast yield were evaluated by ANOVA and compared by Tukey’s test (P<0.05). Walking speed differed after acoustic stimulus with or without administration of metamizole sodium. Body weight was also different in each GS. It is thus concluded that the birds may feel discomfort when their GS is higher than 0, but that such discomfort may be suppressed when they are stimulated to walk.

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<![CDATA[Dexmedetomidine combined with etomidate or emulsified isoflurane for induction reduced cardiopulmonary response in dogs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141ecbd5eed0c484d284a4

To investigate the effects of etomidate, emulsified isoflurane, and their combination with dexmedetomidine on physiological parameters, electrocardiogram (ECG) results, and the quality of induction and recovery during isoflurane maintenance anaesthesia. 5 mixed-breed dogs received each of four treatments: etomidate (E group); emulsified isoflurane (EI group); both dexmedetomidine and etomidate (DE group); or both dexmedetomidine and emulsified isoflurane (DEI group). All drugs were IV injection administered for induction, followed by 1.5 MAC (minimal alveolar concentration) of isoflurane to maintain anaesthesia. Rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and ECG were measured at baseline, 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 minutes after intubation. The quality of induction and recovery was evaluated for all dogs. All the anaesthetic procedures provided good conditions for induction of anaesthesia. The quality of induction and recovery in the E group was worse than other groups. The decrease of RR in the E and DE groups was stronger than that in the EI and DEI groups. The dogs in the E group had the most significant prolongation of the Q-T interval and changes in the S-T segment. Deviation and extension of the S-T segment were noted in the El group. The dogs in the DE and DEI groups had fewer changes in the ECG results than those in the E and EI groups. The addition of dexmedetomidine caused less effect on cardiopulmonary parameters and the ECG results than either etomidate or emulsified isoflurane alone. Thus, etomidate or emulsified isoflurane in combination with dexmedetomidine may be useful clinically for the induction of anaesthesia.

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<![CDATA[Trends in use of prescription stimulants in the United States and Territories, 2006 to 2016]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c084194d5eed0c484fca1e5

Background

Stimulants are considered the first-line treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the US and they are used in other indications. Stimulants are also diverted for non-medical purposes. Ethnic and regional differences in ADHD diagnosis and in stimulant use have been identified in earlier research. The objectives of this report were to examine the pharmacoepidemiological pattern of these controlled substances over the past decade and to conduct a regional analysis.

Methods

Data (drug weights) reported to the US Drug Enforcement Administration’s Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders System for four stimulants (amphetamine, methylphenidate, lisdexamfetamine, and methamphetamine) were obtained from 2006 to 2016 for Unites States/Territories. Correlations between state level use (mg/person) and Hispanic population were completed.

Results

Amphetamine use increased 2.5 fold from 2006 to 2016 (7.9 to 20.0 tons). Methylphenidate use, at 16.5 tons in 2006, peaked in 2012 (19.4 tons) and subsequently showed a modest decline (18.6 tons in 2016). The consumption per municipality significantly increased 7.6% for amphetamine and 5.5% for lisdexamfetamine but decreased 2.7% for methylphenidate (all p < .0005) from 2015 to 2016. Pronounced regional differences were also observed. Lisdexamfetamine use in 2016 was over thirty-fold higher in the Southern US (43.8 mg/person) versus the Territories (1.4 mg/person). Amphetamine use was about one-third lower in the West (48.1 mg/person) relative to the Northeastern (75.4 mg/person, p < .05) or the Midwestern (69.9 mg/person, p ≤ .005) states. States with larger Hispanic populations had significantly lower methylphenidate (r(49) = -0.63), lisdexamfetamine (B, r(49) = -0.49), and amphetamine (r(49) = -0.43) use.

Conclusions

Total stimulant usage doubled in the last decade. There were dynamic changes but also regional disparities in the use of stimulant medications. Future research is needed to better understand the reasons for the sizable regional and ethnic variations in use of these controlled substances.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of different drug regimens for the treatment of loiasis—A TropNet retrospective study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c16a4a5d5eed0c4844e0cc0

Background

Loa loa infection is endemic in limited areas of West-Central Africa. Loiasis has been associated with excess mortality, but clinical studies on its treatment are scant, particularly outside endemic areas, due to the rarity of cases diagnosed.

Methodology/Principal findings

With this retrospective TropNet (European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health) study, we aimed at outlining the treatment schedules followed by different reference centers for tropical medicine across Europe. We gathered information about 238 cases of loiasis, 165 of which had follow up data. The regimens followed by the different centers were heterogeneous. The drugs most frequently administered were: diethylcarbamazine alone (74/165, 45.1%), ivermectin alone (41/165, 25%), albendazole + ivermectin (21/164, 11.6%), ivermectin + diethylcarbamazine (16/165, 9.7%).

Conclusions/Significance

The management of loiasis substantially differs across specialized travel clinics in Europe. These discrepancies could be due to different local protocols as well as to (un)availability of the drugs. An harmonization of clinical protocols for the treatment of loiasis would be suggested across reference centers for tropical medicine in Europe.

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<![CDATA[2,4-Diaminothieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines, a new class of anthelmintic with activity against adult and egg stages of whipworm]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b5fed7c463d7e1703b809c3

The human whipworm Trichuris trichiura is a parasite that infects around 500 million people globally, with consequences including damage to physical growth and educational performance. Current drugs such as mebendazole have a notable lack of efficacy against whipworm, compared to other soil-transmitted helminths. Mass drug administration programs are therefore unlikely to achieve eradication and new treatments for trichuriasis are desperately needed. All current drug control strategies focus on post-infection eradication, targeting the parasite in vivo. Here we propose developing novel anthelmintics which target the egg stage of the parasite in the soil as an adjunct environmental strategy. As evidence in support of such an approach we describe the actions of a new class of anthelmintic compounds, the 2,4-diaminothieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines (DATPs). This compound class has found broad utility in medicinal chemistry, but has not previously been described as having anthelmintic activity. Importantly, these compounds show efficacy against not only the adult parasite, but also both the embryonated and unembryonated egg stages and thereby may enable a break in the parasite lifecycle.

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<![CDATA[Oxytocin receptor gene variations and socio-emotional effects of MDMA: A pooled analysis of controlled studies in healthy subjects]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b498f9a463d7e0897c6e016

Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) increases oxytocin, empathy, and prosociality. Oxytocin plays a critical role in emotion processing and social behavior and has been shown to mediate the prosocial effects of MDMA in animals. Genetic variants, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) may influence the emotional and social effects of MDMA in humans. The effects of common genetic variants of the OXTR (rs53576, rs1042778, and rs2254298 SNPs) on the emotional, empathogenic, and prosocial effects of MDMA were characterized in up to 132 healthy subjects in a pooled analysis of eight double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. In a subset of 53 subjects, MDMA produced significantly greater feelings of trust in rs1042778 TT genotypes compared with G allele carriers. The rs53576 and rs225498 SNPs did not moderate the subjective effects of MDMA in up to 132 subjects. None of the SNPs moderated MDMA-induced impairments in negative facial emotion recognition or enhancements in emotional empathy in the Multifaceted Empathy Test in 69 subjects. MDMA significantly increased plasma oxytocin concentrations. MDMA and oxytocin concentrations did not differ between OXTR gene variants. The present results provide preliminary evidence that OXTR gene variations may modulate aspects of the prosocial subjective effects of MDMA in humans. However, interpretation should be cautious due to the small sample size. Additionally, OXTR SNPs did not moderate the subjective overall effect of MDMA (any drug effect) or feelings of “closeness to others”.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, No: NCT00886886, NCT00990067, NCT01136278, NCT01270672, NCT01386177, NCT01465685, NCT01771874, and NCT01951508.

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<![CDATA[In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization of the Alkaloid Nuciferine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e2ab0ee8fa60b6a0e4

Rationale

The sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) contains many phytochemicals and has a history of human use. To determine which compounds may be responsible for reported psychotropic effects, we used in silico predictions of the identified phytochemicals. Nuciferine, an alkaloid component of Nelumbo nucifera and Nymphaea caerulea, had a predicted molecular profile similar to antipsychotic compounds. Our study characterizes nuciferine using in vitro and in vivo pharmacological assays.

Methods

Nuciferine was first characterized in silico using the similarity ensemble approach, and was followed by further characterization and validation using the Psychoactive Drug Screening Program of the National Institute of Mental Health. Nuciferine was then tested in vivo in the head-twitch response, pre-pulse inhibition, hyperlocomotor activity, and drug discrimination paradigms.

Results

Nuciferine shares a receptor profile similar to aripiprazole-like antipsychotic drugs. Nuciferine was an antagonist at 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT2B, an inverse agonist at 5-HT7, a partial agonist at D2, D5 and 5-HT6, an agonist at 5-HT1A and D4 receptors, and inhibited the dopamine transporter. In rodent models relevant to antipsychotic drug action, nuciferine blocked head-twitch responses and discriminative stimulus effects of a 5-HT2A agonist, substituted for clozapine discriminative stimulus, enhanced amphetamine induced locomotor activity, inhibited phencyclidine (PCP)-induced locomotor activity, and rescued PCP-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition without induction of catalepsy.

Conclusions

The molecular profile of nuciferine was similar but not identical to that shared with several approved antipsychotic drugs suggesting that nuciferine has atypical antipsychotic-like actions.

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<![CDATA[rLj-RGD3, a Novel Recombinant Toxin Protein from Lampetra japonica, Protects against Cerebral Reperfusion Injury Following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Involving the Integrin-PI3K/Akt Pathway in Rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7aab0ee8fa60b98488

Background

The RGD-toxin protein Lj-RGD3 is a naturally occurring 118 amino acid peptide that can be obtained from the salivary gland of the Lampetra japonica fish. This unique peptide contains 3 RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motifs in its primary structure. Lj-RGD3 is available in recombinant form (rLj-RGD3) and can be produced in large quantities using DNA recombination techniques. The pharmacology of the three RGD motif-containing peptides has not been studied. This study investigated the protective effects of rLj-RGD3, a novel polypeptide, against ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage to the brain caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in a rat stroke model. We also explored the mechanism by which rLj-RGD3 acts by measuring protein and mRNA expression levels, with an emphasis on the FAK and integrin-PI3K/Akt anti-apoptosis pathways.

Methods

rLj-RGD3 was obtained from the buccal secretions of Lampetra japonica using gene recombination technology. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into the following seven groups: a sham group; a vehicle-treated (VT) group; 100.0 μg·kg-1, 50.0 μg·kg-1 and 25.0 μg·kg-1 dose rLj-RGD3 groups; and two positive controls, including 1.5 mg·kg-1 Edaravone (ED) and 100.0 μg·kg-1 Eptifibatide (EP). MCAO was induced using a model consisting of 2 h of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. Behavioral changes were observed in the normal and operation groups after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was applied. In addition, behavioral scores were evaluated at 4 and 24 h after reperfusion. Brain infarct volumes were determined based on 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. Pathological changes in brain tissues were observed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Moreover, neuronal apoptosis was detected using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays. We determined the expression levels of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt, PKB), caspase-3 and Bcl-2 in the brain using western blot analysis and RT-PCR assays. The research protocol was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Dalian Medical University.

Results

The behavioral scores and cerebral infarct volumes of the rLj-RGD3 groups were markedly lower at 4 and 24 h/RF. The rLj-RGD3 protein significantly ameliorated pathological changes in the brain and reduced the number of apoptotic neurons. Furthermore, the FAK and PI3K/Akt pathways were activated. rLj-RGD3 significantly increased the expression of FAK, p-FAK and Bcl-2 proteins. In contrast, caspase-3 expression was inhibited.

Conclusion/Significance

We conclude that recombinant Lampetra japonica RGD-peptide (rLj-RGD3) exerts a protective effect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in the brain. In addition, the mechanism of this protection is associated with the activation of the integrin-PI3K/Akt pathway. These results provide a theoretical foundation and an experimental basis for using RGD peptides as novel drugs for treating ischemic cerebral vascular diseases in addition to promoting the research and development of marine biotechnology drugs.

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