ResearchPad - eccojc-1000 Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The TLR9 Agonist Cobitolimod Induces IL10-Producing Wound Healing Macrophages and Regulatory T Cells in Ulcerative Colitis]]> The topically applied Toll-like receptor 9 [TLR9] agonist cobitolimod is a first-in-class DNA-based oligonucleotide with demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in clinical trials with ulcerative colitis [UC] patients. We here characterized its anti-inflammatory mechanism in UC.MethodsLuminal cobitolimod administration was evaluated in an experimental dextran sodium sulfate [DSS]-induced colitis model. Cultured blood and mucosal cells from UC patients were treated with cobitolimod and analysed via microarray, quantitative real-time PCR, ELISA and flow cytometry. Intestinal slides of cobitolimod-treated UC patients were analysed by immunohistochemistry.ResultsCobitolimod administration markedly suppressed experimental colitis activity, and microarray analyses demonstrated mucosal IL10 upregulation and suppression of IL17 signalling pathways. Cobitolimod treatment was associated with significant induction of mucosal IL10+Tr1 and Treg cells and suppression of Th17 cells. TLR9 knockout mice indicated that cobitolimod requires TLR9 signalling for IL10 induction. In UC patients, mucosal TLR9 levels correlated with severity of inflammation. Cobitolimod inhibited IL17A and IL17F, but increased IL10 and FoxP3 expression in cultured intestinal UC T cells. Cobitolimod-mediated suppression of intestinal IL17+T cells was abrogated by IL10 blockade. Furthermore, cobitolimod led to heightened IL10 production by wound healing macrophages. Immunohistochemistry in intestinal biopsies of cobitolimod-treated UC patients indicated increased presence of IL10+mononuclear and regulatory T cells, as well as reduction of IL17+cells.ConclusionActivation of TLR9 via cobitolimod might represent a novel therapeutic approach in UC, as it suppresses Th17 cells and induces anti-inflammatory IL10+macrophages and regulatory T cells, thereby modifying the dysregulated intestinal cytokine balance.PodcastThis article has an associated podcast which can be accessed at ]]> <![CDATA[Deficient Resident Memory T Cell and CD8 T Cell Response to Commensals in Inflammatory Bowel Disease]]> The intestinal microbiota is closely associated with resident memory lymphocytes in mucosal tissue. We sought to understand how acquired cellular and humoral immunity to the microbiota differ in health versus inflammatory bowel disease [IBD].MethodsResident memory T cells [Trm] in colonic biopsies and local antibody responses to intraepithelial microbes were analysed. Systemic antigen-specific immune T and B cell memory to a panel of commensal microbes was assessed.ResultsSystemically, healthy blood showed CD4 and occasional CD8 memory T cell responses to selected intestinal bacteria, but few memory B cell responses. In IBD, CD8 memory T cell responses decreased although B cell responses and circulating plasmablasts increased. Possibly secondary to loss of systemic CD8 T cell responses in IBD, dramatically reduced numbers of mucosal CD8+ Trm and γδ T cells were observed. IgA responses to intraepithelial bacteria were increased. Colonic Trm expressed CD39 and CD73 ectonucleotidases, characteristic of regulatory T cells. Cytokines/factors required for Trm differentiation were identified, and in vitro-generated Trm expressed regulatory T cell function via CD39. Cognate interaction between T cells and dendritic cells induced T-bet expression in dendritic cells, a key mechanism in regulating cell-mediated mucosal responses.ConclusionsA previously unrecognised imbalance exists between cellular and humoral immunity to the microbiota in IBD, with loss of mucosal T cell-mediated barrier immunity and uncontrolled antibody responses. Regulatory function of Trm may explain their association with intestinal health. Promoting Trm and their interaction with dendritic cells, rather than immunosuppression, may reinforce tissue immunity, improve barrier function, and prevent B cell dysfunction in microbiota-associated disease and IBD aetiology. ]]>