ResearchPad - drug-drug-interactions https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[COMBSecretomics: A pragmatic methodological framework for higher-order drug combination analysis using secretomics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14596 Multi drug treatments are increasingly used in the clinic to combat complex and co-occurring diseases. However, most drug combination discovery efforts today are mainly focused on anticancer therapy and rarely examine the potential of using more than two drugs simultaneously. Moreover, there is currently no reported methodology for performing second- and higher-order drug combination analysis of secretomic patterns, meaning protein concentration profiles released by the cells. Here, we introduce COMBSecretomics (https://github.com/EffieChantzi/COMBSecretomics.git), the first pragmatic methodological framework designed to search exhaustively for second- and higher-order mixtures of candidate treatments that can modify, or even reverse malfunctioning secretomic patterns of human cells. This framework comes with two novel model-free combination analysis methods; a tailor-made generalization of the highest single agent principle and a data mining approach based on top-down hierarchical clustering. Quality control procedures to eliminate outliers and non-parametric statistics to quantify uncertainty in the results obtained are also included. COMBSecretomics is based on a standardized reproducible format and could be employed with any experimental platform that provides the required protein release data. Its practical use and functionality are demonstrated by means of a proof-of-principle pharmacological study related to cartilage degradation. COMBSecretomics is the first methodological framework reported to enable secretome-related second- and higher-order drug combination analysis. It could be used in drug discovery and development projects, clinical practice, as well as basic biological understanding of the largely unexplored changes in cell-cell communication that occurs due to disease and/or associated pharmacological treatment conditions.

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<![CDATA[A compound attributes-based predictive model for drug induced liver injury in humans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndeb57c49-a1cc-41d4-9618-08dc56c45dac

Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is one of the key safety concerns in drug development. To assess the likelihood of drug candidates with potential adverse reactions of liver, we propose a compound attributes-based approach to predicting hepatobiliary disorders that are routinely reported to US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Specifically, we developed a support vector machine (SVM) model with recursive feature extraction, based on physicochemical and structural properties of compounds as model input. Cross validation demonstrates that the predictive model has a robust performance with averaged 70% of both sensitivity and specificity over 500 trials. An independent validation was performed on public benchmark drugs and the results suggest potential utility of our model for identifying safety alerts. This in silico approach, upon further validation, would ultimately be implemented, together with other in vitro safety assays, for screening compounds early in drug development.

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<![CDATA[Patterns of multimorbidity and polypharmacy in young and adult population: Systematic associations among chronic diseases and drugs using factor analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648d0cd5eed0c484c81e2d

Objectives

The objective was to identify the systematic associations among chronic diseases and drugs in the form of patterns and to describe and clinically interpret the constituted patterns with a focus on exploring the existence of potential drug-drug and drug-disease interactions and prescribing cascades.

Methods

This observational, cross-sectional study used the demographic and clinical information from electronic medical databases and the pharmacy billing records of all users of the public health system of the Spanish region of Aragon in 2015. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted based on the tetra-choric correlations among the diagnoses of chronic diseases and the dispensed drugs in 887,572 patients aged ≤65 years. The analysis was stratified by age and sex. To name the constituted patterns, assess their clinical nature, and identify potential interactions among diseases and drugs, the associations found in each pattern were independently reviewed by two pharmacists and two doctors and tested against the literature and the information reported in the technical medicinal forms.

Results

Six multimorbidity-polypharmacy patterns were found in this large-scale population study, named as respiratory, mental health, cardiometabolic, endocrinological, osteometabolic, and mechanical-pain. The nature of the patterns in terms of diseases and drugs differed by sex and age and became more complex as age advanced.

Conclusions

The six clinically sound multimorbidity-polypharmacy patterns described in this non-elderly population confirmed the existence of systematic associations among chronic diseases and medications, and revealed some unexpected associations suggesting the prescribing cascade phenomenon as a potential underlying factor. These findings may help to broaden the focus and orient the early identification of potential interactions when caring for multimorbid patients at high risk of adverse health outcomes due to polypharmacy.

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<![CDATA[Synthetic lethality guiding selection of drug combinations in ovarian cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e6d4d5eed0c484ef3f0b

Background

Synthetic lethality describes a relationship between two genes where single loss of either gene does not trigger significant impact on cell viability, but simultaneous loss of both gene functions results in lethality. Targeting synthetic lethal interactions with drug combinations promises increased efficacy in tumor therapy.

Materials and methods

We established a set of synthetic lethal interactions using publicly available data from yeast screens which were mapped to their respective human orthologs using information from orthology databases. This set of experimental synthetic lethal interactions was complemented by a set of predicted synthetic lethal interactions based on a set of protein meta-data like e.g. molecular pathway assignment. Based on the combined set, we evaluated drug combinations used in late stage clinical development (clinical phase III and IV trials) or already in clinical use for ovarian cancer with respect to their effect on synthetic lethal interactions. We furthermore identified a set of drug combinations currently not being tested in late stage ovarian cancer clinical trials that however have impact on synthetic lethal interactions thus being worth of further investigations regarding their therapeutic potential in ovarian cancer.

Results

Twelve of the tested drug combinations addressed a synthetic lethal interaction with the anti-VEGF inhibitor bevacizumab in combination with paclitaxel being the most studied drug combination addressing the synthetic lethal pair between VEGFA and BCL2. The set of 84 predicted drug combinations for example holds the combination of the PARP inhibitor olaparib and paclitaxel, which showed efficacy in phase II clinical studies.

Conclusion

A set of drug combinations currently not tested in late stage ovarian cancer clinical trials was identified having impact on synthetic lethal interactions thus being worth of further investigations regarding their therapeutic potential in ovarian cancer.

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<![CDATA[Chemogenomic model identifies synergistic drug combinations robust to the pathogen microenvironment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6059c7d5eed0c4847cbe16

Antibiotics need to be effective in diverse environments in vivo. However, the pathogen microenvironment can have a significant impact on antibiotic potency. Further, antibiotics are increasingly used in combinations to combat resistance, yet, the effect of microenvironments on drug-combination efficacy is unknown. To exhaustively explore the impact of diverse microenvironments on drug-combinations, here we develop a computational framework—Metabolism And GENomics-based Tailoring of Antibiotic regimens (MAGENTA). MAGENTA uses chemogenomic profiles of individual drugs and metabolic perturbations to predict synergistic or antagonistic drug-interactions in different microenvironments. We uncovered antibiotic combinations with robust synergy across nine distinct environments against both E. coli and A. baumannii by searching through 2556 drug-combinations of 72 drugs. MAGENTA also accurately predicted the change in efficacy of bacteriostatic and bactericidal drug-combinations during growth in glycerol media, which we confirmed experimentally in both microbes. Our approach identified genes in glycolysis and glyoxylate pathway as top predictors of synergy and antagonism respectively. Our systems approach enables tailoring of antibiotic therapies based on the pathogen microenvironment.

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<![CDATA[Defining pediatric polypharmacy: A scoping review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0993d7d5eed0c4842ada7b

Objectives

Lack of consensus regarding the semantics and definitions of pediatric polypharmacy challenges researchers and clinicians alike. We conducted a scoping review to describe definitions and terminology of pediatric polypharmacy.

Methods

Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane CENTRAL, and the Web of Science Core Collection databases were searched for English language articles with the concepts of “polypharmacy” and “children”. Data were extracted about study characteristics, polypharmacy terms and definitions from qualifying studies, and were synthesized by disease conditions.

Results

Out of 4,398 titles, we included 363 studies: 324 (89%) provided numeric definitions, 131 (36%) specified duration of polypharmacy, and 162 (45%) explicitly defined it. Over 81% (n = 295) of the studies defined polypharmacy as two or more medications or therapeutic classes. The most common comprehensive definitions of pediatric polypharmacy included: two or more concurrent medications for ≥1 day (n = 41), two or more concurrent medications for ≥31 days (n = 15), and two or more sequential medications over one year (n = 12). Commonly used terms included polypharmacy, polytherapy, combination pharmacotherapy, average number, and concomitant medications. The term polypharmacy was more common in psychiatry literature while epilepsy literature favored the term polytherapy.

Conclusions

Two or more concurrent medications, without duration, for ≥1 day, ≥31 days, or sequentially for one year were the most common definitions of pediatric polypharmacy. We recommend that pediatric polypharmacy studies specify the number of medications or therapeutic classes, if they are concurrent or sequential, and the duration of medications. We propose defining pediatric polypharmacy as “the prescription or consumption of two or more distinct medications for at least one day”. The term “polypharmacy” should be included among key words and definitions in manuscripts.

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<![CDATA[Alterations in cellular pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of elvitegravir in response to ethanol exposure in HIV-1 infected monocytic (U1) cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdbcb0

Ethanol consumption is negatively associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and general health in HIV positive individuals. Previously, we demonstrated ethanol-mediated alterations to metabolism of elvitegravir (EVG) in human liver microsomes. In the current study, we investigated ethanol influence on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of EVG in HIV infected monocytic (U1) cells. U1 cells were treated with 5 μM EVG, 2 μM Cobicistat (COBI), a booster drug, and 20 mM ethanol for up to 24 hours. EVG, HIV p24 levels, alterations in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, MRP1, and MDR1 protein expressions were measured. Presence of ethanol demonstrated a significant effect on the total exposures of both EVG and EVG in combination with COBI. Ethanol also increased the HIV replication despite the presence of drugs and this elevated HIV replication was reduced in the presence of MRP1 and MDR1 inhibitors. Consequently, a slight increase in EVG concentration was observed in the presence of MRP1 inhibitor but not with MDR1 inhibitor. Furthermore, CYP3A4, MRP1 and MDR1 protein levels were significantly induced in treatment groups which included ethanol compared to those with no treatment. In summary, these findings suggest that Ethanol reduces intra cellular EVG exposure by modifying drug metabolism and transporter protein expression. This study provides valuable evidence for further investigation of ethanol effects on the intracellular concentration of EVG in ex vivo or in vivo studies.

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<![CDATA[Priority Setting and Influential Factors on Acceptance of Pharmaceutical Recommendations in Collaborative Medication Reviews in an Ambulatory Care Setting – Analysis of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial (WestGem-Study)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4cab0ee8fa60bda7ca

Background

Medication reviews are recognized services to increase quality of therapy and reduce medication risks. The selection of eligible patients with potential to receive a major benefit is based on assumptions rather than on factual data. Acceptance of interprofessional collaboration is crucial to increase the quality of medication therapy.

Objective

The research question was to identify and prioritize eligible patients for a medication review and to provide evidence-based criteria for patient selection. Acceptance of the prescribing general practitioner to implement pharmaceutical recommendations was measured and factors influencing physicians’ acceptance were explored to obtain an impression on the extent of collaboration in medication review in an ambulatory care setting.

Methods

Based on data of a cluster-randomized controlled study (WestGem-study), the correlation between patient parameters and the individual performance in a medication review was calculated in a multiple logistic regression model. Physician’s acceptance of the suggested intervention was assessed using feedback forms. Influential factors were analyzed.

Results

The number of drugs in use (p = 0.001), discrepancies between prescribed and used medicines (p = 0.014), the baseline Medication Appropriateness Index score (p<0.001) and the duration of the intervention (p = 0.006) could be identified as influential factors for a major benefit from a medication review, whereas morbidity (p>0.05) and a low kidney function (p>0.05) do not predetermine the outcome. Longitudinal patient care with repeated reviews showed higher interprofessional acceptance and superior patient benefit. A total of 54.9% of the recommendations in a medication review on drug therapy were accepted for implementation.

Conclusions

The number of drugs in use and medication reconciliation could be a first rational step in patient selection for a medication review. Most elderly, multimorbid patients with polymedication experience a similar chance of receiving a benefit from a medication review. Longitudinal patient care should be preferred over confined medication reviews. The acceptance of medication reviews by physicians supports further implementation into health care systems.

Trial Registration

ISRCTN ISRCTN41595373

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<![CDATA[Intervention to Improve Appropriate Prescribing and Reduce Polypharmacy in Elderly Patients Admitted to an Internal Medicine Unit]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db03ab0ee8fa60bc7499

Background

Polypharmacy and inappropriate medication prescriptions are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Most interventions proposed to improve appropriate prescribing are time and resource intensive and therefore hardly applicable in daily clinical practice.

Objective

To test the efficacy of an easy-to-use checklist aimed at supporting the therapeutic reasoning of physicians in order to reduce inappropriate prescribing and polypharmacy.

Methods

We assessed the efficacy and safety of a 5-point checklist to be used by all physicians on the internal medicine wards of a Swiss hospital by comparing outcomes in 450 consecutive patients aged ≥65 years hospitalized after the introduction of the checklist, and in 450 consecutive patients ≥65 years hospitalized before the introduction of the checklist. The main measures were the proportion of patients with prescription of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) at discharge, according to STOPP criteria, and the number of prescribed medications at discharge, before and after the introduction of the checklist. Secondary outcomes were the prevalence of polypharmacy (≥ 5 drugs) and hyperpolypharmacy (≥ 10 drugs), and the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing omissions (PPOs) according to START criteria.

Results

At admission 59% of the 900 patients were taking > 5 drugs, 13% ≥ 10 drugs, 37% had ≥ 1 PIM and 25% ≥ 1 PPO. The introduction of the checklist was associated with a significant reduction by 22% of the risk of being prescribed ≥ 1 PIM at discharge (adjusted risk ratios [RR] 0.78; 95% CI: 0.68–0.94), but not with a reduction of at least 20% of the number of drugs prescribed at discharge, nor with a reduction of the risk of PPOs at discharge.

Conclusions

The introduction of an easy-to-use 5-point checklist aimed at supporting therapeutic reasoning of physicians on internal medicine wards significantly reduced the risk of prescriptions of inappropriate medications at discharge.

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<![CDATA[Co-Prescription of QT-Interval Prolonging Drugs: An Analysis in a Large Cohort of Geriatric Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9eeab0ee8fa60b6da97

Background

Drug-induced QT-interval prolongation is associated with occurrence of potentially fatal Torsades de Pointes arrhythmias (TdP). So far, data regarding the overall burden of QT-interval prolonging drugs (QT-drugs) in geriatric patients are limited.

Objective

This study was performed to assess the individual burden of QT-interval prolonging drugs (QT-drugs) in geriatric polymedicated patients and to identify the most frequent and risky combinations of QT-drugs.

Methods

In the discharge medication of geriatric patients between July 2009 and June 2013 from the Geriatrics in Bavaria–Database (GiB-DAT) (co)-prescriptions of QT-drugs were investigated. QT-drugs were classified according to a publicly available reference site (CredibleMeds®) as ALL-QT-drugs (associated with any QT-risk) or High-risk-QT-drugs (corresponding to QT-drugs with known risk of Torsades de Pointes according to CredibleMeds®) and in addition as SmPC-high-risk-QT-drugs (according to the German prescribing information (SmPC) contraindicated co-prescription with other QT-drugs).

Results

Of a cohort of 130,434 geriatric patients (mean age 81 years, 67% women), prescribed a median of 8 drugs, 76,594 patients (58.7%) received at least one ALL-QT-drug. Co-prescriptions of two or more ALL-QT-drugs were observed in 28,768 (22.1%) patients. Particularly risky co-prescriptions of High-risk-QT-drugs or SmPC-high-risk-QT-drugs with at least on further QT-drug occurred in 55.9% (N = 12,633) and 54.2% (N = 12,429) of these patients, respectively. Consideration of SmPCs (SmPC-high-risk-QT-drugs) allowed the identification of an additional 15% (N = 3,999) patients taking a risky combination that was not covered by the commonly used CredibleMeds® classification. Only 20 drug-drug combinations accounted for more than 90% of these potentially most dangerous co-prescriptions.

Conclusion

In a geriatric study population co-prescriptions of two and more QT-drugs were common. A considerable proportion of QT-drugs with higher risk only could be detected by using more than one classification-system. Local adaption of international classifications can improve identification of patients at risk.

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<![CDATA[Interaction between Darunavir and Etravirine Is Partly Mediated by CYP3A5 Polymorphism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae1ab0ee8fa60bbbeea

Objectives

To assess the impact of the loss-of-function CYP3A5*3 allele (rs776746, 6986A>G SNP) on darunavir (DRV) plasma concentrations.

Methods

135 HIV-1 infected patients treated with DRV-based therapy were included in the study and plasma samples were obtained immediately before drug intake in order to determine DRV trough concentrations using an ultra performance liquid chromatography method (UPLC) with diode-array detection (DAD). Noteworthy is the fact that in 16 (11.9%) patients, etravirine (ETR) was combined with DRV. CYP3A5 genotypes were determined using real time PCR method (TaqMan® genotyping assay). The patients were then classified into CYP3A5 expressors (CYP3A5*1 allele carriers) and non-expressors (CYP3A5*3 homozygous). Subsequently, the association between DRV plasma trough concentration ([DRV]plasma) and CYP3A5 genotype-based expression status was analyzed.

Results

45% of the patients were classified as CYP3A5 expressors. In the whole cohort, mean [DRV]plasma was not different between CYP3A5 expressors and non-expressors (1894ng/ml [CI95%: 1566–2290] versus 1737ng/ml [CI95%: 1468–2057], p = 0.43). However, in the subgroup of the 16 patients receiving DRV combined with ETR, a significantly lower [DRV]plasma was observed for CYP3A5 expressors when compared to non-expressors (1385ng/ml [CI95%:886.3–2165] versus 3141ng/ml [CI95%:2042–4831], p = 0.007).

Conclusions

Interaction between DRV and ETR is partly mediated by CYP3A5 polymorphism with lower DRV plasma trough concentrations in CYP3A5 expressors suggesting a specific ETR-driven CYP3A5 activation only in CYP3A5 expressors. Consequently, these patients might be more at risk of infra-therapeutic [DRV]plasma. This potentially important observation is a good illustration of a genotype-based drug interaction, which could also have considerable consequences if translated to other CYP3A5-metabolized drugs. Further investigations are thus needed to confirm this association and to explore its clinical impact, mainly in the African population among whom CYP3A5 expressors are more frequent, before recommending systematic CYP3A5 pre-emptive genotyping for DRV-ETR co-administration.

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<![CDATA[An Integrated Data Driven Approach to Drug Repositioning Using Gene-Disease Associations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac4ab0ee8fa60bb1a92

Drug development is both increasing in cost whilst decreasing in productivity. There is a general acceptance that the current paradigm of R&D needs to change. One alternative approach is drug repositioning. With target-based approaches utilised heavily in the field of drug discovery, it becomes increasingly necessary to have a systematic method to rank gene-disease associations. Although methods already exist to collect, integrate and score these associations, they are often not a reliable reflection of expert knowledge. Furthermore, the amount of data available in all areas covered by bioinformatics is increasing dramatically year on year. It thus makes sense to move away from more generalised hypothesis driven approaches to research to one that allows data to generate their own hypothesis. We introduce an integrated, data driven approach to drug repositioning. We first apply a Bayesian statistics approach to rank 309,885 gene-disease associations using existing knowledge. Ranked associations are then integrated with other biological data to produce a semantically-rich drug discovery network. Using this network, we show how our approach identifies diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) to be an area of interest. CNS disorders are identified due to the low numbers of such disorders that currently have marketed treatments, in comparison to other therapeutic areas. We then systematically mine our network for semantic subgraphs that allow us to infer drug-disease relations that are not captured in the network. We identify and rank 275,934 drug-disease has_indication associations after filtering those that are more likely to be side effects, whilst commenting on the top ranked associations in more detail. The dataset has been created in Neo4j and is available for download at https://bitbucket.org/ncl-intbio/genediseaserepositioning along with a Java implementation of the searching algorithm.

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<![CDATA[Effect of Ethanol on the Metabolic Characteristics of HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitor Elvitegravir and Elvitegravir/Cobicistat with CYP3A: An Analysis Using a Newly Developed LC-MS/MS Method]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dacbab0ee8fa60bb442c

Elvitegravir (EVG), an integrase inhibitor for the treatment HIV infection, is increasingly becoming the part of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen. EVG is mainly metabolized through cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. Previously, we have shown that ethanol alters ART-CYP3A4 interactions with protease inhibitors thereby altering their metabolisms. However, as EVG is a fairly new class of drug, its kinetic characteristics and the effect of ethanol on EVG-CYPP3A4 interaction is poorly understood. In this study, we characterized EVG and cobicistat (COBI)-boosted EVG metabolism in human microsomes followed by ethanol-EVG, ethanol-COBI-EVG interaction with CYP3A. First, we developed and validated a simple, sensitive, and robust liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of EVG in the human liver microsomes. The lower limit of quantification for the drug was at 0.003 μM (1.34ng/ml). Extraction yield, matrix effects, drug stability, and calibration curves for the proposed method were validated according to the FDA guidelines. Time dependent kinetics data showed that 20mM ethanol decreases the apparent half-life of EVG degradation by ~50% compared to EVG alone. Our substrate kinetic results revealed that ethanol mildly decreases the catalytic efficiency for EVG metabolism. Inhibition studies demonstrated that EVG inhibits CYP3A4, and 20 mM ethanol causes a decrease in the IC50 of EVG. However, in the presence of COBI we were unable to determine these parameters effectively because COBI, being a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4, blocked the EVG/ethanol-CYP3A4 interactions. Docking studies predicted a shift of EVG or COBI binding to the active site of CYP3A4 in the presence of ethanol. Taken together, these results suggest that ethanol interacts with microsomal CYP3A and alters EVG-CYP3A4 interaction thereby altering EVG metabolism and inhibition of CYP3A4 by EVG. This finding has clinical significance because alcohol use is highly prevalent in HIV population, and there are no separate guidelines for these patients while they are on ART medication.

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<![CDATA[Quantifying Isoniazid Levels in Small Hair Samples: A Novel Method for Assessing Adherence during the Treatment of Latent and Active Tuberculosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae6ab0ee8fa60bbd651

Background

Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from an infectious pathogen worldwide and the most prevalent opportunistic infection in people living with HIV. Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) reduces the incidence of active TB and reduces morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients independently of antiretroviral therapy. However, treatment of latent or active TB is lengthy and inter-patient variability in pharmacokinetics and adherence common. Current methods of assessing adherence to TB treatment using drug levels in plasma or urine assess short-term exposure and pose logistical challenges. Drug concentrations in hair assess long-term exposure and have demonstrated pharmacodynamic relevance in HIV.

Methods

A large hair sample from a patient with active TB was obtained for assay development. Methods to pulverize hair and extract isoniazid were optimized and then the drug detected by liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). The method was validated for specificity, accuracy, precision, recovery, linearity and stability to establish the assay’s suitability for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Hair samples from patients on directly-observe isoniazid-based latent or active TB therapy from the San Francisco Department of Public Health TB clinic were then tested.

Results

Our LC/MS-MS-based assay detected isoniazid in quantities as low as 0.02ng/mg using 10–25 strands hair. Concentrations in spiked samples demonstrated linearity from 0.05–50ng/mg. Assay precision and accuracy for spiked quality-control samples were high, with an overall recovery rate of 79.5%. In 18 patients with latent or active TB on treatment, isoniazid was detected across a wide linear dynamic range.

Conclusions

An LC-MS/MS-based assay to quantify isoniazid levels in hair with performance characteristics suitable for TDM was developed and validated. Hair concentrations of isoniazid assess long-term exposure and may be useful for monitoring adherence to latent or active TB treatment in the setting of HIV.

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<![CDATA[Chronic Pain: How Challenging Are DDIs in the Analgesic Treatment of Inpatients with Multiple Chronic Conditions?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa3ab0ee8fa60ba677a

Background

Chronic pain is common in multimorbid patients. However, little is known about the implications of chronic pain and analgesic treatment on multimorbid patients. This study aimed to assess chronic pain therapy with regard to the interaction potential in a sample of inpatients with multiple chronic conditions.

Methods and Findings

We conducted a retrospective study with all multimorbid inpatients aged ≥18 years admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine of University Hospital Zurich in 2011 (n = 1,039 patients). Data were extracted from the electronic health records and reviewed. We identified 433 hospitalizations of patients with chronic pain and analyzed their combinations of chronic conditions (multimorbidity). We then classified all analgesic prescriptions according to the World Health Organization (WHO) analgesic ladder. Furthermore, we used a Swiss drug-drug interactions knowledge base to identify potential interactions between opioids and other drug classes, in particular coanalgesics and other concomitant drugs. Chronic pain was present in 38% of patients with multimorbidity. On average, patients with chronic pain were aged 65.7 years and had a mean number of 6.6 diagnoses. Hypertension was the most common chronic condition. Chronic back pain was the most common painful condition. Almost 90% of patients were exposed to polypharmacotherapy. Of the chronic pain patients, 71.1% received opioids for moderate to severe pain, 43.4% received coanalgesics. We identified 3,186 potential drug-drug interactions, with 17% classified between analgesics (without coanalgesics).

Conclusions

Analgesic drugs-related DDIs, in particular opioids, in multimorbid patients are often complex and difficult to assess by using DDI knowledge bases alone. Drug-multimorbidity interactions are not sufficiently investigated and understood. Today, the scientific literature is scarce for chronic pain in combination with multiple coexisting medical conditions and medication regimens. Our work may provide useful information to enable further investigations in multimorbidity research within the scope of potential interactions and chronic pain.

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<![CDATA[A Pharmacovigilance Approach for Post-Marketing in Japan Using the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) Database and Association Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad6ab0ee8fa60bb81a3

Background

Rapid dissemination of information regarding adverse drug reactions is a key aspect for improving pharmacovigilance. There is a possibility that unknown adverse drug reactions will become apparent through post-marketing administration. Currently, although there have been studies evaluating the relationships between a drug and adverse drug reactions using the JADER database which collects reported spontaneous adverse drug reactions, an efficient approach to assess the association between adverse drug reactions of drugs with the same indications as well as the influence of demographics (e.g. gender) has not been proposed.

Methods and Findings

We utilized the REAC and DEMO tables from the May 2015 version of JADER for patients taking antidepressant drugs (SSRI, SNRI, and NaSSA). We evaluated the associations using association analyses with an apriori algorithm. Support, confidence, lift, and conviction were used as indicators for associations. The highest score in adverse drug reactions for SSRI was obtained for "aspartate aminotransferase increased", "alanine aminotransferase increased", with values of 0.0059, 0.93, 135.5, and 13.9 for support, confidence, lift and conviction, respectively. For SNRI, "international normalized ratio increased", "drug interaction" were observed with 0.0064, 1.00, 71.9, and NA. For NaSSA, "anxiety", "irritability" were observed with 0.0058, 0.80, 49.9, and 4.9. For female taking SSRI, the highest support scores were observed in "twenties", "suicide attempt", whereas "thirties", "neuroleptic malignant syndrome" were observed for male. Second, for SNRI, "eighties", "inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion" were observed for female, whereas "interstitial lung disease" and "hepatitis fulminant" were for male. Finally, for NaSSA, "suicidal ideation" was for female, and "rhabdomyolysis" was for male.

Conclusions

Different combinations of adverse drug reactions were noted between the antidepressants. In addition, the reported adverse drug reactions differed by gender. This approach using a large database for examining the associations can improve safety monitoring during the post-marketing phase.

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<![CDATA[The Effect of Albumin on MRP2 and BCRP in the Vesicular Transport Assay]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daffab0ee8fa60bc6288

The ABC transporters multidrug resistance associated protein 2 (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are of interest in drug development, since they affect the pharmacokinetics of several drugs. Membrane vesicle transport assays are widely used to study interactions with these proteins. Since albumin has been found to affect the kinetics of metabolic enzymes in similar membrane preparations, we investigated whether albumin affects the kinetic parameters of efflux transport. We found that albumin increased the Vmax of 5(6)-carboxy-2’,7’-dichlorofluorescein (CDCF) and estradiol-17-β-D-glucuronide uptake into MRP2 vesicles in the presence of 0.1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) by 2 and 1.5-fold, respectively, while BSA increased Lucifer yellow uptake by 30% in BCRP vesicles. Km values increased slightly, but the change was not statistically significant. The effect of BSA on substrate uptake was dependent on the vesicle amount, while increasing BSA concentration did not significantly improve substrate uptake. These results indicate a minor effect of albumin on MRP2 and BCRP, but it should be considered if albumin is added to transporter assays for example as a solubilizer, since the effect may be substrate or transporter specific.

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<![CDATA[Investigating antimalarial drug interactions of emetine dihydrochloride hydrate using CalcuSyn-based interactivity calculations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbdde

The widespread introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy has contributed to recent reductions in malaria mortality. Combination therapies have a range of advantages, including synergism, toxicity reduction, and delaying the onset of resistance acquisition. Unfortunately, antimalarial combination therapy is limited by the depleting repertoire of effective drugs with distinct target pathways. To fast-track antimalarial drug discovery, we have previously employed drug-repositioning to identify the anti-amoebic drug, emetine dihydrochloride hydrate, as a potential candidate for repositioned use against malaria. Despite its 1000-fold increase in in vitro antimalarial potency (ED50 47 nM) compared with its anti-amoebic potency (ED50 26–32 uM), practical use of the compound has been limited by dose-dependent toxicity (emesis and cardiotoxicity). Identification of a synergistic partner drug would present an opportunity for dose-reduction, thus increasing the therapeutic window. The lack of reliable and standardised methodology to enable the in vitro definition of synergistic potential for antimalarials is a major drawback. Here we use isobologram and combination-index data generated by CalcuSyn software analyses (Biosoft v2.1) to define drug interactivity in an objective, automated manner. The method, based on the median effect principle proposed by Chou and Talalay, was initially validated for antimalarial application using the known synergistic combination (atovaquone-proguanil). The combination was used to further understand the relationship between SYBR Green viability and cytocidal versus cytostatic effects of drugs at higher levels of inhibition. We report here the use of the optimised Chou Talalay method to define synergistic antimalarial drug interactivity between emetine dihydrochloride hydrate and atovaquone. The novel findings present a potential route to harness the nanomolar antimalarial efficacy of this affordable natural product.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence, risk factors and health outcomes associated with polypharmacy among urban community-dwelling older adults in multi-ethnic Malaysia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbd0c

Background

Polypharmacy has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the older population.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and health outcomes associated with polypharmacy in a cohort of urban community-dwelling older adults receiving chronic medications in Malaysia.

Methods

This was a baseline study in the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research cohort. The inclusion criteria were individuals aged ≥55years and taking at least one medication chronically (≥3 months). Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire during home visits where medications taken were reviewed. Health outcomes assessed were frequency of falls, functional disability, potential inappropriate medication use (PIMs), potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs), healthcare utilisation and quality of life (QoL). Risk factors and health outcomes associated with polypharmacy (≥5 medications including dietary supplements) were determined using multivariate regression models.

Results

A total of 1256 participants were included with a median (interquartile range) age of 69(63–74) years. The prevalence of polypharmacy was 45.9% while supplement users made up 56.9% of the cohort. The risk factors associated with increasing medication use were increasing age, Indian ethnicity, male, having a higher number of comorbidities specifically those diagnosed with cardiovascular, endocrine and gastrointestinal disorders, as well as supplement use. Health outcomes significantly associated with polypharmacy were PIMS, PDDIs and increased healthcare utilisation.

Conclusion

A significant proportion of older adults on chronic medications were exposed to polypharmacy and use of dietary supplements contributed significantly to this. Medication reviews are warranted to reduce significant polypharmacy related issues in the older population.

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<![CDATA[Time-to-Onset Analysis of Drug-Induced Long QT Syndrome Based on a Spontaneous Reporting System for Adverse Drug Events]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f3ab0ee8fa60b6f4e3

Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a disorder of the heart’s electrical activity that infrequently causes severe ventricular arrhythmias such as a type of ventricular tachycardia called torsade de pointes (TdP) and ventricular fibrillation, which can be fatal. There have been no previous reports on the time-to-onset for LQTS based on data from spontaneous reporting systems. The aim of this study was to assess the time-to-onset of LQTS according to drug treatment. We analyzed the association between 113 drugs in 37 therapeutic categories and LQTS including TdP using data obtained from the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database. For signal detection, we used the reporting odds ratio (ROR). Furthermore, we analyzed the time-to-onset data and assessed the hazard type using the Weibull shape parameter. The RORs (95% confidence interval) for bepridil, amiodarone, pilsicainide, nilotinib, disopyramide, arsenic trioxide, clarithromycin, cibenzoline, donepezil, famotidine, sulpiride, and nifekalant were 174.4 (148.6–204.6), 17.3 (14.7–20.4), 52.0 (43.4–62.4), 13.9 (11.5–16.7), 69.3 (55.3–86.8), 54.2 (43.2–68.0), 4.7 (3.8–5.8), 19.9 (15.9–25.0), 8.1 (6.5–10.1), 3.2 (2.5–4.1), 7.1 (5.5–9.2), and 254.8 (168.5–385.4), respectively. The medians and quartiles of time-to-onset for aprindine (oral) and bepridil were 20.0 (11.0–35.8) and 18.0 (6.0–43.0) days, respectively. The lower 95% confidence interval of the shape parameter β of bepridil was over 1 and the hazard was considered to increase over time.Our study indicated that the pattern of LQTS onset might differ among drugs. Based on these results, careful long-term observation is recommended, especially for specific drugs such as bepridil and aprindine. This information may be useful for the prevention of sudden death following LQTS and for efficient therapeutic planning.

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