ResearchPad - earth-and-planetary-science https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Water stable isotope data set in temperate, lowland catchment, two years of monthly observations, River Salaca, Latvia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc16a934e-965c-4264-8487-bee346712dad Two years of monthly observations of water stable isotopes in a temperate lowland catchment with extensive agrarian and forested landscapes in Latvia, River Salaca catchment. Observations include most significant water types within catchment: precipitation, raised bog, intermittent, groundwater and surface water at 15 observation points. The monthly data is supplemented by two intervals of one-month long sampling every second day for a subset of observation points. Water table, temperature and electrical conductivity co-observed as key variables helping to understand the isotope data. The data can be useful for in depth investigation of isotope hydrology and as background information for ecohydrological and other studies. The data is associated with the original research article “An insight into water stable isotope signatures in temperate catchment” [1].

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<![CDATA[Data on DOC and N from the Muz taw glacier in Central Asia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne232cd01-0650-4df3-9035-209a7b34ca6b This Data in Brief article provides a supplementary information to the dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen from the snow of Muz taw glacier in the Central Asia, which is related to the scientific article titled with “Characterization, sources and transport of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen from a glacier in the Central Asia”[1]. Meanwhile, major ions (including Na+, K+, NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl, SO42−, NO3, and NO2) were also reported. These data were analysed using descriptive statistics such as correlations and principle component analysis. Additionally, we conducted a literature review on DOC and N concentrations for the comparison. This article also presents the analysis data of the mass absorption cross section of DOC in snow.

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<![CDATA[Using integrated geophysics data set to delineate Phetchabun active fault in Thailand]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0ee27b7b-25fc-4cec-8b68-71ad6d93cc3e In order to precisely locate active faults in Phetchabun basin, measured data started with a remote sensing and digital elevation model (DEM) methods in order to find traces of potentially active faults and potential sites for field investigations. Geomorphological and geological field investigations were subsequently conducted according to remote sensing method and map interpretations in order to identify suitable sites for gravity survey and 2D-3D electrical resistivity tomography. From this dataset, the gravity models reveal subsurface structures of density contrast and can identify vertical fault plane. The ERT inversion images show zones of high and low resistivity interpreted as fault plane. Integrated three geophysical surveys can provide useful information of the active faults, which have implications on paleo-earthquake investigation in Phetchabun basin.

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<![CDATA[Historical CTD dataset and associated processed dissipation rate using an improved Thorpe method in the Indonesian seas]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndafbdc00-c00d-4127-8e57-1dde24f347a5 In this article, we present the datasets which are used to estimate the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates and vertical diffusivity in the Indonesian seas. An archived CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth) datasets collected between 1990 and 2016 with 1 m vertical resolution is presented and analyzed using an improved Thorpe method. The direct estimates dataset of the dissipation rate from two research expeditions, i.e., INDOMIX Program in 2010 and TOMTOM Program in 2015 were also presented, available to be compared with the indirect estimates from CTD profiles. We also present the dissipation rate output of three recent regional internal tide models in the Indonesian seas for comparison with microstructure measurements and improved Thorpe estimates. The datasets refer to "Spatial structure of turbulent mixing inferred from historical CTD datasets in the Indonesian seas" [1].

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<![CDATA[Numerical simulation data on landslide generated impulse waves affected by the reservoir geometry]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N585bfb07-9680-460f-8d17-3079c6395dc4

The data article provided time series of water surface elevation and wave parameters of landslide generated impulse waves affected by reservoir geometry. Two types of generalized reservoir geometries were investigated by the numerical method of Tsunami Squares–converging reservoir geometries and diverging reservoir geometries. 14 numerical reservoir models with expansion angle of 0°, 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, 25° and 30° were performed. Time series of water surface elevation at the propagation distance of 2 km for the converging and diverging reservoir models were obtained from 70 numerical wave gauges, which allows to analyse the effect of reservoir geometries on wave characteristics generated by landslide. The wave profiles of section C at different propagation distance were also investigated in order to improve the understanding of wave characteristics at different positions. Furthermore, wave parameters (wave height, wave amplitude and wave trough) of different propagation distance for all reservoir geometries were present in the article. These data were used in Zhang et al., 2019 [1].

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<![CDATA[Experimental data on bacterial abundance and morphological changes in copepod carcasses during their decomposition (in vitro)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3f5631c4-2cd5-4ae9-b73f-40fa0d09bb69

The biogeochemical role of zooplankton in the ocean is determined not only by life-long accumulation of chemical elements from the environment, but also by post-mortal transformation of carcasses chemical composition. The contribution of zooplankton carcasses to vertical flux of major and trace elements depends on sedimentation and remineralization rates of detrital particles. Carcasses decomposition rate during sinking from the upper to the deeper water layers determines the rapid recycling of chemical elements and depends on ambient temperature and microbial activity. This data set summarizes 21-day experiment in microcosms that simulates temperature conditions in the Arctic environment. The data show slow decomposition of copepod carcasses compared with initial material on days 14–21 of the experiment. In addition to visual evidence, we provide data on changes in bacterial abundance and biomass during the whole experimental period.

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<![CDATA[Data for the subsurface characterization of Pahang River Basin with the application of Transient Electromagnetic geophysical surveys]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4de1bd55-f639-4ece-b2ec-0d45452f6d42

The Transient Electro-Magnetic (TEM) geophysical technique was deployed to map and characterized the subsurface of Pahang River Basin along the East Coast Peninsula Malaysia. The data aimed at differentiating between the massive zones and the weak zones within the region, to also assess and differentiate the subsurface structures and comes up with recommendations for policy decision, formulation and plans on the flooding impact, surface water and groundwater managements, in addition to other environmental related issues ravaging the area. The data presented in this paper, showed the properties of the subsurface rocks underlain the region as beneficial to the Agriculturists; Climatologists; Engineers; Environmentalists; Geoscientists, Hydrologists and Policy formulation officers. The TEM data collection utilized a 100 m x 100 m single loop coil for both the Transmitter (Tx) loop and the Receiver (Rx) loop to produce a total surface area coverage of 10,000 m2 per survey line along a single profile. The total area covered in the data extended across an average area of 30 km x 40 km in parts of Maran, Temerloh and Jerantut districts, within the State of Pahang, East Coast, Peninsula Malaysia. The conductivity data recorded varied from -20 mS/m to about 440 mS/m at a maximum depth of about 375 m. On the other hand, the resistivity data recorded varied from 0 Oh-m to about 1000 Oh-m. The information derived from the data are intended for potential abstraction by the Malaysian Groundwater Management Board; the Department of Mineral and Geoscience; Department of Irrigation and Drainage; the Pahang State Water Board, and the Department of Agriculture.

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<![CDATA[Development of a portable leaf photosynthesis and volatile organic compounds emission system]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3246ee02-51de-4c1e-861a-dad5bd6a26bb

Understanding how plant carbon metabolism responds to environmental variables such as light is central to understanding ecosystem carbon cycling and the production of food, biofuels, and biomaterials. Here, we couple a portable leaf photosynthesis system to an autosampler for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to enable field observations of net photosynthesis simultaneously with emissions of VOCs as a function of light. Following sample collection, VOCs are analyzed using automated thermal desorption-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (TD-GC–MS). An example is presented from a banana plant in the central Amazon with a focus on the response of photosynthesis and the emissions of eight individual monoterpenes to light intensity. Our observations reveal that banana leaf emissions represent a 1.1 +/- 0.1% loss of photosynthesis by carbon. Monoterpene emissions from banana are dominated by trans-β-ocimene, which accounts for up to 57% of total monoterpene emissions at high light. We conclude that the developed system is ideal for the identification and quantification of VOC emissions from leaves in parallel with CO2 and water fluxes.The system therefore permits the analysis of biological and environmental sensitivities of carbon metabolism in leaves in remote field locations, resulting in the emission of hydrocarbons to the atmosphere.

  • A field-portable system is developed for the identification and quantification of VOCs from leaves in parallel with leaf physiological measurements including photosynthesis and transpiration.

  • The system will enable the characterization of carbon and energy allocation to the biosynthesis and emission of VOCs linked with photosynthesis (e.g. isoprene and monoterpenes) and their biological and environmental sensitivities (e.g. light, temperature, CO2).

  • Allow the development of more accurate mechanistic global VOC emission models linked with photosynthesis, improving our ability to predict how forests will respond to climate change. It is our hope that the presented system will contribute with critical data towards these goals across Earth's diverse tropical forests.

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<![CDATA[High-resolution one-day probable maximum precipitation dataset across India and its future-projected changes over India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8e623c42-b5b6-47a5-a6d0-d9a1986bfdb4

This article presents a high-resolution (0.25° latitude x 0.25° longitude) one-day Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) estimates across India based on the daily precipitation records after climate regime shift in 1970s (1971–2010). In addition to this, possible spatio-temporal changes in the PMP estimates in future towards the end of this century (2071–2100) with respect to its current values are also presented, following two possible emission scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). These maps are developed following the research article entitled “Increase in Probable Maximum Precipitation in a Changing Climate over India”, published in Journal of Hydrology by Sarkar and Maity [1] .The recent PMP map for India is developed based on gridded daily observational records of precipitation, procured from the India Meteorological Department (IMD). Its future projection is based on bias-corrected simulated daily precipitation output from three Regional Climate Models (RCMs). Finally, the change in PMP in future with respect to the current map is calculated in terms of grid-wise percentage change and made available to the end-users. This PMP map and its future projection will serve as an important information for the design engineers and hydro-meteorologists for planning and designing various water-energy infrastructures such as, dams and other major water resources engineering applications.

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<![CDATA[Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data for clay mineral mapping]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd48fa21b-ec07-4126-9357-3dbcb0d8667b

In order to identify potential zones for clay mineral (kaolinite) in Ranong province, Thailand, ten 2D ERT survey lines were deployed across potential site. The data were collected using the IRIS Syscal Pro Plus multi-electrode imaging system with internal switchbox and an array of 48 steel electrodes. The Dipole-Dipole configuration was utilized with electrode separations of 10 m. The Res2DInv software was used to process the data. Images for the resistivity survey are presented as 2D cross section of resistivity profile. The data were interpreted by comparing with geology of the area and based on the available lithological borehole information.

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<![CDATA[A coherent method for combined stable magnesium and radiogenic strontium isotope analyses in carbonates (with application to geological reference materials SARM 40, SARM 43, SRM 88A, SRM 1B)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N390373cf-b8e5-45ec-a0b5-203397eb092b

We undertook 87Sr/86Sr analyses for a range of carbonate bearing geological reference materials, and combined these with δ26Mg for a subset of samples. Following chemical purification in a series of chromatographic extractions, isotope ratios were measured by Multi-Collector-ICP-MS using a Plasma II (Nu instruments, Wrexham, UK). To validate efficient sample digestion procedures of carbonate fractions, total samples were treated with either 3 mol l−1 HNO3 and 0.5 mol l−1 HCl, respectively. Results of both leaching procedures are identical within reproducibility. Reference values for SRM 88A (formerly NBS 88A), SRM 1B (formerly NBS 1B), SARM 40, SARM 43, JDo-1, JLs-1, and San Carlos olivine range from 0.70292 to 0.73724 in 87Sr/86Sr and from -2.80 to -0.41 ‰ for δ26Mg, respectively. This set of geological reference materials can be used for sedimentary rock material with different carbonate mineral and matrix composition as quality control measurements of combined stable Mg and radiogenic Sr isotope analyses.

  • We present a protocol that facilitates the chemical separation of Mg and Sr in carbonate bearing geological reference materials including 87Sr/86Sr and δ26Mg of certified reference materials.

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<![CDATA[A statistical and numerical modeling approach for spatiotemporal reconstruction of glaciations in the Central Asian mountains]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfb280cc2-fa9a-4489-87ab-f912157655c2

Reconstructing Quaternary regional glaciations throughout the Himalaya, Tibet, and the adjoining mountains in Central Asia is challenging due to geological biases towards limited preservation of glacial deposits and chronological uncertainties. Here, we offer several statistical and mathematical model codes in R, in excel, and in MATLAB useful to develop regional glacial chronostratigraphies, especially in areas with distinct orographically-modulated climate. A complete R code is provided to generate a regional climate map using Cluster Analysis (CA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Additional R codes include reduced chi-squared, Chauvenet's criterion, radial plotter/abanico plot, finite mixture model, and Student's t-test. These methods are useful in reconstructing the timing of local and regional glacial chronologies. An excel code to calculate equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) and steps to reconstruct glacier hypsometry are also made available to further aid to our understanding of the extent of paleoglaciations. A MATLAB code of the linear glacier flow model is included to reconstruct paleotemperatures using the length and slope of a glacier during past advances.

  • R statistical codes can be used/modified without restrictions for other researchers.

  • Easy steps to calculate ELAs and glacier hypsometry from the same data.

  • Paleo-temperature reconstruction utilizes already developed glacial chronologies and maps.

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<![CDATA[The melt content of the low velocity layer atop the mantle transition zone: Theory and method of calculation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4b554dd9-6c98-4337-90d1-4a4da9d4b6ba

Graphical abstract

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<![CDATA[Cosmogenic soil production rate calculator]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0fe9cd09-50e5-4d4b-b60d-0a4bce597aee

To understand the rates at which soils form from bedrock, it is important to know the rates at which the bedrock surface lowers (the apparent erosion rate, which is assumed to be constant). Previous models that calculate apparent erosion rates using measured concentrations of cosmogenic radionuclides rely on the assumption that the bulk density of the soil which forms as a product of bedrock erosion either equals that of the bedrock itself or is constant with depth down the soil profile. This assumption fails to recognise that soils have significantly lower densities that might not be constant with depth. The model presented here allows for the calculation of isotopically-derived soil production rates, considering the bulk density profile of the soil overlying the bedrock surface. This calculator, which can be run both in MATLAB® and GNU Octave©, represents a novel and significant contribution to the derivation of soil production rates.

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<![CDATA[U–Th whole rock data and high spatial resolution U–Th disequilibrium and U–Pb zircon ages of Mt. Erciyes and Mt. Hasan Quaternary stratovolcanic complexes (Central Anatolia)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1ace0f75-6ff9-4215-a334-9071ad361d8e

Thirty-eight lava and pyroclastic samples were collected from Mt. Erciyes and Mt. Hasan, the two largest stratovolcanic complexes of the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province in Turkey. More than 1000 zircon crystals were dated by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) applying U–Th disequilibrium and U–Pb methods. Model ages were calculated from zircon 230Th–238U–232Th isotopic compositions in combination with U–Th whole rock data of digested lava samples generated by Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Middle and Late Pleistocene ages dominate the dataset, but are complemented by both older (predominantly Early Pleistocene) and younger (Holocene) ages. U–Th disequilibrium and U–Pb zircon data provide maximum eruption ages that can be further specified by (U–Th)/He geochronology (zircon double dating). Additionally, these data are important to constrain the longevity and size of magmatic systems, and their potential for reactivation leading to potentially hazardous eruptions.

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<![CDATA[Geospatial datasets describing route geometry and ultrafine particulate matter dosage for children during shortest-distance and lowest-dosage school commutes in Toronto, Canada]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8fc9518a-0322-46df-947c-9794d9e144cc

The data in this article provides route geometries and ultrafine particulate dosage information for a simulation of the home-to-school walking commute for children at 296,862 residential addresses in the city of Toronto, Canada. The datasets include dosage estimates that use a modelling approach that accounts for terrain, physiology and spatial variability in ambient UFP concentrations. The dataset provides simulated routes that describe both the shortest distance route, as well as the lowest UFP dosage route. Dosage and route information are provided in both polyline (route) and point (origin address) feature classes. Included in this article is a brief description of the simulation approach taken to generate the data. For discussion and complete description of the modelling approach, please refer to “Exposure to ultrafine particulate air pollution in the school commute: Examining low-dose route optimization with terrain-enforced dosage modelling” [1].

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<![CDATA[The Central European GNSS Research Network (CEGRN) dataset]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9d960dd0-7f00-4044-992e-f09c810d4a6a

The Central European GNSS Research Network (CEGRN) collects GNSS data since 1994 from contributors which today include 42 Institutions in 33 Countries. CEGRN returns a dataset of coordinates and velocities computed according to international standards and the most recent processing procedures and recommendations. We provide a dataset of 1229 positions and velocities resulting from 3 or more repetitions of coordinate measurements of each site over 4 or more years. The velocity data result from a combination of eight multiyear, partially overlapping networks, using 234 stations of class A of the European Permanent Network (EPN) for alignment to the ‘European Fixed’ ETRF2000 Reference Frame. The rms (root mean square) of the 8 individual contributions to the combined solution, after a 7 – parameter Helmert transformation, is less than 5 mm in the observation period 1996–2017. This combined CEGRN network maintains the origin coincident with that of the ETRF2000 reference frame to within 1.8 mm rms for the entire period of analysis. The mean positions and velocities of common EPN Class A and CEGRN stations differ by 0.0 ± 1.1, 0.5 ± 1.0 and 0.1 ± 2.7 mm for the coordinates and 0.06 ± 0.13, -0.07 ± 0.12, 0.38 ± 0.28 mm/yr for the velocities respectively for the North, East and Up components at epoch 2010.0.

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<![CDATA[Geology and ore genesis data of Elba manganese deposits, southern Eastern Desert, Egypt]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N939a4f0b-e799-4a9f-b314-0f3304ea656b

The manganese deposits of Egypt are logged in many different localities in the Eastern Desert. Several manganese deposits were exploited by open cast mining excavation in the Red Sea coastal plain, particularly in the area covering from south-west of Halayeb Village to around the flood–plain of Wadi Elba north-east of Abu Ramad. Our study discussed the manganese deposits in twelve areas named as wadi Bashoya, Oshbia, N-Gabal Toyo, El-Hebal, Mateet, Blownay, Adeeb, Sarara, Sirmatai, Aqilahuq, Eikwan and N-wadi Ajway. There are two types of manganese deposits it can occur either as massive manganese ore type or mangneferous sandstone ore type.

The area is situated at the Abu Ramad fault system which is the major belt of shearing within the NW –SE striking fault system. It forms part of Red Sea on south Eastern Desert in NW–SE direction with sub vertical dip. The deformation history attributed to Arc accretion tectonic of the Pan African Orogeny, also lies at the eastern part of North Hamizana Shear Zone.

Binary diagram between (Co + Ni) wt. % versus (As + Cu + Mo + Pb + V + Zn) wt. % display the hydrothermal origin and supported by the MnO (wt. %) Fe2O3 (wt. %) and ppm (Cu + Co + Ni) 1000 triangle diagram and also by the Mn (wt. %) Fe (wt. %) and 10*(Ni + Co + Cu) wt. % triangle diagram. These deposits are characterized by low concentration of Cu, Ni and Co. The geochemical composition of manganese ores reflect formation by chemical precipitation from hydrothermal solution but occurrence of colloform texture, oolites in the mangneferous types denote to the redeposition by sedimentation processes.

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<![CDATA[A dataset on void ratio limits and their range for cohesionless soils]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N892ff3e1-cee8-44af-a0d8-baba985e489c

A database, which consists of maximum and minimum void ratio limits and their range, particle size, distribution and shape characteristics, is compiled. More specifically, minimum and maximum void ratios (emin and emax) along with their range (emax-emin), particle roundness (R) and spherecity (S), fines content (FC), coefficient of uniformity (Cu), mean grain size (D50) data are compiled from natural cohesionless soils and reconstituted grained material (e.g.: rice, glass beads, mica) mixtures. The final dataset is composed of 636, mostly soil samples. Out of 636 samples, 496, 474 and 603 of them have emax, emin or emax-emin data, respectively. Similarly, for 593, 419, 171, 126 and 93 soils, D50, Cu, R, S and FC data exists, respectively. Not for every sample, USCS based soil classification designation is available, hence for the missing ones, soil classification is performed based on mean particle diameter-based classification as suggested by ASTM D2487 – 17: Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System) [1]. The dataset consists of 19 silts and clays, 527 sands (357 fine sands, 153 medium sands, 17 coarse sands) and 47 gravels (44 fine gravels, 3 coarse gravels). A spreadsheet summary of the dataset is provided. This dataset is later used for the development of probability-based void ratio predictive models.

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<![CDATA[Dataset showing thermal conductivity of South-Eastern Nigerian kaolinite clay admixtures with sawdust and iron filings for fired-bricks production]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N67176395-0c40-47ad-b027-36ed1039540e

In this dataset, the influence of admixture of sawdust and iron filings on the kaolinite clay was experimented. This was done by blending various samples of kaolinite clay with varying percentages of sawdust and iron filings. Thermal analysis of the clay samples was carried out at different ratios of sawdust and iron filings blended with the clay samples. The blended ratio of sawdust and iron fillings ranges from 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%–40%. These samples were fired in a local kiln that achieved temperature of 900 °C - 1200 °C to burn-off the sawdust consequently creating pores/cavities where the sawdust had been burnt and to fuse the iron particles with the clay material. The experimental data on the thermal characteristics and refractory properties of the clay sample were then acquired. The data were acquired, processed and presented. Thermocouple and thermometer were used to acquire the temperature during the firing of the bricks. Finally, thermal conductivities and bulk densities of the samples were computed following an established standard.

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