ResearchPad - ear-infections https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[OtoMatch: Content-based eardrum image retrieval using deep learning]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14747 Acute infections of the middle ear are the most commonly treated childhood diseases. Because complications affect children’s language learning and cognitive processes, it is essential to diagnose these diseases in a timely and accurate manner. The prevailing literature suggests that it is difficult to accurately diagnose these infections, even for experienced ear, nose, and throat (ENT) physicians. Advanced care practitioners (e.g., nurse practitioners, physician assistants) serve as first-line providers in many primary care settings and may benefit from additional guidance to appropriately determine the diagnosis and treatment of ear diseases. For this purpose, we designed a content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system (called OtoMatch) for normal, middle ear effusion, and tympanostomy tube conditions, operating on eardrum images captured with a digital otoscope. We present a method that enables the conversion of any convolutional neural network (trained for classification) into an image retrieval model. As a proof of concept, we converted a pre-trained deep learning model into an image retrieval system. We accomplished this by changing the fully connected layers into lookup tables. A database of 454 labeled eardrum images (179 normal, 179 effusion, and 96 tube cases) was used to train and test the system. On a 10-fold cross validation, the proposed method resulted in an average accuracy of 80.58% (SD 5.37%), and maximum F1 score of 0.90 while retrieving the most similar image from the database. These are promising results for the first study to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a CBIR system for eardrum images using the newly proposed methodology.

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<![CDATA[Optimization of tissue sampling for Borrelia burgdorferi in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nff220985-8630-4822-8507-6b577103a931

Peromyscus leucopus (the white-footed mouse) is a known reservoir of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Sampling of white-footed mice allows for year-round B. burgdorferi surveillance as well as opportunities to establish the diversity of the different variants in a geographic region. This study explores the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infections in the tissues of white-footed mice, investigates the correlations between B. burgdorferi infected tissues, and determines the optimum field methods for surveillance of B. burgdorferi in P. leucopus. A total of 90 mice and 573 tissues (spleen, liver, ear, tongue, tail, heart, and kidney) were screened via nested PCR for B. burgdorferi infections. A large number of infections were found in the 90 mice as well as multiple infections within individual mice. Infections in a single mouse tissue (spleen, liver, ear, tongue and tail) were predictive of concurrent infection in other tissues of the same mouse at a statistically significant level. Ear tissue accounted for 68.4% of detected infections, which increased to 78.9% of the infected mice with the inclusion of tail samples. The use of ear punch or tail snip samples (used individually or in tandem) have multiple advantages over current Lyme disease ecological studies and surveillance methodologies, including lower associated costs, minimization of delays, year-round B. burgdorferi testing opportunities, as well as longitudinal monitoring of B. burgdorferi in defined geographic regions. In the absence of an effective vaccine, personal prevention measures are currently the most effective way to reduce Lyme disease transmission to humans. Thus, the identification and monitoring of environmental reservoirs to inform at-risk populations remains a priority. The sampling methods proposed in this study provide a reasonable estimate of B. burgdorferi in white-footed mice in a timely and cost-effective manner.

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<![CDATA[The Bos taurus maternal microbiome: Role in determining the progeny early-life upper respiratory tract microbiome and health]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c89770cd5eed0c4847d233e

Natural transference of maternal microbes to the neonate, especially at birth via the vaginal canal, has recently been recognized in humans and cows; however, its microbial influence on calf health has not yet been documented. We compared the bacterial communities in vaginal and fecal samples from 81 pregnant dairy cows versus those in nasopharyngeal and fecal samples collected at 3, 14 and 35 days of life from their respective progeny. The microbiota of the calf upper respiratory tract (URT), regardless of calf age, was found to be highly similar to the maternal vaginal microbiota. Calf fecal microbiota clustered closely to the maternal fecal microbiota, progressing toward an adult-like state over the first 35 days when relative abundances of taxa were considered. Sixty-four, 65 and 87% of the detected OTUs were shared between cow and calf fecal microbiota at days 3, 14 and 35 respectively, whereas 73, 76 and 87% were shared between maternal vaginal microbiome and calf URT microbiota at days 3, 14 and 35, respectively. Bacteroidetes, Ruminococcus, Clostridium, and Blautia were the top four genera identified in maternal and calf fecal samples. Mannheimia, Moraxella, Bacteroides, Streptococcus and Pseudomonas were the top five genera identified in maternal vaginal and calf URT samples. Mannheimia was relatively more abundant in the vaginal microbiota of cows whose progeny were diagnosed with respiratory and middle ear disease. Our results indicate that maternal vaginal microbiota potentially influences the initial bacterial colonization of the calf URT, and that might have an important impact on the health of the calf respiratory tract and middle ear.

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<![CDATA[Complex tone stimulation may induce binaural diplacusis with low-tone hearing loss]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e67ad5eed0c484ef339d

To clarify the possible mechanism causing binaural diplacusis with low-tone hearing loss, two psychoacoustic experiments were performed with 20 healthy subjects, using harmonic complex tones. In the first experiment, two tones were presented unilaterally, either from the right or left side. One of the tones presented was higher in frequency in terms of the fundamental component, but lower or equal in frequency in terms of the highest component, than the other tone. The subjects were asked which tone was higher in pitch after listening to both tones. They were also asked to compare tones in which low-tone components were eliminated. In the second experiment, the subjects heard these complex tones binaurally, with low-tone components eliminated in one ear. In the first experiment, most subjects perceived pitch direction, that is, higher or lower, in a reverse way when low-tone components were eliminated from the complex tones. In the second experiment, approximately half of all subjects heard the tones at different pitches in both ears. Under certain conditions, complex tone stimulation may induce binaural diplacusis when low-tone hearing is lost in one ear.

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<![CDATA[Bilateral delayed endolymphatic hydrops evaluated by bilateral intratympanic injection of gadodiamide with 3T-MRI]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c117b60d5eed0c484698ee1

The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of 3T MRI after intratympanic injection of gadodiamide for delayed endolymphatic hydrops (DEH), and assess the relationship between endolymphatic hydrops (ELH) and vestibular function in patients diagnosed with DEH and confirmed by 3T MRI. Nineteen patients clinically diagnosed with DEH (11 ipsilateral DEH, 8 contralateral DEH) participated in this study. Diluted gadodiamide was administered to the bilateral tympanic cavity by injection through the tympanic membrane. At 24 hours post-injection, the ELH was evaluated by MRI. Patient vestibular functions were evaluated by caloric testing and cVEMP. ELH was observed in all patients (19/19: positive rate 100%). The distribution patterns of ELH varied between the cochlear or vestibular region. Vestibular ELH was observed in the affected ear in all ipsilateral DEH patients. In the contralateral DEH patients, however, there were individual differences in the distribution patterns of ELH. Six patients (1 ipsilateral DEH, 5 contralateral DEH) had bilateral ELH. No obvious relationships were observed between ELH and vestibular function. ELH distribution was complicated, particularly in the contralateral DEH cases. It was difficult to identify the existence of ELH by vestibular functional testing alone; therefore, 3T MRI is thought to be useful for identifying the affected ear. A significant number of cases had “bilateral” DEH, particularly among the contralateral DEH cases, indicating that we should pay careful attention to this pathology when treating DEH.

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<![CDATA[Staphylococcus aureus from ocular and otolaryngology infections are frequently resistant to clinically important antibiotics and are associated with lineages of community and hospital origins]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c12cf90d5eed0c484914956

Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that causes serious antibiotic-resistant infections. Its population structure is marked by the appearance and dissemination of successful lineages across different settings. To begin understanding the population structure of S. aureus causing ocular and otolaryngology infections, we characterized 262 isolates by antimicrobial sensitivity testing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus were subjected to SCCmec typing and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) screening. Although we detected a high level of genetic diversity among methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) isolates, (63 sequence types—STs), the population was dominated by five lineages: ST30, ST5, ST8, ST15 and ST97. Resistance to penicillin, erythromycin and clindamycin was common among the major MSSA lineages, with fluctuations markedly impacted by genetic background. Isolates belonging to the predominant lineage, ST30, displayed high rates of resistance to penicillin (100%), erythromycin (71%), and clindamycin (63%). Overall, 21% of the isolates were methicillin-resistant (MRSA), with an apparent enrichment among otitis and orbital cellulitis isolates (>40%). MRSA isolates belonged to 14 STs grouped in 5 clonal complexes (CC), however, CC5 (56.1%) and CC8 (38.6%) dominated the population. Most CC5 strains were SCCmec type II, and resembled the hospital-adapted USA100 clone. CC8 strains were SCCmec type IV, and 86% were positive for the PVL toxin, common features of the community-acquired clone USA300. CC5 strains harboring a SCCmec type IV, typical for the USA800 clone, comprised 15.5% of the population. USA100 strains were highly resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin and levofloxacin (100%), while USA300 strains were frequently resistant to erythromycin (89%) but displayed lower rates of resistance to levofloxacin (39%) and clindamycin (17%). Our data demonstrate that the ocular and otolaryngology S. aureus populations are composed of strains that are commonly resistant to clinically relevant antibiotics, and are associated with the major epidemic clonal complexes of both community and hospital origins.

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<![CDATA[Role of Ultraviolet Radiation in Papillomavirus-Induced Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db08ab0ee8fa60bc9260

Human papillomaviruses are causally associated with 5% of human cancers. The recent discovery of a papillomavirus (MmuPV1) that infects laboratory mice provides unique opportunities to study the life cycle and pathogenesis of papillomaviruses in the context of a genetically manipulatable host organism. To date, MmuPV1-induced disease has been found largely to be restricted to severely immunodeficient strains of mice. In this study, we report that ultraviolet radiation (UVR), specifically UVB spectra, causes wild-type strains of mice to become highly susceptible to MmuPV1-induced disease. MmuPV1-infected mice treated with UVB develop warts that progress to squamous cell carcinoma. Our studies further indicate that UVB induces systemic immunosuppression in mice that correlates with susceptibility to MmuPV1-associated disease. These findings provide new insight into how MmuPV1 can be used to study the life cycle of papillomaviruses and their role in carcinogenesis, the role of host immunity in controlling papillomavirus-associated pathogenesis, and a basis for understanding in part the role of UVR in promoting HPV infection in humans.

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<![CDATA[The Dermis as a Delivery Site of Trypanosoma brucei for Tsetse Flies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db43ab0ee8fa60bd766f

Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of Trypanosoma brucei parasites that cause sleeping sickness. Our knowledge on the early interface between the infective metacyclic forms and the mammalian host skin is currently highly limited. Glossina morsitans flies infected with fluorescently tagged T. brucei parasites were used in this study to initiate natural infections in mice. Metacyclic trypanosomes were found to be highly infectious through the intradermal route in sharp contrast with blood stream form trypanosomes. Parasite emigration from the dermal inoculation site resulted in detectable parasite levels in the draining lymph nodes within 18 hours and in the peripheral blood within 42 h. A subset of parasites remained and actively proliferated in the dermis. By initiating mixed infections with differentially labeled parasites, dermal parasites were unequivocally shown to arise from the initial inoculum and not from a re-invasion from the blood circulation. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated intricate interactions of these skin-residing parasites with adipocytes in the connective tissue, entanglement by reticular fibers of the periadipocytic baskets and embedment between collagen bundles. Experimental transmission experiments combined with molecular parasite detection in blood fed flies provided evidence that dermal trypanosomes can be acquired from the inoculation site immediately after the initial transmission. High resolution thermographic imaging also revealed that intradermal parasite expansion induces elevated skin surface temperatures. Collectively, the dermis represents a delivery site of the highly infective metacyclic trypanosomes from which the host is systemically colonized and where a proliferative subpopulation remains that is physically constrained by intricate interactions with adipocytes and collagen fibrous structures.

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<![CDATA[Epidemiology of Otitis Media with Spontaneous Perforation of the Tympanic Membrane in Young Children and Association with Bacterial Nasopharyngeal Carriage, Recurrences and Pneumococcal Vaccination in Catalonia, Spain - The Prospective HERMES Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdb86f

The Epidemiology of otitis media with spontaneous perforation of the tympanic membrane and associated nasopharyngeal carriage of bacterial otopathogens was analysed in a county in Catalonia (Spain) with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) not included in the immunization programme at study time. A prospective, multicentre study was performed in 10 primary care centres and 2 hospitals (June 2011-June 2014), including all otherwise healthy children ≥2 months ≤8 years with otitis media presenting spontaneous tympanic perforation within 48h. Up to 521 otitis episodes in 487 children were included, showing by culture/PCR in middle ear fluid (MEF): Haemophilus influenzae [24.2%], both Streptococcus pneumoniae and H. influenzae [24.0%], S. pneumoniae [15.9%], Streptococcus pyogenes [13.6%], and Staphylococcus aureus [6.7%]. Culture-negative/PCR-positive otitis accounted for 31.3% (S. pneumoniae), 30.2% (H. influenzae) and 89.6% (mixed S. pneumoniae/H. influenzae infections). Overall, incidence decreased over the 3-year study period, with significant decreases in otitis by S. pneumoniae and by H. influenzae, but no decreases for mixed S. pneumoniae/H. influenzae infections. Concordance between species in nasopharynx and MEF was found in 58.3% of cases, with maximal rates for S. pyogenes (71.8%), and with identical pneumococcal serotype in 40.5% of cases. Most patients (66.6%) had past episodes. PCV13 serotypes were significantly more frequent in first episodes, in otitis by S. pneumoniae as single agent, and among MEF than nasopharyngeal isolates. All non-PCV13 serotypes separately accounted for <5% in MEF. Up to 73.9% children had received ≥1 dose of PCV, with lower carriage of PCV13 serotypes than among non-vaccinated children. Pooling pneumococcal isolates from MEF and nasopharynx, 30% were multidrug resistant, primarily belonging to serotypes 19A [29.8%], 24A [14.3%], 19F [8.3%] and 15A [6.0%]. Our results suggest that increasing PCV13 vaccination would further reduce transmission of PCV13 serotypes with special benefits for youngest children (with none or uncompleted vaccine schedules), preventing first otitis episodes and subsequent recurrences.

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<![CDATA[Locally Produced IL-10 Limits Cutaneous Vaccinia Virus Spread]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da55ab0ee8fa60b8ebae

Skin infection with the poxvirus vaccinia (VV) elicits a powerful, inflammatory cellular response that clears virus infection in a coordinated, spatially organized manner. Given the high concentration of pro-inflammatory effectors at areas of viral infection, it is unclear how tissue pathology is limited while virus-infected cells are being eliminated. To better understand the spatial dynamics of the anti-inflammatory response to a cutaneous viral infection, we first screened cytokine mRNA expression levels after epicutaneous (ec.) VV infection and found a large increase the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Ex vivo analyses revealed that T cells in the skin were the primary IL-10-producing cells. To understand the distribution of IL-10-producing T cells in vivo, we performed multiphoton intravital microscopy (MPM) of VV-infected mice, assessing the location and dynamic behavior of IL-10 producing cells. Although virus-specific T cells were distributed throughout areas of the inflamed skin lacking overt virus-infection, IL-10+ cells closely associated with large keratinocytic foci of virus replication where they exhibited similar motility patterns to bulk antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Paradoxically, neutralizing secreted IL-10 in vivo with an anti-IL-10 antibody increased viral lesion size and viral replication. Additional analyses demonstrated that IL-10 antibody administration decreased recruitment of CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes, which were important for reducing viral burden in the infected skin. Based upon these findings, we conclude that spatially concentrated IL-10 production limits cutaneous viral replication and dissemination, likely through modulation of the innate immune repertoire at the site of viral growth.

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<![CDATA[Both anti-TNF and CTLA4 Ig treatments attenuate the disease severity of staphylococcal dermatitis in mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbcfa

Background

RA patients being treated with biologics are known to have an increased risk of infections. We recently demonstrated that both CTLA4 Ig and anti-TNF treatment aggravate systemic Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection in mice, but with distinct clinical manifestations. However, the effects of CTLA4 Ig and anti-TNF treatments on a local S. aureus infection (e.g., skin infection) might differ from their effects on a systemic infection.

Aims

The aim of this study was to examine the differential effects of anti-TNF versus CTLA4 Ig treatment on S. aureus skin infections in mice.

Method

Abatacept (CTLA4 Ig), etanercept (anti-TNF treatment) or PBS was given to NMRI mice subcutaneously inoculated with S. aureus strain SH1000. The clinical signs of dermatitis, along with histopathological changes due to skin infection, were compared between the groups.

Results

Both CTLA4 Ig and anti-TNF treatment resulted in less severe skin infections and smaller post-infectious hyperpigmentation compared with controls. Consistent with the clinical signs of dermatitis, smaller lesion size, more epithelial hyperplasia and more granulation were found in skin biopsies from mice receiving anti-TNF compared with PBS controls. However, both CTLA4 Ig and anti-TNF therapy tended to prolong the healing time, although this finding was not statistically significant. Serum MCP-1 levels were elevated in the anti-TNF group relative to the CTLA4 Ig and PBS groups, whereas IL-6 levels were higher in PBS controls than in the other two groups. Both anti-TNF and CTLA4 Ig treatments tended to down-regulate the necrosis/apoptosis ratio in the locally infected skin tissue. Importantly, no tangible difference was found in the bacterial burden among groups.

Conclusion

Both CTLA4 Ig and anti-TNF therapies attenuate disease severity but may prolong the healing time required for S. aureus skin infections. Neither treatment has an impact on bacterial clearance in skin tissues.

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<![CDATA[First Results in the Use of Bovine Ear Notch Tag for Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Detection and Genetic Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e9ab0ee8fa60b6c28f

Background

Infection due to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is endemic in most cattle-producing countries throughout the world. The key elements of a BVDV control programme are biosecurity, elimination of persistently infected animals and surveillance. Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) is a notifiable disease in Belgium and an official eradication programme started from January 2015, based on testing ear notches sampled during the official identification and registration of calves at birth. An antigen-capture ELISA test based on the detection of BVDV Erns protein is used. Ear notch sample may also be used to characterize the genotype of the calf when appropriate elution/dilution buffer is added. Both BVDV antigen-ELISA analysis and animal traceability could be performed.

Methodology

With regards to the reference protocol used in the preparation of ear notch samples, alternative procedures were tested in terms of BVDV analytic sensitivity, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, as well as quality and purity of animal DNA.

Principal Findings/Significance

The Allflex DNA Buffer D showed promising results in BVDV diagnosis and genome analyses, opening new perspectives for the livestock industry by the exploitation of the animal genome. Due to the high number of cattle involved in the Belgian official BVDV eradication programme based on ear notch tags sample, a large database on both BVDV status of newborn calves and cattle genome could be created for subsequent different uses (e.g. traceability, determination of parentage, genetic signatures throughout the genome associated with particular traits) evolving through a more integrated animal health.

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<![CDATA[Mycobacterium ulcerans Mouse Model Refinement for Pre-Clinical Profiling of Vaccine Candidates]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da96ab0ee8fa60ba1efe

Buruli Ulcer is a neglected tropical disease leading to extensive disabilities and morbidity in West Africa. In this paper we sought to characterize various strains of Mycobacterium ulcerans (M.ulcerans) with different origins and laboratory passage records while refining a mouse model for Buruli ulcer. We described, compared and followed the kinetics of the histo-pathological outcome of infection of a collection of strains at various anatomical sites of infection in order to find a suitable model for further immunization studies. Moreover we compared the outcome of infection in C57Bl/6 and Balbc/J mice. Specifically we described thoroughly one M. ulcerans strain characterized by slow growth rate and limited tissue necrosis, which presents close ressemblance with the infection kinetics in humans. This strain caused macrophages as well as T and B cells infiltration, correlating with mycobacterial proliferation at the site of infection as well as in the draining lymph nodes, making it a suitable strain to screen vaccine candidates efficacy.

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<![CDATA[Incidence of Otitis Media in a Contemporary Danish National Birth Cohort]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae1ab0ee8fa60bbbf34

Objectives

In recent years welfare in Denmark has increased which might be expected to reduce otitis media (OM) incidence. We examined the age-specific incidence of OM in a nation-wide cohort of children aged 0–7 years born in 1996–2003 (Danish National Birth Cohort, DNBC). Only selection was ability to understand and speak Danish.

Methods

Information of OM and ventilation tubes (VT) was collected through three maternal interviews at 6-month, 18-month and 7-years of age and based on this age-specific and cumulative incidence of OM was calculated. As different numbers of the total population answered the different interviews, the calculations are done with different denominators. The information in DNBC was validated against two population based registries containing information of VT insertions.

Results

Cumulative incidence of OM at 7 years was 60.6% (31,982/52,755). For children with OM, 16.2% (7143/44194) had their first OM episodes between 0–6 months of age, 44.3% (19579/44194) between 7–18 months, and 39.5% (17472/44194) between 19 months and 7 years. Four or more OM episodes before 7 years were reported by 39.5% (12620/31982) and by 64.0% (2482/3881) of those who had their OM debut between 0–6 months; by 48.2% (4998/10378) with debut between 7–18 months; and by 28.7% (4996/17344) with debut between 19 months and 7 years. These figures are essentially unchanged from earlier figures from Denmark. VT insertion at least once was reported by 26,1% in the 7-year interview. Assuming recordings in the Danish National Patient Registry to be gold standard, maternal self-reportings in DNBC of insertion of VT showed high sensitivity (96.4%), specificity (98.2%), and positive (94.8%) and negative predictive values (98.8%).

Conclusion

OM affects nearly 2/3 of preschool children in Denmark despite reduction in known OM risk factors.

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<![CDATA[FGF23 Deficiency Leads to Mixed Hearing Loss and Middle Ear Malformation in Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db41ab0ee8fa60bd6ba7

Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a circulating hormone important in phosphate homeostasis. Abnormal serum levels of FGF23 result in systemic pathologies in humans and mice, including renal phosphate wasting diseases and hyperphosphatemia. We sought to uncover the role FGF23 plays in the auditory system due to shared molecular mechanisms and genetic pathways between ear and kidney development, the critical roles multiple FGFs play in auditory development and the known hearing phenotype in mice deficient in klotho (KL), a critical co-factor for FGF23 signaling. Using functional assessments of hearing, we demonstrate that Fgf mice are profoundly deaf. Fgf mice have moderate hearing loss above 20 kHz, consistent with mixed conductive and sensorineural pathology of both middle and inner ear origin. Histology and high-voltage X-ray computed tomography of Fgf mice demonstrate dysplastic bulla and ossicles; Fgf mice have near-normal morphology. The cochleae of mutant mice appear nearly normal on gross and microscopic inspection. In wild type mice, FGF23 is ubiquitously expressed throughout the cochlea. Measurements from Fgf mice do not match the auditory phenotype of Kl−/− mice, suggesting that loss of FGF23 activity impacts the auditory system via mechanisms at least partially independent of KL. Given the extensive middle ear malformations and the overlap of initiation of FGF23 activity and Eustachian tube development, this work suggests a possible role for FGF23 in otitis media.

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<![CDATA[Burden of Disease Caused by Otitis Media: Systematic Review and Global Estimates]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa5ab0ee8fa60ba7613

Background

Otitis media (OM) is a leading cause of health care visits and drugs prescription. Its complications and sequelae are important causes of preventable hearing loss, particularly in developing countries. Within the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study, for the year 2005 we estimated the incidence of acute OM, chronic suppurative OM, and related hearing loss and mortality for all ages and the 21 WHO regional areas.

Methods

We identified risk factors, complications and sequelae of OM. We carried out an extensive literature review (Medline, Embase, Lilacs and Wholis) which lead to the selection of 114 papers comprising relevant data. Data were available from 15 of the 21 WHO regions. To estimate incidence and prevalence for all countries we adopted a two stage approach based on risk factors formulas and regression modelling.

Results

Acute OM incidence rate is 10.85% i.e. 709million cases each year with 51% of these occurring in under-fives. Chronic suppurative OM incidence rate is 4.76‰ i.e. 31million cases, with 22.6% of cases occurring annually in under-fives. OM-related hearing impairment has a prevalence of 30.82 per ten-thousand. Each year 21thousand people die due to complications of OM.

Conclusions

Our study is the first attempt to systematically review the available information and provide global estimates for OM and related conditions. The overall burden deriving from AOM, CSOM and their sequelae is considerable, particularly in the first five years of life and in the poorest countries. The findings call for incorporating OM-focused action within preventive and case management strategies, with emphasis on the more affected.

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<![CDATA[CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity mediates pathology in the skin by inflammasome activation and IL-1β production]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcd93

Deregulated CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity plays a central role in enhancing disease severity in several conditions. However, we have little understanding of the mechanisms by which immunopathology develops as a consequence of cytotoxicity. Using murine models of inflammation induced by the protozoan parasite leishmania, and data obtained from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis, we uncovered a previously unrecognized role for NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β release as a detrimental consequence of CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, ultimately resulting in chronic inflammation. Critically, pharmacological blockade of NLRP3 or IL-1β significantly ameliorated the CD8+ T cell-driven immunopathology in leishmania-infected mice. Confirming the relevance of these findings to human leishmaniasis, blockade of the NLRP3 inflammasome in skin biopsies from leishmania-infected patients prevented IL-1β release. Thus, these studies link CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity with inflammasome activation and reveal novel avenues of treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis, as well as other of diseases where CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity induces pathology.

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<![CDATA[Hearing Loss in HIV-Infected Children in Lilongwe, Malawi]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0fab0ee8fa60b78d89

Introduction

With improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infection is becoming a chronic illness. Preliminary data suggest that HIV-infected children have a higher risk of disabilities, including hearing impairment, although data are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and types of hearing loss in HIV-infected children in Lilongwe, Malawi.

Methods

This was a cross-sectional survey of 380 HIV-infected children aged 4–14 years attending ART clinic in Lilongwe between December 2013-March 2014. Data was collected through pediatric quality of life and sociodemographic questionnaires, electronic medical record review, and detailed audiologic testing. Hearing loss was defined as >20 decibels hearing level (dBHL) in either ear. Predictors of hearing loss were explored by regression analysis generating age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios. Children with significant hearing loss were fitted with hearing aids.

Results

Of 380 patients, 24% had hearing loss: 82% conductive, 14% sensorineural, and 4% mixed. Twenty-one patients (23% of those with hearing loss) were referred for hearing aid fitting. There was a higher prevalence of hearing loss in children with history of frequent ear infections (OR 7.4, 4.2–13.0) and ear drainage (OR 6.4, 3.6–11.6). Hearing loss was linked to history of WHO Stage 3 (OR 2.4, 1.2–4.5) or Stage 4 (OR 6.4, 2.7–15.2) and history of malnutrition (OR 2.1, 1.3–3.5), but not to duration of ART or CD4. Only 40% of caregivers accurately perceived their child’s hearing loss. Children with hearing impairment were less likely to attend school and had poorer emotional (p = 0.02) and school functioning (p = 0.04).

Conclusions

There is an urgent need for improved screening tools, identification and treatment of hearing problems in HIV-infected children, as hearing loss was common in this group and affected school functioning and quality of life. Clear strategies were identified for prevention and treatment, since most hearing loss was conductive in nature, likely due to frequent ear infections, and many children with hearing loss qualified for hearing aids. Screening strategies need to be developed and tested since caregivers were not reliable at identifying hearing loss, and often mis-identified children with normal hearing as having hearing loss. Children with frequent ear infections, ear drainage, TB, severe HIV disease, or low BMI should receive more frequent ear assessments and hearing evaluations.

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<![CDATA[A link between damaging behaviour in pigs, sanitary conditions, and dietary protein and amino acid supply]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf61b

The tendency to reduce crude protein (CP) levels in pig diets to increase protein efficiency may increase the occurrence of damaging behaviours such as ear and tail biting, particularly for pigs kept under suboptimal health conditions. We studied, in a 2×2×2 factorial design, 576 tail-docked growing-finishing entire male pigs in 64 pens, subjected to low (LSC) vs. high sanitary conditions (HSC), and fed a normal CP (NP) vs. a low CP diet (LP, 80% of NP) ad libitum, with a basal amino acid (AA) profile or supplemented AA profile with extra threonine, tryptophan and methionine. The HSC pigs were vaccinated in the first nine weeks of life and received antibiotics at arrival at experimental farm at ten weeks, after which they were kept in a disinfected part of the farm with a strict hygiene protocol. The LSC pigs were kept on the same farm in non-disinfected pens to which manure from another pig farm was introduced fortnightly. At 15, 18, and 24 weeks of age, prevalence of tail and ear damage and of tail and ear wounds was scored. At 20 and 23 weeks of age, frequencies of biting behaviour and aggression were scored for 10×10 min per pen per week. The prevalence of ear damage during the finisher phase (47 vs. 32% of pigs, P < 0.0001) and the frequency of ear biting (1.3 vs. 1.2 times per hour, P = 0.03) were increased in LSC compared with HSC pigs. This effect on ear biting was diet dependent, however, the supplemented AA profile reduced ear biting only in LSC pigs by 18% (SC × AA profile, P < 0.01). The prevalence of tail wounds was lower for pigs in LSC (13 ± 0.02) than for pigs in HSC (0.22 ± 0.03) in the grower phase (P < 0.007). Regardless of AA profile or sanitary status, LP pigs showed more ear biting (+20%, P < 0.05), tail biting (+25%, P < 0.10), belly nosing (+152%, P < 0.01), other oral manipulation directed at pen mates (+13%, P < 0.05), and aggression (+30%, P < 0.01) than NP pigs, with no effect on ear or tail damage. In conclusion, both low sanitary conditions and a reduction of dietary protein increase the occurrence of damaging behaviours in pigs and therefore may negatively impact pig welfare. Attention should be paid to the impact of dietary nutrient composition on pig behaviour and welfare, particularly when pigs are kept under suboptimal (sanitary) conditions.

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<![CDATA[Mouse Middle Ear Ion Homeostasis Channels and Intercellular Junctions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0aab0ee8fa60bc9c89

Hypothesis

The middle ear contains homeostatic mechanisms that control the movement of ions and fluids similar to those present in the inner ear, and are altered during inflammation.

Background

The normal middle ear cavity is fluid-free and air-filled to allow for effective sound transmission. Within the inner ear, the regulation of fluid and ion movement is essential for normal auditory and vestibular function. The same ion and fluid channels active in the inner ear may have similar roles with fluid regulation in the middle ear.

Methods

Middle and inner ears from BALB/c mice were processed for immunohistochemistry of 10 specific ion homeostasis factors to determine if similar transport and barrier mechanisms are present in the tympanic cavity. Examination also was made of BALB/c mice middle ears after transtympanic injection with heat-killed Haemophilus influenza to determine if these channels are impacted by inflammation.

Results

The most prominent ion channels in the middle ear included aquaporins 1, 4 and 5, claudin 3, ENaC and Na+,K+-ATPase. Moderate staining was found for GJB2, KCNJ10 and KCNQ1. The inflamed middle ear epithelium showed increased staining due to expected cellular hypertrophy. Localization of ion channels was preserved within the inflamed middle ear epithelium.

Conclusions

The middle ear epithelium is a dynamic environment with intrinsic mechanisms for the control of ion and water transport to keep the middle ear clear of fluids. Compromise of these processes during middle ear disease may underlie the accumulation of effusions and suggests they may be a therapeutic target for effusion control.

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