ResearchPad - eating https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Familial assimilation in transmission of raw-freshwater fish-eating practice leading to clonorchiasis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15763 Clonorchiasis is caused by the ingestion of raw freshwater fish, which contains the infective larvae of Clonorchis sinensis. It is highly endemic in Asia, where about 15 million people are afflicted. To establish sustainable control strategy, the transmission of raw-eating practice needs to be illuminated. In this study, we conducted a survey in school students from four clonorchiasis endemic provinces in China, covering 23,222 students aged 9–18. The characteristics of raw-eating practice, impact of parents’ raw-eating practice on children, interaction of spouses’ practice was explored. It is demonstrated that raw-eating practice presents familial clustering, which is higher in those families with older children and with boys. Raw-eating practice in children is highly influenced by their parents’ raw-eating practice especially when both parents do. Additionally, there exists interaction between spouses’ raw-eating practice. The impact of husband’s raw-eating practice on his wife is higher than that of wife’s raw-eating practice on her husband. Familial assimilation dominates the transmission of raw-freshwater eating-practice, including the assimilation from parents to their children and that between spouses. This finding indicates the adoption of sustainable strategy against clonorchiasis through blocking raw-freshwater fish-eating practice.

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<![CDATA[Psychological risk indicators of disordered eating in athletes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14546 This project examined risk factors of disordered eating in athletes by adapting and applying a theoretical model. It tested a previously proposed theoretical model and explored the utility of a newly formed model within an athletic population across gender, age, and sport type to explain disordered eating.DesignThe design was cross-sectional and the first phase in a series of longitudinal studies.Methods1,017 athletes completed online questionnaires related to social pressures, internalisation, body dissatisfaction, negative affect, restriction, and bulimia. Structural equation modelling was employed to analyse the fit of the measurement and structural models and to do invariance testing.ResultsThe original theoretical model failed to achieve acceptable goodness of fit (χ2 [70, 1017] = 1043.07; p < .0001. CFI = .55; GFI = .88; NFI = .53; RMSEA = .12 [90% CI = .111-.123]). Removal of non-significant pathways and addition of social media resulted in the model achieving a parsimonious goodness of fit (χ2 [19, 1017] = 77.58; p < .0001. CFI = .96; GFI = .98; NFI = .95; RMSEA = .055 [90% CI = .043-.068]). Invariance tests revealed that the newly revised model differed across gender, age, level, competition status, and length of sport participation.ConclusionThis study showed that the formation of disordered eating symptomology might not be associated with sport pressures experienced by athletes. It revealed that disordered eating development varies across gender, competition level, sport type, and age, which must be considered to prevent and treat disordered eating in athletes. ]]> <![CDATA[Effects of distraction on taste-related neural processing: a cross-sectional fMRI study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12368 In the current obesogenic environment we often eat while electronic devices, such as smart phones, computers, or the television, distract us. Such “distracted eating” is associated with increased food intake and overweight. However, the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms of this phenomenon are unknown.ObjectiveOur aim was to elucidate these mechanisms by investigating whether distraction attenuates processing in the primary and secondary taste cortices, located in the insula and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), respectively.MethodsForty-one healthy, normal-weight participants received fixed amounts of higher- and lower-sweetness isocaloric chocolate milk while performing a high- or low-distracting detection task during fMRI in 2 test sessions. Subsequently, we measured ad libitum food intake.ResultsAs expected, a primary taste cortex region in the right insula responded more to the sweeter drink (P < 0.001, uncorrected). Distraction did not affect this insular sweetness response across the group, but did weaken sweetness-related connectivity of this region to a secondary taste region in the right OFC (P–family-wise error, cluster, small-volume corrected = 0.020). Moreover, individual differences in distraction-related attenuation of taste activation in the insula predicted increased subsequent ad libitum food intake after distraction (= 0.36).ConclusionsThese results reveal a mechanism explaining how distraction during consumption attenuates neural taste processing. Moreover, our study shows that such distraction-induced decreases in neural taste processing contribute to individual differences in the susceptibility for overeating. Thus, being mindful about the taste of food during consumption could perhaps be part of successful prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity, which should be further tested in these target groups. This study was preregistered at the Open Science Framework as https://bit.ly/31RtDHZ. ]]> <![CDATA[Association between social jetlag food consumption and meal times in patients with obesity-related chronic diseases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75d4d5eed0c4843d0285

Chronic disruption of the synchronous relationship between endogenous and exogenous circadian timing is associated with the development of obesity and metabolic disease. Social jetlag is a measure of circadian misalignment and has been identified as a risk factor for overweight and related diseases. However, the mechanisms involved in this relationship remain underexplored. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between social jetlag and food consumption at late meal timing in patients with obesity-related chronic diseases. This study included 792 individuals (73% female; age 55.9 ± 12.4 years) in which the prevalence of social jetlag (>1h) was 24.4% (n = 194). Participants with social jetlag reported late meal timing for breakfast, early afternoon snack and dinner. Individuals with social jetlag also reported a higher intake of total calories (kcal), protein, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and servings of meat and eggs and sweets in relation to those without social jetlag. Regarding the consumption during each meal of the day, participants with social jetlag had consumed more calories, saturated fat and cholesterol during dinner; more protein, total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol during lunch; and more total fat and saturated fat during morning snack. In addition, individuals with social jetlag had a higher risk of inadequate consumption of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol intake when compared with those without social jetlag. We conclude that social jetlag is associated with a poor diet and later meal times, which should be avoided in individuals with obesity-related chronic diseases. More studies are needed to confirm these findings.

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<![CDATA[Social dynamics modeling of chrono-nutrition]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52b1d5eed0c4842bce5a

Gut microbiota and human relationships are strictly connected to each other. What we eat reflects our body-mind connection and synchronizes with people around us. However, how this impacts on gut microbiota and, conversely, how gut bacteria influence our dietary behaviors has not been explored yet. To quantify the complex dynamics of this interplay between gut and human behaviors we explore the “gut-human behavior axis” and its evolutionary dynamics in a real-world scenario represented by the social multiplex network. We consider a dual type of similarity, homophily and gut similarity, other than psychological and unconscious biases. We analyze the dynamics of social and gut microbial communities, quantifying the impact of human behaviors on diets and gut microbial composition and, backwards, through a control mechanism. Meal timing mechanisms and “chrono-nutrition” play a crucial role in feeding behaviors, along with the quality and quantity of food intake. Considering a population of shift workers, we explore the dynamic interplay between their eating behaviors and gut microbiota, modeling the social dynamics of chrono-nutrition in a multiplex network. Our findings allow us to quantify the relation between human behaviors and gut microbiota through the methodological introduction of gut metabolic modeling and statistical estimators, able to capture their dynamic interplay. Moreover, we find that the timing of gut microbial communities is slower than social interactions and shift-working, and the impact of shift-working on the dynamics of chrono-nutrition is a fluctuation of strategies with a major propensity for defection (e.g. high-fat meals). A deeper understanding of the relation between gut microbiota and the dietary behavioral patterns, by embedding also the related social aspects, allows improving the overall knowledge about metabolic models and their implications for human health, opening the possibility to design promising social therapeutic dietary interventions.

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<![CDATA[Combining green cards, telephone calls and postcards into an intervention algorithm to reduce suicide reattempt (AlgoS): P-hoc analyses of an inconclusive randomized controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df34fd5eed0c484581138

Background

Brief contact interventions (BCIs) might be reliable suicide prevention strategies. BCI efficacy trials, however, gave equivocal results. AlgoS trial is a composite BCI that yielded inconclusive results when analyzed with Intention-To-Treat strategy. In order to elicit intervention strengths and weaknesses, post-hoc analyses of AlgoS data were performed.

Methods

AlgoS was a randomized controlled trial conducted in 23 French hospitals. Suicide attempters were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (AlgoS) or the control group (Treatment as usual TAU). In the AlgoS arm, first-time suicide attempters received crisis cards; non first-time suicide attempters received a phone call, and post-cards if the call could not be completed, or if the participant was in crisis and/or non-compliant with the post-discharge treatment. An As Treated strategy, accounting for the actual intervention received, was combined with subgroup analyses.

Results

1,040 patients were recruited and randomized into two groups of N = 520, from which 53 withdrew participation; 15 were excluded after inclusion/exclusion criteria reassessment. AlgoS first attempters were less likely to reiterate suicide attempt (SA) than their TAU counterparts at 6 and 13–14 months (RR [95% CI]: 0.46 [0.25–0.85] and 0.50 [0.31–0.81] respectively). AlgoS non-first attempters had similar SA rates as their TAU counterparts at 6 and 13–14 months (RR [95% CI]: 0.84 [0.57–1.25] and 1.00 [0.73–1.37] respectively). SA rates were dissimilar within the AlgoS non-first attempter group.

Conclusions

This new set of analysis suggests that crisis cards could be efficacious to prevent new SA attempts among first-time attempters, while phone calls were probably not significantly efficacious among multi-attempters. Importantly, phone calls were informative of new SA risk, thus a key component of future interventions.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence and correlates of self-reported disordered eating: A cross-sectional study among 90 592 middle-aged Norwegian women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5217bbd5eed0c48479449a

Disordered eating (DE) is extensively studied among adolescents and young women. However, there is growing evidence that DE as well as the clinical eating disorders may occur at any age from childhood to advanced years. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of DE in a representative sample of middle-aged women from Norway. The study included 90 592 women (median age: 55 years) from the Norwegian Women and Cancer study who responded to a questionnaire between the years 2002–2005. Correlates of self-reported DE were assessed by logistic regression analyses. The overall period prevalence of DE between 2002–2005 was 0.28 (95% confidence interval 0.25–0.31) %, and was highest among women ≥ 66 years: 0.65 (0.60–0.70) %. DE was strongly associated with depression (Odds ratio [OR] 3.34 [95% confidence interval 2.53–4.41]), being unemployed (OR 1.78 [1.32–2.40]) and single (OR 1.66 [1.25–2.20]). Women with DE were more likely to report low energy intake (OR 1.41 [1.08–1.86]) and were less likely to be moderately physically active (OR 0.67 [0.47–0.95]). Using the largest study sample in the literature, the present findings confirm smaller studies showing that DE do occur in women in mid-life and older age as well. Our results contribute to address a somewhat under-communicated community health problem that needs attention in terms of age-specific treatment and prevention.

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<![CDATA[Survey of suspected dysphagia prevalence in home-dwelling older people using the 10-Item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5217d3d5eed0c48479462b

Objective

This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of suspected dysphagia and its features in both independent and dependent older people living at home.

Materials and methods

The 10-Item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) questionnaire was sent to 1,000 independent older people and 2,000 dependent older people living at home in a municipal district of Tokyo, Japan. The participants were selected by stratified randomization according to age and care level. We set the cut-off value of EAT-10 at a score of ≥3. The percentage of participants with an EAT-10 score ≥3 was defined as the prevalence of suspected dysphagia. The chi-square test was used for analyzing prevalence in each group. Analysis of the distribution of EAT-10 scores, and comparisons among items, age groups, and care levels to identify symptom features were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test.

Results

Valid responses were received from 510 independent older people aged 65 years or older (mean age 75.0 ± 7.2) and 886 dependent older people (mean age 82.3 ± 6.7). The prevalences of suspected dysphagia were 25.1% and 53.8%, respectively, and showed significant increases with advancing age and care level. In both groups, many older people assigned high scores to the item about coughing, whereas individuals requiring high-level care assigned higher scores to the items about not only coughing but also swallowing of solids and quality of life.

Conclusion

In independent people, approximately one in four individuals showed suspected dysphagia and coughing was the most perceivable symptom. In dependent people, approximately one in two individuals showed suspected dysphagia and their specifically perceivable symptoms were coughing, difficulties in swallowing solids and psychological burden.

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<![CDATA[Modeling suggests that microliter volumes of contaminated blood caused an outbreak of hepatitis C during computerized tomography]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c58d5eed0c484bd1b87

Background & aims

Acute hepatitis C (AHC) is not frequently identified because patients are usually asymptomatic, although may be recognized after iatrogenic exposures such as needle stick injuries, medical injection, and acupuncture. We describe an outbreak of AHC among 12 patients who received IV saline flush from a single multi-dose vial after intravenous contrast administration for a computerized tomography (CT) scan. The last patient to receive IV contrast with saline flush from a multi-dose vial at the clinic on the previous day was known to have chronic HCV genotype 1b (termed potential source, PS). Here we sought to confirm (via genetic analysis) the source of infection and to predict the minimal contaminating level of IV saline flush needed to transmit infectious virus to all patients.

Methods

In order to confirm the source of infection, we sequenced the HCV E1E2 region in 7 CT patients, in PS, and in 2 control samples from unrelated patients also infected with HCV genotype 1b. A transmission probabilistic model was developed to predict the contamination volume of blood that would have been sufficient to transmit infectious virus to all patients.

Results

Viral sequencing showed close clustering of the cases with the PS. The transmission probabilistic model predicted that contamination of the multi-dose saline vial with 0.6–8.7 microliters of blood would have been sufficient to transmit infectious virus to all patients.

Conclusion

Analysis of this unique cohort provides a new understanding of HCV transmission with respect to contaminating volumes and viral titers.

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<![CDATA[The feeling of throwing good money after bad: The role of affective reaction in the sunk-cost fallacy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e4fa3d5eed0c484d77999

Continuing investing in a failing plan (i.e., the sunk-cost fallacy) is a common error that people are inclined to make when making decisions. It is impossible to get resources back that already have been invested. Hence, economic theory implies that decision makers’ decisions should only be guided by future gains and losses. According to the literature, the sunk-cost fallacy is driven by negative affect. Previous studies focused on negative incidental affect. We investigated, in contrast, whether the sunk-cost fallacy is caused by integral affect elicited by the specific decision context. Study 1 demonstrated a positive relationship between affective reaction and the sunk-cost fallacy. Study 2 replicated the finding in Study 1 in a within-subjects design, and demonstrated a full mediation of type of scenario (invest vs. non-invest) on the sunk-cost effect, mediated by integral affective reaction. A mediation using a within-subjects design additionally demonstrated that the effect is mediated by integral emotional responses experienced in relation to each scenario, and not by incidental emotional states that are unrelated to the scenarios. Study 3 replicated findings in the previous studies, and demonstrated that the relation between the sunk-cost fallacy and affect is moderated by justification. Participants who justified their decision were more resistant to the sunk-cost fallacy, and showed less negative affect elicited by the scenarios, than participants who did not justify their decision. Study 4 provided supporting evidence for our hypothesis by hindering conscious deliberation, and promoting reliance on affect, via cognitive load. The results showed that the relation between affect and the sunk-cost fallacy was stronger for participants under high cognitive load, than under low-load. The paper discussed how this research leads to new ways to protect against the sunk-cost fallacy in the discussion.

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<![CDATA[Association between pesticide exposure intensity and self-rated health among greenhouse vegetable farmers in Ningxia, China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c269776d5eed0c48470f987

Background

Self-rated health (SRH) has been shown to be a stronger comprehensive predictor of health status than the clinical record. Although an association between specific pesticide exposures and health conditions has been reported in different populations, data on the relationship between pesticides exposure intensity (PEI) and SRH in greenhouse farmers is scarce. The aim of the current study was to evaluate this association among vegetable greenhouse farmers in Yinchuan City, western China.

Methods

Three consecutive cross-sectional studies were conducted in the years 2015, 2016 and 2017. Face-to-face interviews by trained investigators, using questionnaires, were performed. PEI was calculated by a validated method and then categorized into high, middle and low groups. SRH was measured via a single ten-point scale question and then divided into excellent (score >5) and poor SRH (score ≤5). A multivariable logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association. Meanwhile, the dose-response and interaction effects were estimated.

Results

A steady association between high PEI and poor SRH (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.05–2.28 in the full model) was identified. Although high PEI was significantly associated with poor SRH in males and the Han ethnicity group, no significant association was found with poor SRH in females or those of Hui ethnicity. Interaction effects of education level and frequency of breakfast with PEI were determined (Pinteraction = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively); synergistic enhanced effects for poor SRH were observed.

Conclusion

These findings indicate that high PEI might be associated with poor SRH among vegetable greenhouse farmers. A lower education level and never eating breakfast contributed to an increased likelihood of poor SRH in those with high PEI. The local government should be making great efforts to promote healthy behaviors and improve protection awareness.

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<![CDATA[Hepatitis E prevalence in French Polynesian blood donors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141ee4d5eed0c484d28b0e

The HEV seroprevalence in mainland France is elevated (22.4%). In contrast, anti-HEV seroprevalence appears to be lower in Oceania. However, none is available for French Polynesia. We assessed the anti-HEV IgG and IgM prevalence on samples from 300 consecutive blood donors living on Tahiti and Moorea islands. Epidemiological information was collected using a specific questionnaire. Overall IgM seroprevalence was 0.6% and overall IgG seroprevalence was 7.7%. The presence of anti-HEV IgG was associated with increasing age (p = 0.01), eating chicken offal (p = 0.01) and cooked rabbit (p = 0.02). Conversely, eating fafaru—traditional Polynesian condiment—was associated with a lower rate of anti-HEV IgG (p<0.01).). All donors who surfed or practiced va’a (traditional outrigger canoë) were HEV seronegative. The Polynesian lifestyle and the particular food consumption patterns—especially the very well cooked pork—may be the key to understand the low HEV seroprevalence in French Polynesia.

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<![CDATA[Neurobiology of social reward valuation in adults with a history of anorexia nervosa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c102907d5eed0c484248db1

Objective

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a disorder characterized by atypical patterns of reward valuation (e.g. positive valuation of hunger). Atypical reward processing may extend into social domains. If so, such findings would be of prognostic significance as impaired social functioning predicts worse outcome. We explore neural circuits implicated in social reward processing in individuals with a history of AN who are weight-restored relative to controls and examine the effects of illness course on the experience of social value.

Method

20 weight-restored individuals with a history of AN (AN-WR) and 24 healthy control (HC) participants were assessed using fMRI tasks that tapped social reward: smiling faces and full human figures that varied in attractiveness and weight.

Results

AN-WR differed from HC in attractiveness ratings by weight (negatively correlated in AN-WR). While there were no significant differences when viewing smiling faces, viewing full figures resulted in decreased activation in regions implicated in reward valuation (the right caudate) for AN-WR and this region was negatively correlated with a sustained course of the disorder. Exploratory whole brain analyses revealed reduced activation in regions associated with social reward, self-referential processing, and cognitive reappraisal (e.g., medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, and nucleus accumbens) with sustained disorder course.

Discussion

The rewarding value of full body images decreases with a sustained disorder course. This may reflect an extension of atypical reward processing documented in AN-WR, perhaps as a function of starvation dampening visceral motivational signals; the deployment of cognitive strategies that lessen the experience of reward; and/or the nature of the stimuli themselves as provocative of eating disorder symptoms (e.g., thin bodies). These findings did not extend to smiling face stimuli. Advances in technology (e.g., virtual avatars, text messaging) may provide novel means to build relationships, including therapeutic relationships, to support improved social connections without threats to symptom provocation.

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<![CDATA[Associations between questionnaires on lifestyle and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in a Japanese general population: A cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0841e7d5eed0c484fcb1ce

Objective

We aimed to investigate the association between questionnaires related to lifestyle habits and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD).

Design

Cross-sectional observational study.

Settings

Community-based medical checkups, called specific health checkups started in Japan since 2008. This checkup includes standard medical examinations as well as a specific questionnaire related to lifestyle habits.

Participants

Overall, 47,842 subjects (males = 16,913, 35.4%) aged ≥40 years who underwent a Japanese specific health checkup in 2014 in Kanazawa city were included.

Main outcome measures

Association between 12 lifestyle habits-related questionnaires and the presence of ASCVD, including coronary artery disease and stroke. The questionnaire included the following 12 questions on lifestyle habits: 1) weight gain (>10 kg/20 years), 2) exercise (>30 min, twice a week, >1 year), 3) daily walking or equivalent (>1 h), 4) walking faster (than others in the same generation), 5) body weight changes (>3 kg/year), 6) eating faster (than others in the same generation), 7) eating within 2 h before going to bed (more than three times a week), 8) having a snack after dinner (more than three times a week), 9) skipping breakfast (more than three times a week), 10) daily drinking (alcohol), 11) heavy drinking (more than 60 g ethanol/day), and 12) good sleeping.

Results

Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that walking faster (odds ratio [OR] = 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.69–0.79, p < 0.0003), body weight changes (>3 kg/year, OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.16–1.37, p < 0.0003), eating faster (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.03–1.15, p = 0.003), daily drinking (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.76–0.89, p < 0.0003), and good sleeping (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.79–0.93, p < 0.0003) were independently associated with ASCVD. Subjects with a high lifestyle habits risk score (number of bad habits: 7–12) had significantly higher odds for ASCVD than those with a low risk score (number of bad habits: 0–3, OR = 1.78, 95%CI = 1.62–1.95, p < 0.0003).

Conclusion

Simple questionnaires related to lifestyle habits were associated with self-reported ASCVD.

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<![CDATA[The influence of feeding behaviour on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics of growing pigs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bce3d1540307c69b197f500

This study investigated the effect of the feeding behaviour on growth performance, and carcass and meat characteristics of 96 barrows fed ad libitum or restrictively with high or low amino acids (AA) diets according to a 2 × 2 factorial design. The feeding behaviour traits were measured with automated feeders. From 86 kg BW, half of the pigs were given feeds with high indispensable (AA) contents, while the other half received feeds with indispensable AA contents reduced by 9% in early finishing (86–118 kg BW) and by 18% in late finishing (118–145 kg BW). Body lipid and protein retentions were estimated from BW and backfat depth measures recorded at the beginning and end of each period. Pigs were slaughtered at 145 kg BW and carcass and meat quality data were recorded. Phenotypic correlations among feeding behaviours, growth performances, and carcass and meat traits were computed from all the data after adjustment for the effects of feeding treatments. As feeding rate was the behavioural trait most highly correlated with performance and carcass traits, the records of each pig were classified into feeding rate tertiles. Then, the data were statistically analysed using a mixed model, which included feed restriction (FR), AA reduction (AAR), the FR × AAR interaction and the feeding rate tertile as fixed factors, and pen as a random factor. Pigs eating faster (52.1 to 118.9 g/min) had significantly greater final body weights (16%), average daily weight gains (27%), estimated protein gains (22%), estimated lipid retention (46%), carcass weights (16%), weights of lean cuts (14%), weights of fat cuts (21%), proportions of fat in the carcass (14%), and 4% lower proportions of carcass lean cuts than pigs eating slowly (12.6 to 38.2 g/min). Manipulating the eating rate, through management or genetic strategies, could affect feed intake and subsequent growth performance, hence carcass quality, but have little influence on feed efficiency.

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<![CDATA[Perceived Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Grocery Shopping among Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Participants in Eastern North Carolina]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndd66f84f-ab17-4632-b5ac-63e56e0105a8 ABSTRACT
This study's purpose was to qualitatively examine perceived advantages and disadvantages of online grocery shopping among participants (
 = 7) in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Initial in-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted, after which participants completed an episode of online grocery shopping, picked up the online order at the store, and completed an in-store shopping episode and a follow-up in-depth interview. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed deductively. Participants stated that in-store impulse purchases occurred at the check-out and cookie aisles and included chips and candy, but sometimes healthier foods such as fruit. Advantages of online grocery shopping included ease, convenience, and saving time. Disadvantages included inadequate substitutions, the online shopping fee, lack of control over selection of perishable goods, and inability to find good deals online versus in the store. Further research is needed to determine how to encourage healthy grocery purchases online.
Participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) noted that advantages of online grocery shopping included ease, convenience, and saving time, while disadvantages included inadequate substitutions, the online shopping fee, lack of control over selection of perishable goods, and inability to find good deals online versus in the store. Convenience was mentioned more frequently as an advantage post-online shopping, and price was mentioned more frequently as a disadvantage post-online shopping. Findings suggest that online grocery shopping could potentially streamline federal food-assistance benefit distribution, especially if connected with online nutrition education provided within WIC more efficiently.
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<![CDATA[The Neuropsychology of Starvation: Set-Shifting and Central Coherence in a Fasted Nonclinical Sample]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db42ab0ee8fa60bd74a1

Objectives

Recent research suggests certain neuropsychological deficits occur in anorexia nervosa (AN). The role of starvation in these deficits remains unclear. Studies of individuals without AN can elucidate our understanding of the effect of short-term starvation on neuropsychological performance.

Methods

Using a within-subjects repeated measures design, 60 healthy female participants were tested once after fasting for 18 hours, and once when satiated. Measures included two tasks to measure central coherence and a set-shifting task.

Results

Fasting exacerbated set-shifting difficulties on a rule-change task. Fasting was associated with stronger local and impaired global processing, indicating weaker central coherence.

Conclusions

Models of AN that propose a central role for set-shifting difficulties or weak central coherence should also consider the impact of short-term fasting on these processes.

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<![CDATA[Attention Network Dysfunction in Bulimia Nervosa - An fMRI Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9dfab0ee8fa60b68ed4

Objective

Recent evidence has suggested an increased rate of comorbid ADHD and subclinical attentional impairments in bulimia nervosa (BN) patients. However, little is known regarding the underlying neural mechanisms of attentional functions in BN.

Method

Twenty BN patients and twenty age- and weight-matched healthy controls (HC) were investigated using a modified version of the Attention Network Task (ANT) in an fMRI study. This design enabled an investigation of the neural mechanisms associated with the three attention networks involved in alerting, reorienting and executive attention.

Results

The BN patients showed hyperactivation in parieto-occipital regions and reduced deactivation of default-mode-network (DMN) areas during alerting compared with HCs. Posterior cingulate activation during alerting correlated with the severity of eating-disorder symptoms within the patient group. Conversely, BN patients showed hypoactivation during reorienting and executive attention in anterior cingulate regions, the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and parahippocampus compared with HCs, which was negatively associated with global ADHD symptoms and impulsivity, respectively.

Discussion

Our findings demonstrate altered brain mechanisms in BN associated with all three attentional networks. Failure to deactivate the DMN and increased parieto-occipital activation required for alerting might be associated with a constant preoccupation with food or body image-related thoughts. Hypoactivation of executive control networks and TPJ might increase the likelihood of inattentive and impulsive behaviors and poor emotion regulation. Thus, dysfunction in the attentional network in BN goes beyond an altered executive attentional domain and needs to be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of BN.

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<![CDATA[Disruption of Spatial Task Performance in Anorexia Nervosa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9dbab0ee8fa60b67a55

In anorexia nervosa (AN), body distortions have been associated with parietal cortex (PC) dysfunction. The PC is the anatomical substrate for a supramodal reference framework involved in spatial orientation constancy. Here, we sought to evaluate spatial orientation constancy and the perception of body orientation in AN patients. In the present study, we investigated the effect of passive lateral body inclination on the visual and tactile subjective vertical (SV) and body Z-axis in 25 AN patients and 25 healthy controls. Subjects performed visual- and tactile-spatial judgments of axis orientations in an upright position and tilted 90° clockwise or counterclockwise. We observed a significant deviation of the tactile and visual SV towards the body (an A-effect) under tilted conditions, suggesting a multisensory impairment in spatial orientation. Deviation of the Z-axis in the direction of the tilt was also observed in the AN group. The greater A-effect in AN patients may reflect reduced interoceptive awareness and thus inadequate consideration of gravitational inflow. Furthermore, marked body weight loss could decrease the somatosensory inputs required for spatial orientation. Our study results suggest that spatial references are impaired in AN. This may be due to particular integration of visual, tactile and gravitational information (e.g. vestibular and proprioceptive cues) in the PC.

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<![CDATA[Neuropeptide Y2 Receptor (NPY2R) Expression in Saliva Predicts Feeding Immaturity in the Premature Neonate]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab2ab0ee8fa60babccf

Background

The current practice in newborn medicine is to subjectively assess when a premature infant is ready to feed by mouth. When the assessment is inaccurate, the resulting feeding morbidities may be significant, resulting in long-term health consequences and millions of health care dollars annually. We hypothesized that the developmental maturation of hypothalamic regulation of feeding behavior is a predictor of successful oral feeding in the premature infant. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the gene expression of neuropeptide Y2 receptor (NPY2R), a known hypothalamic regulator of feeding behavior, in neonatal saliva to determine its role as a biomarker in predicting oral feeding success in the neonate.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Salivary samples (n = 116), were prospectively collected from 63 preterm and 13 term neonates (post-conceptual age (PCA) 26 4/7 to 41 4/7 weeks) from five predefined feeding stages. Expression of NPY2R in neonatal saliva was determined by multiplex RT-qPCR amplification. Expression results were retrospectively correlated with feeding status at time of sample collection. Statistical analysis revealed that expression of NPY2R had a 95% positive predictive value for feeding immaturity. NPY2R expression statistically significantly decreased with advancing PCA (Wilcoxon test p value<0.01), and was associated with feeding status (chi square p value  =  0.013).

Conclusions/Significance

Developmental maturation of hypothalamic regulation of feeding behavior is an essential component of oral feeding success in the newborn. NPY2R expression in neonatal saliva is predictive of an immature feeding pattern. It is a clinically relevant biomarker that may be monitored in saliva to improve clinical care and reduce significant feeding-associated morbidities that affect the premature neonate.

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