ResearchPad - dysplasia https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Canine hip dysplasia screening: Comparison of early evaluation to final grading in 231 dogs with Fédération Cynologique Internationale A and B]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15741 This study aimed to verify if a significant difference exists between parameters in the early evaluation of normal and near-normal hip joints, to evaluate the influence of age and breed on the parameters, and to clarify the usefulness of a total score for differentiating between Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) grade A and B hips.MethodsA total of 231 dogs were classified according to whether they had FCI A or B hips at adulthood, with measurements obtained at 14–28 weeks of age. The total score was calculated by the summation of the following quantitative parameters: angle of subluxation (AS), angle of reduction (AR), laxity index (LI), and dorsal acetabular rim slope (DARS). Logistic regression analysis was performed to establish the probability of the study population to develop an FCI B hip based on the total score. This was repeated for the highest score in combination with the worst-rated hip and once more for breeds.ResultsNo correlation between age and the parameters was found in the cohort, or for FCI A and B. The values of all the parameters were significantly lower in the FCI A group than in the FCI B group (AR: 4.42° ± 6.0° vs 7.62° ± 7.2°; AS: 0.45° ± 1.9° vs 1.55° ± 3.8°; LI: 0.32 ± 0.1 vs 0.36 ± 0.1; DARS: 3.30° ± 1.8° vs 3.77° ± 1.9°; TS: 11.47 ± 8.3 vs 16.65 ± 10.9). Labrador Retrievers and Golden Retrievers showed significant differences between parameters for both FCI grades. The range, where FCI A and B hips can be predicted on the basis of the total score, was different when assessed for the entire cohort, Labrador Retrievers, and Golden Retrievers.Clinical significanceOur results show that even in normal and near-normal hips, the parameters significantly differed in the early evaluation. Moreover, cutoff values should be set for different breeds in the prediction of the FCI grade during early evaluation for a better breeding selection regarding canine hip dysplasia, one of the most common orthopedic diseases among large and giant breed dogs. ]]> <![CDATA[Correlation between macrophage migration inhibitory factor and autophagy in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b2657d5eed0c484289882

The role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and autophagy in gastric cancer is not clear. We determined H. pylori infection status of the subjects and investigated the expression of MIF and autophagy markers (Atg5, LC3A and LC3B) in human gastric tissue at baseline. Then H. pylori eradication was done for H. pylori positive patients and MIF and Atg5 levels were investigated on each follow-up for both H. pylori-eradicated and H. pylori negative patients. Baseline tissue mRNA expression of MIF, Atg5, LC3A and LC3B was measured by real-time PCR in 453 patients (control 165, gastric dysplasia 82, and gastric cancer 206). Three hundred three patients (66.9%) had H. pylori infection at the time of enrollment. Only within H. pylori-positive group, MIF level was significantly elevated in patients with cancer than in control or dysplasia groups (P<0.05). LC3A and LC3B levels also showed significant differences within H. pylori-positive subgroups. H. pylori-positive dysplasia subgroup showed significantly lower (LC3A) (P<0.05) and higher (LC3B) mRNA levels (P<0.05) than in other subgroups. On follow-up, within H. pylori-eradicated group, Atg5 expression increased sequentially from control to dysplasia and cancer subgroups. Multiple linear regression showed autophagy markers (LC3A, LC3B, and Atg5) directly predicted MIF level (adjusted R2 = 0.492, P<0.001). Serial follow-up showed longitudinal increase in Atg5 level in general, with constantly higher levels in H. pylori-eradicated group than in -negative group. Intestinal metaplasia (IM) group initially showed higher Atg5 expression than the IM-negative group. However, it was reversed between the groups eventually because of the lower rate of increase in IM group. These results suggest a role of MIF and autophagy markers and their interaction in H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis.

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<![CDATA[Repeated Treatments with Ingenol Mebutate Prevents Progression of UV-Induced Photodamage in Hairless Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db02ab0ee8fa60bc7278

Background and Aim

Ingenol mebutate (IngMeb) is an effective treatment for actinic keratosis. In this study, we hypothesized that repeated treatments with IngMeb may prevent progression of UV-induced photodamage, and that concurrent application of a corticosteroid may reduce IngMeb-induced local skin responses (LSR).

Methods

Hairless mice (n = 60; 3 groups of 20 mice) were irradiated with solar simulated ultraviolet radiation (UVR) throughout the study. Five single treatments with IngMeb were given at 4-week intervals (Days 21, 49, 77, 105, and 133). Clobetasol propionate (CP) was applied once daily for 5 days prior to each IngMeb application, as well as 6 h and 1 day post treatment. One week after IngMeb treatment No. 1, 3, and 5 (Days 28, 84, and 140), biopsies from four mice in each group were collected for histological evaluation of UV-damage on a standardized UV-damage scale (0–12). LSR (0–24) were assessed once daily (Days 1–7) after each IngMeb treatment.

Results

IngMeb prevented progression of photodamage in terms of keratosis grade, epidermal hypertrophy, dysplasia, and dermal actinic damage with a lower composite UV-damage score on day 140 (UVR 10.25 vs. UVR+IngMeb 6.00, p = 0.002) compared to UVR alone. IngMeb induced LSR, including erythema, flaking, crusting, bleeding, vesiculation, and ulceration. Concurrent CP increased LSR (max LSR Tx 1–5: UVR+IngMeb+CP 3.6–5.5 vs. UVR+IngMeb 2.6–4.3) and provided better prevention of photodamage compared to IngMeb alone (Day 140: UVR+IngMeb 6.00 vs. UVR+IngMeb+CP 3.00 p < 0.001).

Conclusion

Repeated field-directed treatments with IngMeb prevent progression of cutaneous photodamage in hairless mice, while CP cannot be used to alleviate IngMeb-induced LSR. The findings suggest that IngMeb may potentially serve as a prophylactic treatment for UV-induced tumors.

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<![CDATA[Long-term genetic selection reduced prevalence of hip and elbow dysplasia in 60 dog breeds]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbfe6

Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) and elbow dysplasia (ED) impact the health and welfare of all dogs. The first formally organized assessment scheme to improve canine health centered on reducing the prevalence of these orthopedic disorders. Phenotypic screening of joint conformation remains the currently available strategy for breeders to make selection decisions. The present study evaluated the efficacy of employing phenotypic selection on breed improvement of hips and elbows using the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals complete database spanning the 1970–2015 time period. Sixty breeds having more than 1000 unique hip evaluations and 500 elbow evaluations (1,056,852 and 275,129 hip and elbow records, respectively) were interrogated to derive phenotypic improvement, sex and age at time of assessment effects, correlation between the two joints, heritability estimates, estimated breeding values (EBV), and effectiveness of maternal/paternal selection. The data demonstrated that there has been overall improvement in hip and elbow conformation with a reduction in EBV for disease liability, although the breeds differed in the magnitude of the response to selection. Heritabilities also differed substantially across the breeds as did the correlation of the joints; in the absence of a universal association of these differences with breed size, popularity, or participation in screening, it appears that the breeds themselves vary in genetic control. There was subtle, though again breed specific, impact of sex and older ages on CHD and ED. There was greater paternal impact on a reduction of CHD. In the absence of direct genetic tests for either of these two diseases, phenotypic selection has proven to be effective. Furthermore, the data underscore that selection schemes must be breed specific and that it is likely the genetic profiles will be unique across the breeds for these two conditions. Despite the advances achieved with phenotypic selection, incorporation of EBVs into selection schemes should accelerate advances in hip and elbow improvement.

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<![CDATA[Differential Expression of Stem Cell Markers in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1cab0ee8fa60b7d33e

Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasm (OSSN) is the neoplasia arising from the conjunctiva, cornea and limbus. OSSN ranges from mild, moderate, severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ (CIS) to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Recent findings on cancer stem cells theory indicate that population of stem-like cell as in neoplasia determines its heterogeneity and complexity leading to varying tumor development of metastatic behavior and recurrence. Cancer stem cell markers are not much explored in the cases of OSSN. In the present study, we aim to evaluate the expression of stem cells using stem cell markers mainly p63, ABCG2, c-KIT (CD117) and CD44 in OSSN tissue, which could have prognostic significance. The present study tries for the first time to explore expression of these stem markers in the cases of OSSN. These cases are subdivided into two groups. One group comprises of carcinoma in situ (n = 6) and the second group comprises of invasive carcinoma (n = 6). The mean age at presentation was 52 years; with 53 years for CIS group and 52 years for SCC group. From each group section from the paraffin block were taken for the IHC staining of p63, c-Kit, ABCG2 and CD44. Our experiments show high expression of P63 and CD44 in the cases of CIN and SCC. Both CIS and SCC displayed positive staining with p63, with more than 80% cells staining positive. However minimal expression of c-kit in both CIN and SCC. But surprisingly we got high expression of ABCG2 in cases of carcinoma in situ as compared to that of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. More than 50% of cells showed CD44 positivity in both CIS and SCC groups. Our results show for the first time that these four stem cells especially the limbal epithelium stem cells play a vital role in the genesis of OSSN but we need to explore more cases before establishing its clinical and biological significance.

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<![CDATA[Dysregulation of Autophagy Contributes to Anal Carcinogenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf3ab0ee8fa60bc1cc7

Introduction

Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process that removes and recycles unnecessary/dysfunctional cellular components, contributing to cellular health and survival. Autophagy is a highly regulated cellular process that responds to several intracellular signals, many of which are deregulated by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection through the expression of HPV-encoded oncoproteins. This adaptive inhibitory response helps prevent viral clearance. A strong correlation remains between HPV infection and the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anus, particularly in HIV positive and other immunosuppressed patients. We hypothesize that autophagy is inhibited by HPV–encoded oncoproteins thereby promoting anal carcinogenesis (Fig 1).

Materials and Methods

HPV16 transgenic mice (K14E6/E7) and non-transgenic mice (FVB/N), both of which do not spontaneously develop anal tumors, were treated topically with the chemical carcinogen, 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), to induce anal cancer. The anuses at different time points of treatment (5, 10, 15 and 20 weeks) were analyzed using immunofluorescence (IF) for two key autophagy marker proteins (LC3β and p62) in addition to histological grading. The anuses from the K14E6/E7 mice were also analyzed for visual evidence of autophagic activity by electron microscopy (EM). To see if there was a correlation to humans, archival anal specimens were assessed histologically for grade of dysplasia and then analyzed for LC3β and p62 protein content. To more directly examine the effect of autophagic inhibition on anal carcinogenesis, nontransgenic mice that do not develop anal cancer with DMBA treatment were treated with a known pharmacologic inhibitor of autophagy, chloroquine, and examined for tumor development and analyzed by IF for autophagic proteins.

Results

Histologically, we observed the progression of normal anoderm to invasive SCC with DMBA treatment in K14E6/E7 mice but not in nontransgenic, syngeneic FVB/N background control mice. With the development of low-grade dysplasia in the K14E6/E7 mice, there was an increase in both punctate LC3β and p62 expression while EM revealed increased autophagosomes without evidence of autophagolysosomes. These observations are consistent with autophagy being inhibited at a later stage in the autophagic process. In contrast, in high-grade dysplasia and SCC in the DMBA-treated K14E6/E7 mice, there were decreased levels of p62 with a continued increase in punctate LC3β expression by IF, while autophagolysosomes were seen on EM, consistent with the process of autophagy proceeded to completion. Similar findings, including histological grade dependent changes in LC3β and p62 expression, were noted with human samples upon analysis of IF. Finally, with pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy in DMBA-treated, nontrangenic FVB/N mice, there was a significant increase in anal cancer development similar to that observed in DMBA- treated K14E6/E7 mice.

Conclusion

Autophagic dysregulation is noted early on in HPV-associated anal carcinogenesis (low-grade dysplasia), with normalization of the autophagic process arising in late stages of HPV-associated anal carcinogenesis (high-grade dysplasia and invasive carcinoma).

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<![CDATA[A Robust Protocol for Using Multiplexed Droplet Digital PCR to Quantify Somatic Copy Number Alterations in Clinical Tissue Specimens]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0fab0ee8fa60b78e10

The ability of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to accurately determine the concentrations of amplifiable targets makes it a promising platform for measuring copy number alterations (CNAs) in genomic biomarkers. However, its application to clinical samples, particularly formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens, will require strategies to reliably determine CNAs in DNA of limited quantity and quality. When applied to cancerous tissue, those methods must also account for global genetic instability and the associated probability that the abundance(s) of one or more chosen reference loci do not represent the average ploidy of cells comprising the specimen. Here we present an experimental design strategy and associated data analysis tool that enables accurate determination of CNAs in a panel of biomarkers using multiplexed ddPCR. The method includes strategies to optimize primer and probes design to cleanly segregate droplets in the data output from reaction wells amplifying multiple independent templates, and to correct for bias from artifacts such as DNA fragmentation. We demonstrate how a panel of reference loci can be used to determine a stable CNA-neutral benchmark. These innovations, when taken together, provide a comprehensive strategy that can be used to reliably detect biomarker CNAs in DNA extracted from either frozen or FFPE tissue biopsies.

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<![CDATA[Drug versus placebo randomized controlled trials in neonates: A review of ClinicalTrials.gov registry]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdbb03

Background

Despite specific initiatives and identified needs, most neonatal drugs are still used off-label, with variable dosage administrations and schedules. In high risk preterm and term neonates, drug evaluation is challenging and randomized controlled trials (RCT) are difficult to conduct and even more is the use of a placebo, required in the absence of a reference validated drug to be used as comparator.

Methods

We analyzed the complete ClinicalTrials.gov registry 1) to describe neonatal RCT involving a placebo, 2) to report on the medical context and ethical aspects of placebo use.

Results

Placebo versus drug RCT (n = 146), either prevention trials (n = 57, 39%) or therapeutic interventions (n = 89, 61%), represent more than a third of neonatal trials registered in the National Institute of Health clinical trial database (USA) since 1999. They mainly concerned preterm infants, evaluating complications of prematurity. Most trials were conducted in the USA, were single centered, and funded by non-profit organizations. For the three top drug trials evaluating steroids (n = 13, 9.6%), erythropoietin (EPO, n = 10, 6.8%) and nitric oxide (NO, n = 9, 6.2%), the objectives of the trial and follow-up were analyzed in more details.

Conclusion

Although a matter of debate, the use of placebo should be promoted in neonates to evaluate a potential new treatment, in the absence of reference drug. Analysis of the trials evaluating steroids showed that long-term follow-up of exposed patients, although required by international guidelines, is frequently missing and should be planned to collect additional information and optimize drug evaluation in these high-risk patients.

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<![CDATA[A novel iterative mixed model to remap three complex orthopedic traits in dogs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be108c

Hip dysplasia (HD), elbow dysplasia (ED), and rupture of the cranial (anterior) cruciate ligament (RCCL) are the most common complex orthopedic traits of dogs and all result in debilitating osteoarthritis. We reanalyzed previously reported data: the Norberg angle (a quantitative measure of HD) in 921 dogs, ED in 113 cases and 633 controls, and RCCL in 271 cases and 399 controls and their genotypes at ~185,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. A novel fixed and random model with a circulating probability unification (FarmCPU) function, with marker-based principal components and a kinship matrix to correct for population stratification, was used. A Bonferroni correction at p<0.01 resulted in a P< 6.96 ×10−8. Six loci were identified; three for HD and three for RCCL. An associated locus at CFA28:34,369,342 for HD was described previously in the same dogs using a conventional mixed model. No loci were identified for RCCL in the previous report but the two loci for ED in the previous report did not reach genome-wide significance using the FarmCPU model. These results were supported by simulation which demonstrated that the FarmCPU held no power advantage over the linear mixed model for the ED sample but provided additional power for the HD and RCCL samples. Candidate genes for HD and RCCL are discussed. When using FarmCPU software, we recommend a resampling test, that a positive control be used to determine the optimum pseudo quantitative trait nucleotide-based covariate structure of the model, and a negative control be used consisting of permutation testing and the identical resampling test as for the non-permuted phenotypes.

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<![CDATA[Mutations in TSPEAR, Encoding a Regulator of Notch Signaling, Affect Tooth and Hair Follicle Morphogenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da91ab0ee8fa60ba00ec

Despite recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of ectodermal dysplasias (EDs), the molecular basis of many of these disorders remains unknown. In the present study, we aimed at elucidating the genetic basis of a new form of ED featuring facial dysmorphism, scalp hypotrichosis and hypodontia. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified 2 frameshift and 2 missense mutations in TSPEAR segregating with the disease phenotype in 3 families. TSPEAR encodes the thrombospondin-type laminin G domain and EAR repeats (TSPEAR) protein, whose function is poorly understood. TSPEAR knock-down resulted in altered expression of genes known to be regulated by NOTCH and to be involved in murine hair and tooth development. Pathway analysis confirmed that down-regulation of TSPEAR in keratinocytes is likely to affect Notch signaling. Accordingly, using a luciferase-based reporter assay, we showed that TSPEAR knock-down is associated with decreased Notch signaling. In addition, NOTCH1 protein expression was reduced in patient scalp skin. Moreover, TSPEAR silencing in mouse hair follicle organ cultures was found to induce apoptosis in follicular epithelial cells, resulting in decreased hair bulb diameter. Collectively, these observations indicate that TSPEAR plays a critical, previously unrecognized role in human tooth and hair follicle morphogenesis through regulation of the Notch signaling pathway.

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<![CDATA[Economic value of narrow-band imaging versus white light endoscopy for the diagnosis and surveillance of Barrett’s esophagus: Cost-consequence model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c92b39ed5eed0c4843a4472

Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is an abnormality arising from gastroesophageal reflux disease that can progressively evolve into a sequence of dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. Progression of Barrett’s esophagus into dysplasia is monitored with endoscopic surveillance. The current surveillance standard requests random biopsies plus targeted biopsies of suspicious lesions under white-light endoscopy, known as the Seattle protocol. Recently, published evidence has shown that narrow-band imaging (NBI) can guide targeted biopsies to identify dysplasia and reduce the need for random biopsies. We aimed to assess the health economic implications of adopting NBI-guided targeted biopsy vs. the Seattle protocol from a National Health Service England perspective. A decision tree model was developed to undertake a cost-consequence analysis. The model estimated total costs (i.e. staff and overheads; histopathology; adverse events; capital equipment) and clinical implications of monitoring a cohort of patients with known/suspected BE, on an annual basis. In the simulation, BE patients (N = 161,657 at Year 1; estimated annual increase: +20%) entered the model every year and underwent esophageal endoscopy. After 7 years, the adoption of NBI with targeted biopsies resulted in cost reduction of £458.0 mln vs. HD-WLE with random biopsies (overall costs: £1,966.2 mln and £2,424.2 mln, respectively). The incremental investment on capital equipment to upgrade hospitals with NBI (+£68.3 mln) was offset by savings due to the reduction of histological examinations (-£505.2 mln). Reduction of biopsies also determined savings for avoided adverse events (-£21.1 mln). In the base-case analysis, the two techniques had the same accuracy (number of correctly identified cases: 1.934 mln), but NBI was safer than HD-WLE. Budget impact analysis and cost-effectiveness analyses confirmed the findings of the cost-consequence analysis. In conclusion, NBI-guided targeted biopsies was a cost-saving strategy for NHS England, compared to current practice for detection of dysplasia in patients with BE, whilst maintaining at least comparable health outcomes for patients.

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<![CDATA[HER3 Expression Is a Marker of Tumor Progression in Premalignant Lesions of the Gastroesophageal Junction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad1ab0ee8fa60bb62f4

Overexpression of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), including members of the HER family, has prognostic and therapeutic significance in invasive esophagogastric carcinoma. RTK expression in premalignant gastroesophageal lesions has not been extensively explored. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of esophageal biopsy specimens from 73 patients with Barrett’s esophagus with either low-grade dysplasia (LGD) (n = 32) or high-grade dysplasia (HGD) (n = 59) were analyzed for HER1, HER2, HER3 and CMET expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Immunophenotype was correlated with histologic and clinical features. High-grade dysplasia (HGD) was associated with overexpression of HER1 (20.7% vs. 3.1%, p = 0.023), HER2 (5.3% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.187) and HER3 (47.4% vs. 9.4%, p<0.001) compared to low-grade dysplasia (LGD). There was a significant association of HER2 (20.0% vs. 2.1%, p = 0.022) and HER3 (80.0% vs. 40.4%, p = 0.023) overexpression in HGD lesions associated with foci of invasive carcinoma compared to those without invasive foci. Overexpression of CMET was observed in 42.9% of specimens, was increasingly observed with HGD compared to LGD (58.3% vs. 36.7%, p = 0.200), and was most often co-expressed with HER3 (62.5% of HER3-positive specimens vs. 38.2% of HER3-negative specimens, p = 0.212). In summary, HER3 is frequently overexpressed in high-grade dysplastic lesions of the gastroesophageal junction and may be a marker of invasive progression. These data provide rationale for targeting HER2 and HER3 pathways in an early disease setting to prevent disease progression.

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<![CDATA[Receptor-Activator of Nuclear KappaB Ligand Expression as a New Therapeutic Target in Primary Bone Tumors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db1dab0ee8fa60bce86d

The receptor-activator of nuclear kappaB ligand (RANKL) signaling pathway plays an important role in the regulation of bone growth and mediates the formation and activation of osteoclasts. Osteoclasts are involved in significant bone resorption and destruction. Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody against RANKL that specifically inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. It has been approved for use for multiple myeloma and bone metastases, as well as for giant cell tumor of bone. However, there is no previous report quantitatively, comparing RANKL expression in histologically varied bone tumors. Therefore, we analyzed the mRNA level of various bone tumors and investigated the possibility of these tumors as a new therapeutic target for denosumab. We examined RANKL mRNA expression in 135 clinical specimens of primary and metastatic bone tumors using real-time PCR. The relative quantification of mRNA expression levels was performed via normalization with RPMI8226, a human multiple myeloma cell line that is recognized to express RANKL. Of 135 cases, 64 were also evaluated for RANKL expression by using immunohistochemistry. Among all of the tumors investigated, RANKL expression and the RANKL/osteoprotegerin ratio were highest in giant cell tumor of bone. High RANKL mRNA expression was observed in cases of aneurysmal bone cyst, fibrous dysplasia, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and enchondroma, as compared to cases of multiple myeloma and bone lesions from metastatic carcinoma. RANKL-positive stromal cells were detected in six cases: five cases of GCTB and one case of fibrous dysplasia. The current study findings indicate that some primary bone tumors present new therapeutic targets for denosumab, particularly those tumors expressing RANKL and those involving bone resorption by osteoclasts.

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<![CDATA[Areca nut is associated with younger age of diagnosis, poor chemoradiotherapy response, and shorter overall survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcb54

Objective

Areca nut chewing is carcinogenic to humans. However, little is known about the impact of areca nut chewing on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed 286 ESCC patients who received surgery or preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery at our institution. Background characteristics including areca nut chewing history were analyzed. The 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO)-induced murine ESCC model was used to test the impact of arecoline, a main constituent of areca nut, on ESCC.

Results

Compared to patients without areca nut chewing history, patients with areca nut chewing history had overall a younger age of onset (Mean age: 56.75 versus 52.68 yrs, P<0.001) and significantly worse overall survival than those without areca nut chewing history (P = 0.026). Among patients who received surgery, the overall survival rates were not significantly different between those with or without areca nut chewing history. Among patients who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery, those with areca nut chewing history had a significantly lower pathologic complete response rate (P = 0.002) and lower overall survival rate (P = 0.002) than those without. In the murine ESCC model, the incidence of esophageal invasive squamous cell carcinoma was 40% in mice exposed to concomitant 4-NQO and arecoline treatment for 8 weeks and 6% in mice exposed to 4-NQO only for 8 weeks (P = 0.037).

Conclusions

Our results indicate that areca nut chewing history is significantly associated with younger age of onset, poor response to chemoradiotherapy, and shorter overall survival in ESCC patients. Arecoline, a main constituent of areca nut, accelerates esophageal tumorigenesis in the 4-NQO-induced murine ESCC model.

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<![CDATA[SOX2 and PI3K Cooperate to Induce and Stabilize a Squamous-Committed Stem Cell Injury State during Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Pathogenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da6dab0ee8fa60b939e2

Although cancers are considered stem cell diseases, mechanisms involving stem cell alterations are poorly understood. Squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) is the second most common lung cancer, and its pathogenesis appears to hinge on changes in the stem cell behavior of basal cells in the bronchial airways. Basal cells are normally quiescent and differentiate into mucociliary epithelia. Smoking triggers a hyperproliferative response resulting in progressive premalignant epithelial changes ranging from squamous metaplasia to dysplasia. These changes can regress naturally, even with chronic smoking. However, for unknown reasons, dysplasias have higher progression rates than earlier stages. We used primary human tracheobronchial basal cells to investigate how copy number gains in SOX2 and PIK3CA at 3q26-28, which co-occur in dysplasia and are observed in 94% of SQCCs, may promote progression. We find that SOX2 cooperates with PI3K signaling, which is activated by smoking, to initiate the squamous injury response in basal cells. This response involves SOX9 repression, and, accordingly, SOX2 and PI3K signaling levels are high during dysplasia, while SOX9 is not expressed. By contrast, during regeneration of mucociliary epithelia, PI3K signaling is low and basal cells transiently enter a SOX2LoSOX9Hi state, with SOX9 promoting proliferation and preventing squamous differentiation. Transient reduction in SOX2 is necessary for ciliogenesis, although SOX2 expression later rises and drives mucinous differentiation, as SOX9 levels decline. Frequent coamplification of SOX2 and PIK3CA in dysplasia may, thus, promote progression by locking basal cells in a SOX2HiSOX9Lo state with active PI3K signaling, which sustains the squamous injury response while precluding normal mucociliary differentiation. Surprisingly, we find that, although later in invasive carcinoma SOX9 is generally expressed at low levels, its expression is higher in a subset of SQCCs with less squamous identity and worse clinical outcome. We propose that early pathogenesis of most SQCCs involves stabilization of the squamous injury state in stem cells through copy number gains at 3q, with the pro-proliferative activity of SOX9 possibly being exploited in a subset of SQCCs in later stages.

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<![CDATA[Colonization with enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis is associated with early-stage colorectal neoplasia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc50d

Background

Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) is a toxin-producing bacteria thought to possibly promote colorectal carcinogenesis by modulating the mucosal immune response and inducing epithelial cell changes. Here, we aim to examine the association of colonic mucosal colonization with ETBF and the presence of a range of lesions on the colonic neoplastic spectrum.

Methods

Mucosal tissue from up to four different colonic sites was obtained from a consecutive series of 150 patients referred for colonoscopy. The presence and relative abundance of the B. fragilis toxin gene (bft) in each tissue sample was determined using quantitative PCR, and associations with clinicopathological characteristics were analysed.

Findings

We found a high concordance of ETBF between different colonic sites (86%). Univariate analysis showed statistically significant associations between ETBF positivity and the presence of low-grade dysplasia (LGD), tubular adenomas (TA), and serrated polyps (P-values of 0.007, 0.027, and 0.007, respectively). A higher relative abundance of ETBF was significantly associated with LGD and TA (P-values of < 0.0001 and 0.025, respectively). Increased ETBF positivity and abundance was also associated with left-sided biopsies, compared to those from the right side of the colon.

Conclusion

Our results showing association of ETBF positivity and increased abundance with early-stage carcinogenic lesions underlines its importance in the development of colorectal cancer, and we suggest that detection of ETBF may be a potential marker of early colorectal carcinogenesis.

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<![CDATA[A Gastric Glycoform of MUC5AC Is a Biomarker of Mucinous Cysts of the Pancreas]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da96ab0ee8fa60ba1d4e

Molecular indicators to specify the risk posed by a pancreatic cyst would benefit patients. Previously we showed that most cancer-precursor cysts, termed mucinous cysts, produce abnormal glycoforms of the proteins MUC5AC and endorepellin. Here we sought to validate the glycoforms as a biomarker of mucinous cysts and to specify the oligosaccharide linkages that characterize MUC5AC. We hypothesized that mucinous cysts secrete MUC5AC displaying terminal N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) in either alpha or beta linkage. We used antibody-lectin sandwich assays to detect glycoforms of MUC5AC and endorepellin in cyst fluid samples from three independent cohorts of 49, 32, and 66 patients, and we used monoclonal antibodies to test for terminal, alpha-linked GlcNAc and the enzyme that produces it. A biomarker panel comprising the previously-identified glycoforms of MUC5AC and endorepellin gave 96%, 96%, and 87% accuracy for identifying mucinous cysts in the three cohorts with an average sensitivity of 92% and an average specificity of 94%. Glycan analysis showed that MUC5AC produced by a subset of mucinous cysts displays terminal alpha-GlcNAc, a motif expressed in stomach glands. The alpha-linked glycoform of MUC5AC was unique to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN), whereas terminal beta-linked GlcNAc was increased in both IPMNs and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN). The enzyme that synthesizes alpha-GlcNAc, A4GNT, was expressed in the epithelia of mucinous cysts that expressed alpha-GlcNAc, especially in regions with high-grade dysplasia. Thus IPMNs secrete a gastric glycoform of MUC5AC that displays terminal alpha-GlcNAc, and the combined alpha-GlcNAc and beta-GlcNAc glycoforms form an accurate biomarker of mucinous cysts.

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<![CDATA[Axial Spondylometaphyseal Dysplasia Is Caused by C21orf2 Mutations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db1eab0ee8fa60bceaaa

Axial spondylometaphyseal dysplasia (axial SMD) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by dysplasia of axial skeleton and retinal dystrophy. We conducted whole exome sequencing and identified C21orf2 (chromosome 21 open reading frame 2) as a disease gene for axial SMD. C21orf2 mutations have been recently found to cause isolated retinal degeneration and Jeune syndrome. We found a total of five biallelic C21orf2 mutations in six families out of nine: three missense and two splicing mutations in patients with various ethnic backgrounds. The pathogenic effects of the splicing (splice-site and branch-point) mutations were confirmed on RNA level, which showed complex patterns of abnormal splicing. C21orf2 mutations presented with a wide range of skeletal phenotypes, including cupped and flared anterior ends of ribs, lacy ilia and metaphyseal dysplasia of proximal femora. Analysis of patients without C21orf2 mutation indicated genetic heterogeneity of axial SMD. Functional data in chondrocyte suggest C21orf2 is implicated in cartilage differentiation. C21orf2 protein was localized to the connecting cilium of the cone and rod photoreceptors, confirming its significance in retinal function. Our study indicates that axial SMD is a member of a unique group of ciliopathy affecting skeleton and retina.

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<![CDATA[Natural History of Anal Dysplasia in an HIV-Infected Clinical Care Cohort: Estimates Using Multi-State Markov Modeling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0cab0ee8fa60b77e95

Objectives

(1) To model the natural history of anal neoplasia in HIV-infected patients using a 3-state Markov model of anal cancer pathogenesis, adjusting for cytology misclassification; and (2) to estimate the effects of selected time-varying covariates on transition probabilities.

Design

A retrospective cytology-based inception screening cohort of HIV-infected adults was analyzed using a 3-state Markov model of clinical pathogenesis of anal neoplasia.

Methods

Longitudinally ascertained cytology categories were adjusted for misclassification using estimates of cytology accuracy derived from the study cohort. Time-varying covariate effects were estimated as hazard ratios.

Results

(1) There was a moderate to high probability of regression of the high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) state (27–62%) at 2 years after initial cytology screening; (2) the probability of developing invasive anal cancer (IAC) during the first 2 years after a baseline HSIL cytology is low (1.9–2.8%); (3) infrared coagulation (IRC) ablation of HSIL lesions is associated with a 2.2–4.2 fold increased probability of regression to <HSIL; and (4) antiretroviral therapy, suppressed HIV plasma viral load, and CD4 ≥350/mm3 are each associated with reduced probability of progression from <HSIL to HSIL.

Conclusions

The finding of moderate to high rates of regression of the HSIL state accompanied by low rates of progression to IAC should inform both screening and precursor treatment guideline development. There appears to be a consistent and robust beneficial effect of antiretroviral therapy, suppressed viral load, and higher CD4 on the transition from the <HSIL state to the HSIL state.

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<![CDATA[Differentially expressed proteins underlying childhood cortical dysplasia with epilepsy identified by iTRAQ proteomic profiling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdbb2f

Cortical dysplasia accounts for at least 14% of epilepsy cases, and is mostly seen in children. However, the understanding of molecular mechanisms and pathogenesis underlying cortical dysplasia is limited. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to identify potential key molecules in the mechanisms of cortical dysplasia by screening the proteins expressed in brain tissues of childhood cortical dysplasia patients with epilepsy using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation-based tandem mass spectrometry compared to controls, and several differentially expressed proteins that are not reported to be associated with cortical dysplasia previously were selected for validation using real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. 153 out of 3340 proteins were identified differentially expressed between childhood cortical dysplasia patients and controls. And FSCN1, CRMP1, NDRG1, DPYSL5, MAP4, and FABP3 were selected for validation and identified to be increased in childhood cortical dysplasia patients, while PRDX6 and PSAP were identified decreased. This is the first report on differentially expressed proteins in childhood cortical dysplasia. We identified differential expression of FSCN1, CRMP1, NDRG1, DPYSL5, MAP4, FABP3, PRDX6 and PSAP in childhood cortical dysplasia patients, these proteins are involved in various processes and have various function. These results may provide new directions or targets for the research of childhood cortical dysplasia, and may be helpful in revealing molecular mechanisms and pathogenesis and/or pathophysiology of childhood cortical dysplasia if further investigated.

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