ResearchPad - edema https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Precision and reliability of tape measurements in the assessment of head and neck lymphedema]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15733 Tape measurement is a commonly used method in the clinical assessment of lymphedema. However, few studies have assessed the precision and reliability of tape measurement in assessing head and neck lymphedema. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and precision of using tape measurement, performed by different evaluators, for the assessment of head and neck lymphedema.MethodsThis study was conducted at a tertiary care cancer hospital. Between January and December 2019, 50 patients with head and neck cancers and 50 normal subjects were enrolled. Each subject was examined using tape measurements for 7 point-to-point distances of facial landmarks, 3 circumferences of the neck (upper, middle, and lower), and 2 circumferences of the face (vertical and oblique) by 3 random examiners. Test precision and reliability were assessed with the within-subject standard deviation (Sw) and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively.ResultsOverall, the standard deviation of the tape measurements varied in the range of 4.6 mm to 18.3 mm. The measurement of distance between the tragus and mouth angle (Sw: 4.6 mm) yielded the highest precision, but the reliability (ICC: 0.66) was moderate. The reliabilities of neck circumference measurements (ICC: 0.90–0.95) were good to excellent, but the precisions (Sw: 8.3–12.3 mm) were lower than those of point-to-point facial measurements (Sw: 4.6–8.8 mm).ConclusionsThe different methods of tape measurements varied in precision and reliability. Thus, clinicians should not rely on a single measurement when evaluating head and neck lymphedema. ]]> <![CDATA[Toxin-neutralizing antibodies elicited by naturally acquired cutaneous anthrax are elevated following severe disease and appear to target conformational epitopes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0733fdcc-4c39-44e4-82cd-032e69d54dbc

Understanding immune responses to native antigens in response to natural infections can lead to improved approaches to vaccination. This study sought to characterize the humoral immune response to anthrax toxin components, capsule and spore antigens in individuals (n = 46) from the Kayseri and Malatya regions of Turkey who had recovered from mild or severe forms of cutaneous anthrax infection, compared to regional healthy controls (n = 20). IgG antibodies to each toxin component, the poly-γ-D-glutamic acid capsule, the Bacillus collagen-like protein of anthracis (BclA) spore antigen, and the spore carbohydrate anthrose, were detected in the cases, with anthrax toxin neutralization and responses to Protective Antigen (PA) and Lethal Factor (LF) being higher following severe forms of the disease. Significant correlative relationships among responses to PA, LF, Edema Factor (EF) and capsule were observed among the cases. Though some regional control sera exhibited binding to a subset of the tested antigens, these samples did not neutralize anthrax toxins and lacked correlative relationships among antigen binding specificities observed in the cases. Comparison of serum binding to overlapping decapeptides covering the entire length of PA, LF and EF proteins in 26 cases compared to 8 regional controls revealed that anthrax toxin-neutralizing antibody responses elicited following natural cutaneous anthrax infection are directed to conformational epitopes. These studies support the concept of vaccination approaches that preserve conformational epitopes.

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<![CDATA[Community based cross sectional study of podoconiosis and associated factors in Dano district, Central Ethiopia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d630d5eed0c484031865

Background

Podoconiosis, affects lower limb, is an entirely preventable non-communicable tropical disease common in low income countries. Globally it is estimated that there are 4 million peoples with podoconiosis and nationally it is estimated that there are 1.56 million cases of podoconiosis. Even though nationwide mapping has been conducted including the current district under investigation, there are no studies conducted to identify factors associated with podoconiosis in the district. Hence, this study was aimed to determine the prevalence of podoconiosis and associated factors in the west Shewa of Dano district community.

Method

A community based cross sectional study was conducted from March 1 to 26, 2018. Seven kebeles out of the total of twenty-three kebeles found in the district were selected randomly. The total sample size was allocated by probability proportional to size to each kebele based on the number of households they had. Then, systematic random sampling was employed to select 652 study participants from the seven kebeles. Data was collected using interviewer administered structured questionnaire and observation. In addition, a blood sample was collected from the study subjects who had leg swelling for ruling out lymphedema due to lymphatic filarasis by using Immunochromatographic test card. Podoconiosis case was defined as bilateral but asymmetric swelling which develop first in the foot often confined to the lower leg and negative result for immune-chromatographic test (ICT card). The prevalence of podoconiosis was determined and multiple logistic regression model was fitted using SPSS version 23 to identify factors associated with podoconiosis.

Result

The prevalence of podoconiosis in Dano district was found to be 6.3% (95%CI: 5.8, 6.8). Age at first shoe wearing (AOR = 1.08,95% CI = 1.06–1.11), washing practice of feet by water only (AOR = 3.68, 95% CI = 1.47–9.24) and not wearing shoe daily (AOR = 9.32, 95% CI = 4.27–20.4) were found to be significantly associated with increased odds of podoconiosis.

Conclusion

This study revealed that there was significant burden of podoconiosis in the study area. Age at first shoe wearing, washing practice and frequency of shoe wearing were associated with the development of podoconiosis disease. Modalities to enhance the shoe wearing behaviour of the communities should be planned by high level decision makers working in the area of Health. Moreover, collaboration between local government and non-government stakeholders, and integration with existing programs addressing foot hygiene which involves washing feet with soap and water needs to be addressed.

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<![CDATA[Lapachol and synthetic derivatives: in vitro and in vivo activities against Bothrops snake venoms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d640d5eed0c4840319be

Background

It is known that local tissue injuries incurred by snakebites are quickly instilled causing extensive, irreversible, tissue destruction that may include loss of limb function or even amputation. Such injuries are not completely neutralized by the available antivenins, which in general are focused on halting systemic effects. Therefore it is prudent to investigate the potential antiophidic effects of natural and synthetic compounds, perhaps combining them with serum therapy, to potentially attenuate or eliminate the adverse local and systemic effects of snake venom. This study assessed a group of quinones that are widely distributed in nature and constitute an important class of natural products that exhibit a range of biological activities. Of these quinones, lapachol is one of the most important compounds, having been first isolated in 1882 from the bark of Tabebuia avellanedae.

Methodology/Principal findings

It was investigated the ability of lapachol and some new potential active analogues based on the 2-hydroxi-naphthoquinone scaffold to antagonize important activities of Bothrops venoms (Bothrops atrox and Bothrops jararaca) under different experimental protocols in vitro and in vivo. The bioassays used to test the compounds were: procoagulant, phospholipase A2, collagenase and proteolytic activities in vitro, venom-induced hemorrhage, edematogenic, and myotoxic effects in mice. Proteolytic and collagenase activities of Bothrops atrox venom were shown to be inhibited by lapachol and its analogues 3a, 3b, 3c, 3e. The inhibition of these enzymatic activities might help to explain the effects of the analogue 3a in vivo, which decreased skin hemorrhage induced by Bothrops venom. Lapachol and the synthetic analogues 3a and 3b did not inhibit the myotoxic activity induced by Bothrops atrox venom. The negative protective effect of these compounds against the myotoxicity can be partially explained by their lack of ability to effectively inhibit phospholipase A2 venom activity. Bothrops atrox venom also induced edema, which was significantly reduced by the analogue 3a.

Conclusions

This research using a natural quinone and some related synthetic quinone compounds has shown that they exhibit antivenom activity; especially the compound 3a. The data from 3a showed a decrease in inflammatory venom effects, presumably those that are metalloproteinase-derived. Its ability to counteract such snake venom activities contributes to the search for improving the management of venomous snakebites.

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<![CDATA[The ezh2(sa1199) mutant zebrafish display no distinct phenotype]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c536c14d5eed0c484a498f7

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are essential regulators of epigenetic gene silencing and development. The PcG protein enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2) is a key component of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 and is responsible for placing the histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) repressive mark on the genome through its methyltransferase domain. Ezh2 is highly conserved in vertebrates. We studied the role of ezh2 during development of zebrafish with the use of a mutant allele (ezh2(sa1199), R18STOP), which has a stop mutation in the second exon of the ezh2 gene. Two versions of the same line were used during this study. The first and original version of zygotic ezh2(sa1199) mutants unexpectedly retained ezh2 expression in brain, gut, branchial arches, and eyes at 3 days post-fertilization (dpf), as revealed by in-situ hybridization. Moreover, the expression pattern in homozygous mutants was identical to that of wild types, indicating that mutant ezh2 mRNA is not subject to nonsense mediated decay (NMD) as predicted. Both wild type and ezh2 mutant embryos presented edemas at 2 and 3 dpf. The line was renewed by selective breeding to counter select the non-specific phenotypes and survival was assessed. In contrast to earlier studies on ezh2 mutant zebrafish, ezh2(sa1199) mutants survived until adulthood. Interestingly, the ezh2 mRNA and Ezh2 protein were present during adulthood (70 dpf) in both wild type and ezh2(sa1199) mutant zebrafish. We conclude that the ezh2(sa1199) allele does not exhibit an ezh2 loss-of-function phenotype.

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<![CDATA[An optimized low-pressure tourniquet murine hind limb ischemia reperfusion model: Inducing acute ischemia reperfusion injury in C57BL/6 wild type mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c536bb5d5eed0c484a49072

Acute ischemia reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle remains an important issue in several fields of regenerative medicine. Thus, a valid model is essential to gain deeper insights into pathophysiological relations and evaluate possible treatment options. While the vascular anatomy of mice regularly prevents sufficient vessel occlusion by invasive methods, there is a multitude of existing models to induce ischemia reperfusion injury without surgical procedures. Since there is no consensus on which model to prefer, this study aims to develop and evaluate a novel, optimized low-pressure tourniquet model. C57BL/6 mice underwent an ischemic procedure by either tourniquet or invasive artery clamping. A sham group served as control. With exception of the sham group, mice underwent 2 hours of ischemia followed by 4 hours of reperfusion. Groups were compared using microcirculatory and spectroscopic measurements, distinctions in tissue edema, histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Both procedures led to a significant decrease in tissue blood flow (- 97% vs. - 86%) and oxygenation (- 87% vs. - 75%) with a superiority of the low-pressure tourniquet. Tissue edema in the tourniquet cohort was significantly increased (+ 59%), while the increase in the clamping cohort was non-significant (+ 7%). Haematoxylin Eosin staining showed significantly more impaired muscle fibers in the tourniquet group (+ 77 p.p. vs. + 11 p.p.) and increased neutrophil infiltration/ROI (+ 51 vs. + 8). Immunofluorescence demonstrated an equal increase of p38 in both groups (7-fold vs. 8-fold), while the increase in apoptotic markers (Caspase-3, 3-Nitrotyrosine, 4-Hydroxynonenal) was significantly higher in the tourniquet group. The low-pressure tourniquet has been proven to produce reproducible and thus reliable ischemia reperfusion injury. In addition, significantly less force was needed than previously stated. It is therefore an important instrument for studying the pathophysiology of ischemia reperfusion injury and for the development of prophylactic as well as therapeutic interventions.

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<![CDATA[Predictors for functional and anatomic outcomes in macular edema secondary to non-infectious uveitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c536a36d5eed0c484a4707b

Aims

We aimed to investigate predictive factors for visual and anatomic outcomes in patients with macular edema secondary to non-infectious uveitis.

Material and methods

We conducted a multicenter, prospective, observational, 12-month follow-up study. Participants included in the study were adults with non-infectious uveitic macular edema (UME), defined as central subfoveal thickness (CST) of >300 μm as measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fluid in the macula. Demographic, clinical and tomographic data was recorded at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Foveal-centered SD-OCT exploration was set as the gold-standard determination of UME using a standard Macular Cube 512x128 A-scan, within a 6 x 6 mm2 area, and the Enhanced High Definition Single-Line Raster. To assess favorable prognosis, the main outcomes analyzed were the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the CST. Favorable prognosis was defined as sustained improvement of BCVA (2 lines of gain of the Snellen scale) and CST (decrease of 20% of the initial value or <300 μm) within a 12 month period.

Results

Fifty-six eyes were analyzed. The number of eyes with sustained improvement in the CST was 48 (86.2%), against 23 (41.1%) eyes with sustained improvement in BCVA. Favorable prognosis, as defined above, was observed in 18 (32.1%) eyes. UME prognosis was negatively correlated with baseline foveal thickening, alteration in the vitreo-macular interface and cystoid macular edema. In contrast, bilaterally, systemic disease and the presence of anterior chamber cells were predictive of favorable prognosis.

Conclusion

Available treatment modalities in UME may avoid chronic UME and improve anatomic outcome. However, the proportion of functional amelioration observed during 12 months of follow-up is lower. Thicker CST, alteration in the vitreo-macular interface and cystoid macular edema may denote less favorable prognosis. Conversely, bilaterally, systemic disease and anterior chamber cells may be associated with favorable prognosis in UME.

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<![CDATA[Augmentation of curved tip of left-sided double-lumen tubes to reduce right bronchial misplacement: A randomized controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c5bd5eed0c484bd1d52

Background

During intubation with a blind technique, a left-sided double-lumen tube (DLT) can be misdirected into the right bronchus even though its curved tip of the bronchial lumen turns to the left. This right bronchial misplacement may be associated with the tip angle of DLTs. We thus performed a randomized trial to test the hypothesis that the DLT with an acute tip angle enters the right bronchus less frequently than the tube with an obtuse tip angle.

Methods

We randomized surgical patients (n = 1427) receiving a polyvinyl chloride left-sided DLT. Before intubation, the curved tip was further bent to an angle of 135° and kept with a stylet inside in the curved-tip group, but not in the control group. After the tip was inserted into the glottis under direct or video laryngoscopy, the stylet was removed and the DLT was advanced into the bronchus with its tip turning to the left. We checked which bronchus was intubated, and the time and number of attempts for intubation. After surgery, we assessed airway injury, sore throat, and hoarseness. The primary outcome was the incidence of right bronchial misplacement of the DLT.

Results

DLTs were misdirected into the right bronchus more frequently in the control group than in the curved-tip group: 57/715 (8.0%) vs 17/712 (2.4%), risk ratio (95% CI) 3.3 (2.0–5.7), P < 0.001. The difference was significant in the use of 32 (P = 0.003), 35 (P = 0.007), and 37 (P = 0.012) Fr DLTs. Intubation required longer time (P < 0.001) and more attempts (P = 0.002) in the control group. No differences were found in postoperative airway injury, sore throat and hoarseness.

Conclusions

Before intubation of left-sided DLTs, augmentation of the curved DLT tip reduced the right bronchial misplacement and facilitated intubation without aggravating airway injury.

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<![CDATA[Choroidal structural analysis in eyes with diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema—A novel OCT based imaging biomarker]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1966e9d5eed0c484b534e7

Purpose

To evaluate structural changes in the choroid among patients with diabetic macular edema (DME), with varying grades of diabetic retinopathy (DR), using enhance depth imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography (EDI SD-OCT) scans.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted on 82 eyes with DR and DME and 86 healthy control eyes. Eyes with DME were classified according to the severity of DR as per the international DR severity scale. Sub foveal choroidal thickness (SFCT)was obtained using EDI SD-OCT scans. These scans were binarized into luminal and stromal areas, to derive the choroidal vascularity index (CVI). CVI and SFCT were analyzed between the study and control group using paired-T test. Tukey’s test was used to correlate the differences in CVI and SFCT between different grades of DR. Further analysis was done to look for the effect of DR severity and type of DME on CVI as well as SFCT using correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis.

Results

SFCT was significantly increased in eyes with DME as compared to the controls (334.47±51.81μm vs 284.53±56.45μm, p<0.001), and showed an ascending trend with worsening of DR, though this difference was not statistically significant [mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) = 304.33±40.39μm, moderate NPDR = 327.81±47.39μm, severe NPDR = 357.72±62.65μm, proliferative DR (PDR) = 334.59±47.4μm, p-0.09]. CVI was significantly decreased in DME with DR eyes as compared to controls (63.89±1.89 vs 67.51±2.86, p<0.001). CVI was also significantly decreased with worsening DR (mild NPDR = 66.38±0.3, moderate NPDR = 65.28±0.37, severe NPDR = 63.50±0.47, PDR = 61.27±0.9, p<0.001).

Conclusion

SFCT and CVI are dynamic parameters that are affected by DME. Unlike CVI, SFCT is also affected by ocular and systemic factors like edema and hypertension. CVI may be a more accurate surrogate marker for DME and DR and can potentially be used to monitor the progression of DR.

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<![CDATA[Corneal endothelium features in Fuchs’ Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy: A preliminary 3D anterior segment optical coherence tomography study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c09944cd5eed0c4842ae9a3

Purpose

To evaluate the feasibility of 3D anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) for the detection of corneal endothelial features in patients with Fuchs’ Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD).

Methods

Twenty patients with clinical diagnosis of FECD (group A), and 20 control subjects (group B) were enrolled. In all patients a complete ophthalmological examination was performed, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), slit lamp examination for subjective grading of FECD and corneal endothelial specular microscopy. A 512x128 AS-OCT cube centered on the corneal apex was performed, and then the inner surface of the cornea was visualized and analyzed individually.

Results

Overall, the study participants were adults (mean age was 57.35 ± 8.45 years [mean ± SD] 80% female) with a BCVA ranged from 1.3 to 0 LogMAR. The OCT analysis disclosed three different patterns of the corneal endothelium (1, 2, 3) according to the signal distribution and the level of reflectivity: a homogenous, hypo-reflective surface (pattern 1); the presence of hyper-reflective orange-yellowish points (pattern 2); and a mottled appearance with a variable number of hyper-reflective areas (pattern 3). The distributions of these morphological models in the two populations were as follows: patterns 1, 2 and 3 were observed respectively in 0%, 80%, and 20% of patients in group A, and in 80%, 20% and 0% of subjects in group B. Correlation analysis unveiled a positive relationship between OCT corneal endothelium reflectivity and the clinical severity score (assessed with biomicroscopy), as well as an inverse relationship between the OCT pattern and the integrity of corneal endothelium.

Conclusion

3D AS-OCT is a useful tool in investigation of endothelial features and therefore may represent a valuable support in the setting of FECD diagnosis and staging.

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<![CDATA[Clinical magnetic resonance-enabled characterization of mono-iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in a large animal species]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b6dda0d463d7e7491b405e7

Introduction

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis. Medical and surgical treatments have yet to substantially diminish the global health and economic burden of OA. Due to recent advances in clinical imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a correlation has been established between structural joint damage and OA-related pain and disability. Existing preclinical animal models of OA are useful tools but each suffers specific roadblocks when translating structural MRI data to humans. Intraarticular injection of mono-iodoacetate (MIA) is a reliable, well-studied method to induce OA in small animals but joint size discrepancy precludes the use of clinical grade MRI to study structural disease. The porcine knee is suited for clinical MRI and demonstrates homology with humans. We set out to establish the first large animal model of MIA-induced knee OA in swine characterized by structural MRI.

Materials and methods

Yucatan swine (n = 27) underwent ultrasound-guided injection of knees with 1.2, 4, 12, or 40 mg MIA. MRI was performed at several time points over 12 weeks (n = 54 knees) and images were assessed according to a modified clinical grading scheme. Knees were harvested and graded up to 35 weeks after injection.

Results

MIA-injected knees (n = 25) but not control knees (n = 29) developed gross degeneration. A total of n = 6,000 MRI measurements were recorded by two radiologists. MRI revealed progressive cartilage damage, bone marrow edema, erosions, and effusions in MIA-injected knees. Lesion severity and progression was influenced by time, dose, and inter-individual variability.

Conclusions

Intraarticular injection of MIA produced structural knee degradation that was reliably characterized using clinical MRI in swine. Destruction was progressive and, similar to human OA, lesion severity was heterogeneous between and within treatment groups.

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<![CDATA[Repeatability and reproducibility of retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in Diabetic Macular Edema using Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b69466f463d7e3867f4ad0f

Purpose

To evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of retinal and choroidal thickness measured with Swept source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT) in eyes with Diabetic Macular Edema (DME).

Methods

42 DME eyes were imaged using SS-OCT standard Macular scanning protocols. Retinal and choroidal thickness were measured in the Total macular circle (TMC) and foveal central subfield (FCS) using device-integrated specific software. The coefficient of repeatability (CR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were determined as a measure of repeatability and relative reliability within graders. Reproducibility was assessed using Bland-Altman plots and 95% limits of agreement (LoA) were determined as a measure of interobserver variability.

Results

Intragrader CR of retinal and choroidal thickness were 8.37 and 12.20 microns for TMC and 22.24 and 32.40 microns for FCS, and intergrader 95% LoA were 7.37–8.69 and -27.2–27.71 microns for TMC and -34.21–41.93 and -30.46–24.84 for FCS, respectively. Retinal and choroidal thickness showed very good intraobserver reliability for both TMC and FCS (ICC 0.99, LoA 0.98–0.99 in all cases). Intraobserver and interobserver variability for retinal and choroidal thickness was not significantly different for TMC (p = 0.98 and p = 0.90, p = 0.98 and p = 0.91) or FCS (p = 0.97 and p = 0.85, p = 0.78 and p = 0.73), respectively.

Conclusions

Retinal and choroidal thickness in DME eyes can be quantified with good reliability, repeatability and reproducibility using new OCT devices that incorporate swept source technology. The technical advantages of this technology may provide new insights in the understanding of the choroidal changes related with DME.

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<![CDATA[Microdeletion on chromosome 8p23.1 in a familial form of severe Buruli ulcer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5af106a8463d7e336df9e531

Buruli ulcer (BU), the third most frequent mycobacteriosis worldwide, is a neglected tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. We report the clinical description and extensive genetic analysis of a consanguineous family from Benin comprising two cases of unusually severe non-ulcerative BU. The index case was the most severe of over 2,000 BU cases treated at the Centre de Dépistage et de Traitement de la Lèpre et de l’Ulcère de Buruli, Pobe, Benin, since its opening in 2003. The infection spread to all limbs with PCR-confirmed skin, bone and joint infections. Genome-wide linkage analysis of seven family members was performed and whole-exome sequencing of both patients was obtained. A 37 kilobases homozygous deletion confirmed by targeted resequencing and located within a linkage region on chromosome 8 was identified in both patients but was absent from unaffected siblings. We further assessed the presence of this deletion on genotyping data from 803 independent local individuals (402 BU cases and 401 BU-free controls). Two BU cases were predicted to be homozygous carriers while none was identified in the control group. The deleted region is located close to a cluster of beta-defensin coding genes and contains a long non-coding (linc) RNA gene previously shown to display highest expression values in the skin. This first report of a microdeletion co-segregating with severe BU in a large family supports the view of a key role of human genetics in the natural history of the disease.

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<![CDATA[Pimaradienoic Acid Inhibits Carrageenan-Induced Inflammatory Leukocyte Recruitment and Edema in Mice: Inhibition of Oxidative Stress, Nitric Oxide and Cytokine Production]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1fab0ee8fa60b7e548

Pimaradienoic acid (PA; ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid) is a pimarane diterpene found in plants such as Vigueira arenaria Baker (Asteraceae) in the Brazilian savannas. Although there is evidence on the analgesic and in vitro inhibition of inflammatory signaling pathways, and paw edema by PA, its anti-inflammatory effect deserves further investigation. Thus, the objective of present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of PA in carrageenan-induced peritoneal and paw inflammation in mice. Firstly, we assessed the effect of PA in carrageenan-induced leukocyte recruitment in the peritoneal cavity and paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity. Next, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of PA. The effect of PA on carrageenan-induced oxidative stress in the paw skin and peritoneal cavity was assessed. We also tested the effect of PA on nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and inflammatory cytokine production in the peritoneal cavity. PA inhibited carrageenan-induced recruitment of total leukocytes and neutrophils to the peritoneal cavity in a dose-dependent manner. PA also inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity in the paw skin. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of PA depended on maintaining paw skin antioxidant activity as observed by the levels of reduced glutathione, ability to scavenge the ABTS cation and reduce iron as well as by the inhibition of superoxide anion and nitric oxide production in the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, PA inhibited carrageenan-induced peritoneal production of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. PA presents prominent anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced inflammation by reducing oxidative stress, nitric oxide, and cytokine production. Therefore, it seems to be a promising anti-inflammatory molecule that merits further investigation.

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<![CDATA[Spatio-Temporal Changes of Lymphatic Contractility and Drainage Patterns following Lymphadenectomy in Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e6ab0ee8fa60b6b5e9

Objective

To investigate the redirection of lymphatic drainage post-lymphadenectomy using non-invasive near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging, and to subsequently assess impact on metastasis.

Background

Cancer-acquired lymphedema arises from dysfunctional fluid transport after lymphadenectomy performed for staging and to disrupt drainage pathways for regional control of disease. However, little is known about the normal regenerative processes of the lymphatics in response to lymphadenectomy and how these responses can be accelerated, delayed, or can impact metastasis.

Methods

Changes in lymphatic “pumping” function and drainage patterns were non-invasively and longitudinally imaged using NIRF lymphatic imaging after popliteal lymphadenectomy in mice. In a cohort of mice, B16F10 melanoma was inoculated on the dorsal aspect of the paw 27 days after lymphadenectomy to assess how drainage patterns affect metastasis.

Results

NIRF imaging demonstrates that, although lymphatic function and drainage patterns change significantly in early response to popliteal lymph node (PLN) removal in mice, these changes are transient and regress dramatically due to a high regenerative capacity of the lymphatics and co-opting of collateral lymphatic pathways around the site of obstruction. Metastases followed the pattern of collateral pathways and could be detected proximal to the site of lymphadenectomy.

Conclusions

Both lymphatic vessel regeneration and co-opting of contralateral vessels occur following lymphadenectomy, with contractile function restored within 13 days, providing a basis for preclinical and clinical investigations to hasten lymphatic repair and restore contractile lymphatic function after surgery to prevent cancer-acquired lymphedema. Patterns of cancer metastasis after lymphadenectomy were altered, consistent with patterns of re-directed lymphatic drainage.

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<![CDATA[Importance of Central Retinal Sensitivity for Prediction of Visual Acuity after Intravitreal Bevacizumb in Eyes with Macular Edema Associated with Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db2cab0ee8fa60bd189b

Objective

To determine whether the baseline retinal sensitivity can predict the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 1 month after intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) in eyes with macular edema (ME) associated with a branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO).

Subjects and Methods

We evaluated 16 eyes of 16 patients who had ME associated with a BRVO. The mean ± standard deviation age was 69.1 ± 8.9 years, and all had a single IVB injection. The BCVA, central macular thickness (CMT), integrity of the ellipsoid zone (EZ) of the photoreceptors, and retinal sensitivity were determined before (baseline) and at 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month following the IVB. The average threshold retinal sensitivity (AT) within the central 10° was determined by Macular Integrity Assessment. The correlations between the BCVA at 1 month and the CMT, integrity of the EZ, and AT at each visit were determined.

Results

One month after IVB, the BCVA improved significantly from 0.56 ± 0.27 logMAR units to 0.32 ± 0.28 logMAR units, and the CMT from 611.4 ± 209.3 μm to 258.7 ± 64.0 μm (P <0.05). The AT improved significantly from 17.9 ± 5.3 dB to 21.2 ± 5.0 dB (P <0.05). At 1 day after the treatment, both the integrity of the EZ (r = 0.59) and the retinal sensitivity (r = 0.76) were moderately correlated with the BCVA at 1 month.

Conclusion

These results indicate that both the integrity of the EZ and the AT at 1 day after the IVB can predict the BCVA after treatment for ME associated with BRVO. There is a possibility that these parameters will predict the effectiveness of IVB for each case.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of Potential Ischemic Effect of Intravitreal Bevacizumab on Unaffected Retina in Treatment-Naïve Macular Edema Due to Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Prospective, Interventional Case-Series]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db34ab0ee8fa60bd2701

Background

To study potential ischemic effects of intravitreal Bevacizumab (IVB) on unaffected retina in treatment-naive eyes with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and contralateral eyes secondary to systemic absorption.

Methods and Findings

Prospective, interventional series included 27 treatment-naive eyes with BRVO and macular edema. Exclusion criteria: Eyes with diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, vasculitides, papilledema or systemic neurologic condition. Subjects underwent complete ophthalmological examination including fluoroscein angiography (FA), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multifocal electroretinogram (mf-ERG). All subjects received single 1.25 mg/0.05ml IVB injection. Two observers measured all parameters; inter-observer agreements were expressed as kappa values. Paired t-test was used to compare values at baseline and follow-up. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS for Windows, Version 14.0. (Chicago, SPSS Inc.) Presenting mean CFT (central foveal thickness) was 499.5(+/-229.7) μm, mean BCVA (best corrected visual acuity) was 0.64(+/-0.41) logMAR. At last follow-up, mean CFT was 267.9(+/-159.3) μm (P<0.001), 95% CI [127.18, 422.32]; mean BCVA was 0.28(+/-0.24) logMAR. Respectively, mean N1 and P1 amplitudes of mfERG in 'unaffected quadrant' at presentation were -6.10(+/-4.00) nV/deg2 and 17.17(+/-11.54)nV/deg2; and -5.33(+/-1.30)nV/deg2 and 15.29(+/-4.69)nV/deg2 at final follow-up (P = 0.631 and 0.197, respectively), (95% CIs [-0.93, 1.42] and [-4.22, 1.08] respectively). In fundus quadrant of fellow eyes corresponding to unaffected quadrant in treated eyes, mean N1 and P1 amplitudes at presentation were -5.39(+/-1.56)nV/deg2 and 15.89(+/-3.89)nV/deg2; and -5.39(+/-1.90)nV/deg2 and 15.9(+/-5.52)nV/deg2 (P = 0.380 and 0.208), (95% CIs [-0.57, 1.28] and [-4.1, 1.1]) at last follow-up, respectively. Limitations: This study analysed the effects with a single injection of bevacizumab. However, whether ischemic adverse effects will emerge with repeated IVB injections as a consequence of cumulative dosing needs further investigation. The setting of our study being a tertiary care centre, the numbers of fresh BRVO cases without prior intervention were limited. Thus, the limitations of our study include a small sample size with a small follow-up period. No major ocular/systemic adverse event was observed in the study period.

Conclusion

No evidence of progressive ischaemia attributable to single bevacizumab treatment was observed in this study. However, a larger prospective study involving subjects with cumulative dosing of bevacizumab and a longer follow-up could provide a better understanding of the potential ischaemic effects of bevacizumab or other anti-VEGF agents.

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<![CDATA[A reproducible semi-automatic method to quantify the muscle-lipid distribution in clinical 3D CT images of the thigh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db59ab0ee8fa60bdf14d

Many studies use threshold-based techniques to assess in vivo the muscle, bone and adipose tissue distribution of the legs using computed tomography (CT) imaging. More advanced techniques divide the legs into subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), anatomical muscle (muscle tissue and adipocytes within the muscle border) and intra- and perimuscular adipose tissue. In addition, a so-called muscle density directly derived from the CT-values is often measured. We introduce a new integrated approach to quantify the muscle-lipid system (MLS) using quantitative CT in patients with sarcopenia or osteoporosis. The analysis targets the thigh as many CT studies of the hip do not include entire legs The framework consists of an anatomic coordinate system, allowing delineation of reproducible volumes of interest, a robust semi-automatic 3D segmentation of the fascia and a comprehensive method to quantify of the muscle and lipid distribution within the fascia. CT density-dependent features are calibrated using subject-specific internal CT values of the SAT and external CT values of an in scan calibration phantom. Robustness of the framework with respect to operator interaction, image noise and calibration was evaluated. Specifically, the impact of inter- and intra-operator reanalysis precision and addition of Gaussian noise to simulate lower radiation exposure on muscle and AT volumes, muscle density and 3D texture features quantifying MLS within the fascia, were analyzed. Existing data of 25 subjects (age: 75.6 ± 8.7) with porous and low-contrast muscle structures were included in the analysis. Intra- and inter-operator reanalysis precision errors were below 1% and mostly comparable to 1% of cohort variation of the corresponding features. Doubling the noise changed most 3D texture features by up to 15% of the cohort variation but did not affect density and volume measurements. The application of the novel technique is easy with acceptable processing time. It can thus be employed for a comprehensive quantification of the muscle-lipid system enabling radiomics approaches to musculoskeletal disorders.

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<![CDATA[PLoS Pathogens Issue Image | Vol. 13(9) September 2017]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ab0700a463d7e2b83d278d8

An activated form of Rab11 is specifically targeted to intercellular junctions in Drosophila salivary glands.

Drosophila larval salivary glands are comprised of giant polyploid cells, making them an ideal system for sub-cellular distribution and co-localization studies. In this image, an activated and YFP-tagged form of Rab11 was expressed in salivary glands. Rab11 is critical for endocytic recycling, a process through which vesicles carrying junctional components like cadherins are brought near and fuse with the plasma membrane. Only the activated form of Rab11 displays this strong preference for intercellular junctions. The anthrax toxin edema factor (EF) blocks Rab11 function, which weakens the adherens junctions, and promotes edema during infection. Guichard et al.

Image Credit: Annabel Guichard and Ethan Bier, Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, UCSD

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<![CDATA[Detrimental ELAVL-1/HuR-dependent GSK3β mRNA stabilization impairs resolution in acute respiratory distress syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcb8b

A hallmark of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is accumulation of protein-rich edema in the distal airspaces and its removal is critical for patient survival. Previous studies have shown a detrimental role of Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK) 3β during ARDS via inhibition of alveolar epithelial protein transport. We hypothesized that post-transcriptional regulation of GSK3β could play a functional role in ARDS resolution. To address this hypothesis, we performed an in silico analysis to identify regulatory genes whose expression correlation to GSK3β messenger RNA utilizing two lung cancer cell line array datasets. Among potential regulatory partners of GSK3β, these studies identified the RNA-binding protein ELAVL-1/HuR (Embryonic Lethal, Abnormal Vision, Drosophila-Like) as a central component in a likely GSK3β signaling network. ELAVL-1/HuR is a RNA-binding protein that selectively binds to AU-rich elements of mRNA and enhances its stability thereby increasing target gene expression. Subsequent studies with siRNA suppression of ELAVL-1/HuR demonstrated deceased GSK3β mRNA and protein expression and improved clearance of FITC-albumin in A549 cells. Conversely, stabilization of ELAVL-1/HuR with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 resulted in induction of GSK3β at mRNA and protein level and attenuated FITC-albumin clearance. Utilizing ventilator-induced lung injury or intra-tracheal installation of hydrochloric acid to induce ARDS in mice, we observed increased mRNA and protein expression of ELAVL-1/HuR and GSK3β. Together, our findings indicate a previously unknown interaction between GSK3β and ELAV-1 during ARDS, and suggest the inhibition of the ELAV-1- GSK3β pathways as a novel ARDS treatment approach.

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