ResearchPad - educational-review https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Pediatric anesthetic implications of COVID‐19—A review of current literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16601 Pediatric anesthetists have an important role to play in the management of patients suspected or confirmed to have COVID‐19. In many institutions, the COVID‐19 intubation teams are staffed with anesthetists as the proceduralists working throughout the hospitals also in the ICU and Emergency Departments. As practitioners who perform aerosol generating procedures involving the airway, we are at high risk of exposure to the virus SARS‐CoV‐2 and need to ensure we are well prepared and trained to manage such cases. This article reviews the relevant pediatric literature surrounding COVID‐19 and summarizes the key recommendations for anesthetists involved in the care of children during this pandemic.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of the bronchial arteries: normal findings, hypertrophy and embolization in patients with hemoptysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9834 The enlargement of the bronchial arteries occurs in a multitude of congenital and acquired diseases and is responsible for the majority of cases of hemoptysis. In this review, we provide a simplified imaging approach to the evaluation of the bronchial arteries. We highlight the anatomy and function of the bronchial arteries, typical imaging findings, how to recognize bronchial artery dilatation, and its underlying causes. Contrast-enhanced computer tomography plays a major role in diagnosing bronchial artery enlargement and also improves treatment planning. Bronchial artery embolization has proven to be effective in controlling the potential hazardous hemoptysis.

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<![CDATA[Spectrum of imaging findings in AIDS-related diffuse large B cell lymphoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9815 Lymphoma in HIV-infected patients is AIDS defining. This is the second most common AIDS defining malignancy after Kaposi’s sarcoma. Development of lymphoma in HIV patients is related to immunosuppression and high viral load. Co-infection with other lymphotrophic viruses especially EBV is also strongly associated with development of lymphoma in HIV patients. Despite advances in HAART therapy, incidence of diffuse large B cell lymphoma in HIV-infected patients remains significantly higher than in the general population.

Early diagnosis is challenging due to presence of opportunistic infections and atypical presentation of the lymphoma in this subset of patients. Atypical imaging findings are not unusual, and the diagnosis of lymphoma on imaging is on many occasions unexpected as the patient would ideally be initially investigated for presumed opportunistic infection.

Lymphoma treatment approaches in HIV patients are complicated by comorbidity with opportunistic infections and performance status of the patients. Treatment failure and early relapse are also common in AIDS-related lymphoma. This review article highlights the common and unusual multimodality imaging findings in HIV-associated lymphoma.

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<![CDATA[The role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the evaluation of scrotal trauma: a review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9811 Testicular trauma is common, usually trivial and rarely requires hospital attendance, but if it does, then imaging becomes essential as scrotal assessment may be difficult due to pain and/or scrotal disruption. Ultrasound (US) assumes a crucial role as other cross-sectional modalities have a limited use in the acute presentation. Despite the acceptable accuracy of conventional US techniques, there are limitations which hinder a thorough evaluation, critically the assessment of tissue viability, crucial for clinical management and prognosis. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been shown to offer improved flow visualisation and tissue perfusion compared with conventional Doppler techniques. CEUS can accurately and confidently demonstrate the viability of testicular parenchyma, delineate fracture lines and haematomas and guide treatment for testis-sparing surgery or orchidectomy. The purpose of this review is to present the literature, familiarise physicians with the principles of CEUS and findings of scrotal trauma and illustrate the main abnormalities through characteristic and educative cases.

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<![CDATA[Role of MRI as first-line modality in the detection of previously undiagnosed otosclerosis: a single tertiary institute experience]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9797 Otosclerosis causes conductive, sensorineural and mixed hearing loss (CHL, SNHL, MHL) and tinnitus in young adults. It is best diagnosed on high-resolution CT (HRCT). Occasionally, patients presenting with SNHL and/or tinnitus may undergo temporal bone MRI as the first investigation. In this study, we have described the role of MRI as the first-line modality in the detection of previously undiagnosed otosclerosis.Using search words ‘MRI otosclerosis’ we found 15 cases in the PACS of our institute, (University Hospitals, KU Leuven, Belgium) from 2003 to 2018. Of these, 2 were known cases of otosclerosis, hence excluded from the study. The remaining 13 patients underwent MRI as first-line investigation for unilateral SNHL (8/13), bilateral SNHL (3/13), unilateral MHL (1/13) and bilateral pulsatile tinnitus (1/13). All MRI studies were reported by the same senior radiologist.ResultsOf these 13 cases, 12 were reported as showing MRI features suspicious for otosclerosis. The typical positive findings in these cases were intermediate T1 signal and post-contrast enhancement in the perilabyrinthine/pericochlear regions. Out of 13 patients, 9 underwent subsequent HRCT, confirming otosclerosis in all. The single MRI which was reported as normal initially showed otosclerosis on HRCT. Retrospective evaluation of this MRI study showed subtle positive findings of otosclerosis.ConclusionThe end point of this study was to validate the subtle findings of otosclerosis on MRI, by comparison to the gold-standard modality HRCT. Our hypothesis is that in the appropriate clinical setting, familiarity with MRI features of otosclerosis would increase the diagnostic ‘catch’ in the first ‘net’ itself i.e. first-line MRI. ]]> <![CDATA[Adenocarcinoma of the lung: from BAC to the future]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9796 Adenocarcinoma in situ, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma, lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma and invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma are relatively new classification entities which replace the now retired term, bronchoalveolar carcinoma (BAC). The radiographic appearance of these lesions ranges from pure, ground glass nodules to large, solid masses. A thorough understanding of the new classification is essential to radiologists who work with MDT colleagues to provide accurate staging and treatment. A 2-year review was performed of all surgically resected cases of adenocarcinoma in situ, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma and lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma in our institution. Cases are broken down by age, gender, tumour type and tumour location. A pictorial review is presented to illustrate the radiologic and pathologic features of each entity.

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<![CDATA[Tumor in the veins: an abdominal perspective with an emphasis on CT and MR imaging]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N70a99a87-b30d-4a28-9651-4968dfa2a819

Endovenous tumor thrombus in abdomen should be accurately diagnosed as it is a significant finding that may change medical and surgical treatment approaches. As some underlying reasons for endovenous tumor thrombi are relatively rare and imaging findings may be quite subtle, they can be easily overlooked which may have important clinical consequences. In this paper, we described the various imaging aspects of endovenous tumor thrombi originating from various tumor types in different venous structures of the abdomen.

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<![CDATA[Cortical ischaemic patterns in term partial-prolonged hypoxic-ischaemic injury—the inter-arterial watershed demonstrated through atrophy, ulegyria and signal change on delayed MRI scans in children with cerebral palsy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N993dec65-af15-4845-b65b-e15c1d41a1f1

The inter-arterial watershed zone in neonates is a geographic area without discernible anatomic boundaries and difficult to demarcate and usually not featured in atlases. Schematics currently used to depict the areas are not based on any prior anatomic mapping, compared to adults.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of neonates in the acute to subacute phase with suspected hypoxic-ischaemic injury (HII) can demonstrate signal abnormality and restricted diffusion in the cortical and subcortical parenchyma of the watershed regions.

In the chronic stage of partial-prolonged hypoxic-ischaemic injury, atrophy and ulegyria can make the watershed zone more conspicuous as a region. Our aim is to use images extracted from a sizable medicolegal database (approximately 2000 cases), of delayed MRI scans in children with cerebral palsy, to demonstrate the watershed region.

To achieve this, we have selected cases diagnosed on imaging as having sustained a term pattern of partial-prolonged HII affecting the hemispheric cortex, based on the presence of bilateral, symmetric atrophy with ulegyria. From these, we have identified those patients demonstrating injury along the whole watershed continuum as well as those demonstrating selective anterior or posterior watershed predominant injury for demonstration.

Recognition of this zone is essential for diagnosing partial-prolonged hypoxic-ischaemic injury sustained in term neonates. The images presented in this pictorial review provide a template for identifying the cortical watershed distribution when there is milder regional (anterior, parasagittal, peri-Sylvian and posterior) watershed injury and for more severe injury where multiple regions are injured in combination or as a continuum.

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<![CDATA[Nephrocalcinosis in preterm neonates]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb5223e02-bd88-43f6-af5c-035f46212838

The prevalence of nephrocalcinosis (NC) in preterm neonates in recent reports is 7–41%. The wide range in prevalence is a consequence of different study populations and ultrasound equipment and criteria, in addition to a moderate interobserver variation. NC in preterm neonates has a multifactorial aetiology, consisting of low gestational age and birth weight, often in combination with severe respiratory disease, and occurs as a result of an imbalance between stone-promoting and stone-inhibiting factors. A limited number of histological studies suggest that calcium oxalate crystals play an important role in NC in premature neonates. In 85% of children resolution of NC occurs in the first years of life. Prematurity, per se, is associated with high blood pressure, relatively small kidneys, and (distal) tubular dysfunction. In addition, NC in preterm neonates can have long-term sequelae for glomerular and tubular function. Long-term follow-up of blood pressure and renal function of prematurely born children, especially with neonatal NC, is recommended. Prevention of NC with (low) oral doses of citrate has not resulted in a significant decrease in the prevalence of NC; a higher citrate dosage deserves further study. Future research pertaining to prevention of NC in preterm neonates is crucial.

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<![CDATA[Complications of hepatic echinococcosis: multimodality imaging approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N66df4103-e065-43c6-85d4-25d1fe03ac1a

Hydatid disease is a worldwide zoonosis endemic in many countries. Liver echinococcosis accounts for 60–75% of cases and may be responsible for a wide spectrum of complications in about one third of patients. Some of these complications are potentially life-threatening and require prompt diagnosis and urgent intervention. In this article, we present our experience with common and uncommon complications of hepatic hydatid cysts which include rupture, bacterial superinfection, and mass effect-related complications. Specifically, the aim of this review is to provide key imaging features and diagnostic clues to guide the imaging diagnosis using a multimodality imaging approach, including ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

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<![CDATA[An additional challenge for head and neck radiologists: anatomic variants posing a surgical risk – a pictorial review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N659d2db1-3219-4e0c-92bd-3c22410d237f

Anatomic variants in the head and neck are quite numerous and occur frequently: a minority of them increase the risk of complications during surgical procedures and may be visualized on cross-sectional images. As some of these complications are potentially fatal, awareness (and accurate reporting) of such variants is a basic responsibility of radiologists, particularly when surgery in the pertinent anatomic area is under consideration.

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<![CDATA[Pharmacology and pharmacogenetics of prednisone and prednisolone in patients with nephrotic syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c79b173d5eed0c4841e5dcb

Nephrotic syndrome is one of the most common glomerular disorders in childhood. Glucocorticoids have been the cornerstone of the treatment of childhood nephrotic syndrome for several decades, as the majority of children achieves complete remission after prednisone or prednisolone treatment. Currently, treatment guidelines for the first manifestation and relapse of nephrotic syndrome are mostly standardized, while large inter-individual variation is present in the clinical course of disease and side effects of glucocorticoid treatment. This review describes the mechanisms of glucocorticoid action and clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of prednisone and prednisolone in nephrotic syndrome patients. However, these mechanisms do not account for the large inter-individual variability in the response to glucocorticoid treatment. Previous research has shown that genetic factors can have a major influence on the pharmacokinetic and dynamic profile of the individual patient. Therefore, pharmacogenetics may have a promising role in personalized medicine for patients with nephrotic syndrome. Currently, little is known about the impact of genetic polymorphisms on glucocorticoid response and steroid-related toxicities in children with nephrotic syndrome. Although the evidence is limited, the data summarized in this study do suggest a role for pharmacogenetics to improve individualization of glucocorticoid therapy. Therefore, studies in larger cohorts with nephrotic syndrome patients are necessary to draw final conclusions about the influence of genetic polymorphisms on the glucocorticoid response and steroid-related toxicities to ultimately implement pharmacogenetics in clinical practice.

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<![CDATA[Active surveillance of small renal masses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N444e1439-c1ef-4b35-98e6-25c5aafd6ad7 <![CDATA[Stop adding insult to injury—identifying and managing risk factors for the progression of acute kidney injury in children]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b44de56463d7e40e68d76cc

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in children admitted to hospital. Whilst some recover normal kidney function following an acute kidney insult, a significant proportion experience long-term sequelae. The aim of this review is to summarize current understanding of the processes that can lead to sequelae following AKI. Kidney injury, repair, recovery and progression are described. Risk factors for progression are outlined, and potential strategies to stratify the risk of progression in children with AKI are discussed. Clinical management priorities to minimize sequelae are suggested. Looking ahead, novel therapeutic targets are discussed with the potential to accelerate adaptive repair and ameliorate the progression and sequelae of AKI in the future.

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