ResearchPad - eigenvalues https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Mesh smoothing algorithm based on exterior angles split]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13823 Since meshes of poor quality give rise to low accuracy in finite element analysis and kinds of inconveniences in many other applications, mesh smoothing is widely used as an essential technique for the improvement of mesh quality. With respect to this issue, the main contribution of this paper is that a novel mesh smoothing method based on an exterior-angle-split process is proposed. The proposed method contains three main stages: the first stage is independent element geometric transformation performed by exterior-angle-split operations, treating elements unconnected; the second stage is to offset scaling and displacement induced by element transformation; the third stage is to determine the final positions of nodes with a weighted strategy. Theoretical proof describes the regularity of this method and many numerical experiments illustrate its convergence. Not only is this method applicable for triangular mesh, but also can be naturally extended to arbitrary polygonal surface mesh. Quality improvements of demonstrations on triangular and quadrilateral meshes show the effectiveness of this method.

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<![CDATA[Controlling seizure propagation in large-scale brain networks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c7d95e6d5eed0c484734f24

Information transmission in the human brain is a fundamentally dynamic network process. In partial epilepsy, this process is perturbed and highly synchronous seizures originate in a local network, the so-called epileptogenic zone (EZ), before recruiting other close or distant brain regions. We studied patient-specific brain network models of 15 drug-resistant epilepsy patients with implanted stereotactic electroencephalography (SEEG) electrodes. Each personalized brain model was derived from structural data of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor weighted imaging (DTI), comprising 88 nodes equipped with region specific neural mass models capable of demonstrating a range of epileptiform discharges. Each patient’s virtual brain was further personalized through the integration of the clinically hypothesized EZ. Subsequent simulations and connectivity modulations were performed and uncovered a finite repertoire of seizure propagation patterns. Across patients, we found that (i) patient-specific network connectivity is predictive for the subsequent seizure propagation pattern; (ii) seizure propagation is characterized by a systematic sequence of brain states; (iii) propagation can be controlled by an optimal intervention on the connectivity matrix; (iv) the degree of invasiveness can be significantly reduced via the proposed seizure control as compared to traditional resective surgery. To stop seizures, neurosurgeons typically resect the EZ completely. We showed that stability analysis of the network dynamics, employing structural and dynamical information, estimates reliably the spatiotemporal properties of seizure propagation. This suggests novel less invasive paradigms of surgical interventions to treat and manage partial epilepsy.

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<![CDATA[Assessing mental health service user and carer involvement in physical health care planning: The development and validation of a new patient-reported experience measure]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9a5d5eed0c484529f71

Background

People living with serious mental health conditions experience increased morbidity due to physical health issues driven by medication side-effects and lifestyle factors. Coordinated mental and physical healthcare delivered in accordance with a care plan could help to reduce morbidity and mortality in this population. Efforts to develop new models of care are hampered by a lack of validated instruments to accurately assess the extent to which mental health services users and carers are involved in care planning for physical health.

Objective

To develop a brief and accurate patient-reported experience measure (PREM) capable of assessing involvement in physical health care planning for mental health service users and their carers.

Methods

We employed psychometric and statistical techniques to refine a bank of candidate questionnaire items, derived from qualitative interviews, into a valid and reliable measure involvement in physical health care planning. We assessed the psychometric performance of the item bank using modern psychometric analyses. We assessed unidimensionality, scalability, fit to the partial credit Rasch model, category threshold ordering, local dependency, differential item functioning, and test-retest reliability. Once purified of poorly performing and erroneous items, we simulated computerized adaptive testing (CAT) with 15, 10 and 5 items using the calibrated item bank.

Results

Issues with category threshold ordering, local dependency and differential item functioning were evident for a number of items in the nascent item bank and were resolved by removing problematic items. The final 19 item PREM had excellent fit to the Rasch model fit (x2 = 192.94, df = 1515, P = .02, RMSEA = .03 (95% CI = .01-.04). The 19-item bank had excellent reliability (marginal r = 0.87). The correlation between questionnaire scores at baseline and 2-week follow-up was high (r = .70, P < .01) and 94.9% of assessment pairs were within the Bland Altman limits of agreement. Simulated CAT demonstrated that assessments could be made using as few as 10 items (mean SE = .43).

Discussion

We developed a flexible patient reported outcome measure to quantify service user and carer involvement in physical health care planning. We demonstrate the potential to substantially reduce assessment length whilst maintaining reliability by utilizing CAT.

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<![CDATA[Building geochemically based quantitative analogies from soil classification systems using different compositional datasets]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75abe2d5eed0c484d07e1f

Soil heterogeneity is a major contributor to the uncertainty in near-surface biogeochemical modeling. We sought to overcome this limitation by exploring the development of a new classification analogy concept for transcribing the largely qualitative criteria in the pedomorphologically based, soil taxonomic classification systems to quantitative physicochemical descriptions. We collected soil horizons classified under the Alfisols taxonomic Order in the U.S. National Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) soil classification system and quantified their properties via physical and chemical characterizations. Using multivariate statistical modeling modified for compositional data analysis (CoDA), we developed quantitative analogies by partitioning the characterization data up into three different compositions: Water-extracted (WE), Mehlich-III extracted (ME), and particle-size distribution (PSD) compositions. Afterwards, statistical tests were performed to determine the level of discrimination at different taxonomic and location-specific designations. The analogies showed different abilities to discriminate among the samples. Overall, analogies made up from the WE composition more accurately classified the samples than the other compositions, particularly at the Great Group and thermal regime designations. This work points to the potential to quantitatively discriminate taxonomically different soil types characterized by varying compositional datasets.

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<![CDATA[On the synchronization techniques of chaotic oscillators and their FPGA-based implementation for secure image transmission]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648cedd5eed0c484c81aca

Synchronizing chaotic oscillators has been a challenge to guarantee successful applications in secure communications. That way, three synchronization techniques are applied herein to twenty two chaotic oscillators, three of them based on piecewise-linear functions and nineteen proposed by Julien C. Sprott. These chaotic oscillators are simulated to generate chaotic time series that are used to evaluate their Lyapunov exponents and Kaplan-Yorke dimension to rank their unpredictability. The oscillators with the high positive Lyapunov exponent are implemented into a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), and afterwards they are synchronized in a master-slave topology applying three techniques: the seminal work introduced by Pecora-Carroll, Hamiltonian forms and observer approach, and open-plus-closed-loop (OPCL). These techniques are compared with respect to their synchronization error and latency that is associated to the FPGA implementation. Finally, the chaotic oscillators providing the high positive Lyapunov exponent are synchronized and applied to a communication system with chaotic masking to perform a secure image transmission. Correlation analysis is performed among the original image, the chaotic channel and the recovered image for the three synchronization schemes. The experimental results show that both Hamiltonian forms and OPCL can recover the original image and its correlation with the chaotic channel is as low as 0.00002, demonstrating the advantage of synchronizing chaotic oscillators with high positive Lyapunov exponent to guarantee high security in data transmission.

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<![CDATA[Plant-soil feedbacks promote coexistence and resilience in multi-species communities]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b26b6d5eed0c484289eef

Both ecological theory and empirical evidence suggest that negative frequency dependent feedbacks structure plant communities, but integration of these findings has been limited. Here we develop a generic model of frequency dependent feedback to analyze coexistence and invasibility in random theoretical and real communities for which frequency dependence through plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) was determined empirically. We investigated community stability and invasibility by means of mechanistic analysis of invasion conditions and numerical simulations. We found that communities fall along a spectrum of coexistence types ranging from strict pair-wise negative feedback to strict intransitive networks. Intermediate community structures characterized by partial intransitivity may feature “keystone competitors” which disproportionately influence community stability. Real communities were characterized by stronger negative feedback and higher robustness to species loss than randomly assembled communities. Partial intransitivity became increasingly likely in more diverse communities. The results presented here theoretically explain why more diverse communities are characterized by stronger negative frequency dependent feedbacks, a pattern previously encountered in observational studies. Natural communities are more likely to be maintained by strict negative plant-soil feedback than expected by chance, but our results also show that community stability often depends on partial intransitivity. These results suggest that plant-soil feedbacks can facilitate coexistence in multi-species communities, but that these feedbacks may also initiate cascading effects on community diversity following from single-species loss.

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<![CDATA[A large scale screening study with a SMR-based BCI: Categorization of BCI users and differences in their SMR activity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e677d5eed0c484ef330f

Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) are inefficient for a non-negligible part of the population, estimated around 25%. To understand this phenomenon in Sensorimotor Rhythm (SMR) based BCIs, data from a large-scale screening study conducted on 80 novice participants with the Berlin BCI system and its standard machine-learning approach were investigated. Each participant performed one BCI session with resting state Encephalography, Motor Observation, Motor Execution and Motor Imagery recordings and 128 electrodes. A significant portion of the participants (40%) could not achieve BCI control (feedback performance > 70%). Based on the performance of the calibration and feedback runs, BCI users were stratified in three groups. Analyses directed to detect and elucidate the differences in the SMR activity of these groups were performed. Statistics on reactive frequencies, task prevalence and classification results are reported. Based on their SMR activity, also a systematic list of potential reasons leading to performance drops and thus hints for possible improvements of BCI experimental design are given. The categorization of BCI users has several advantages, allowing researchers 1) to select subjects for further analyses as well as for testing new BCI paradigms or algorithms, 2) to adopt a better subject-dependent training strategy and 3) easier comparisons between different studies.

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<![CDATA[The finite state projection based Fisher information matrix approach to estimate information and optimize single-cell experiments]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c61d5eed0c484bd1f74

Modern optical imaging experiments not only measure single-cell and single-molecule dynamics with high precision, but they can also perturb the cellular environment in myriad controlled and novel settings. Techniques, such as single-molecule fluorescence in-situ hybridization, microfluidics, and optogenetics, have opened the door to a large number of potential experiments, which begs the question of how to choose the best possible experiment. The Fisher information matrix (FIM) estimates how well potential experiments will constrain model parameters and can be used to design optimal experiments. Here, we introduce the finite state projection (FSP) based FIM, which uses the formalism of the chemical master equation to derive and compute the FIM. The FSP-FIM makes no assumptions about the distribution shapes of single-cell data, and it does not require precise measurements of higher order moments of such distributions. We validate the FSP-FIM against well-known Fisher information results for the simple case of constitutive gene expression. We then use numerical simulations to demonstrate the use of the FSP-FIM to optimize the timing of single-cell experiments with more complex, non-Gaussian fluctuations. We validate optimal simulated experiments determined using the FSP-FIM with Monte-Carlo approaches and contrast these to experiment designs chosen by traditional analyses that assume Gaussian fluctuations or use the central limit theorem. By systematically designing experiments to use all of the measurable fluctuations, our method enables a key step to improve co-design of experiments and quantitative models.

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<![CDATA[Automatic classification of human facial features based on their appearance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59ff05d5eed0c484135990

Classification or typology systems used to categorize different human body parts have existed for many years. Nevertheless, there are very few taxonomies of facial features. Ergonomics, forensic anthropology, crime prevention or new human-machine interaction systems and online activities, like e-commerce, e-learning, games, dating or social networks, are fields in which classifications of facial features are useful, for example, to create digital interlocutors that optimize the interactions between human and machines. However, classifying isolated facial features is difficult for human observers. Previous works reported low inter-observer and intra-observer agreement in the evaluation of facial features. This work presents a computer-based procedure to automatically classify facial features based on their global appearance. This procedure deals with the difficulties associated with classifying features using judgements from human observers, and facilitates the development of taxonomies of facial features. Taxonomies obtained through this procedure are presented for eyes, mouths and noses.

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<![CDATA[Development and psychometric testing of the Chinese version of the Resilience Scale for Southeast Asian immigrant women who divorced in Taiwan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8d2d5eed0c48496f1e5

Background

Only a few studies exist on the resilience of divorced women. Furthermore, relevant instruments for assessing the resilience of divorced immigrant Southeast Asian women are rare. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to develop and examine a new Resilience Scale-Chinese version (RS-C) that is specific to divorced immigrant Southeast Asian women in Taiwan.

Methods

The study was conducted in two phases. In phase 1, 20 items were used to evaluate face and content validities. In phase 2, a cross-sectional study was conducted. In total, 118 immigrant women participated in this study and were recruited from three nongovernmental organizations providing services for immigrants in Taipei City and Miaoli and Chiayi Counties. Psychometric properties of the instrument (i.e., internal consistency, test–retest reliability, item-to-total correlation, construct validity, and convergent validity) were examined. Significance was set at p < 0.05 for all statistical tests.

Results

The final 16-item RS-C resulted in a three-factor model. The three factors, namely personal competence, family identity, and social connections, were an acceptable fit for the data and explained 54.60% of the variance. Cronbach’s α of the RS-C was 0.85, and those of its subscales ranged from 0.77 to 0.82. The correlation value of the test–retest reliability was 0.87. The RS-C was significantly associated with the General Self-Efficacy scale and the Chinese Health Questionnaire-12.

Conclusion

The RS-C is a brief and specific self-report tool for evaluating the resilience of divorced immigrant Southeast Asian women and demonstrated adequate reliability and validity in this study. This RS-C instrument has potential applications in both clinical practice and research with strength-based resiliency interventions. However, additional research on the RS-C is required to further establish its reliability and validity.

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<![CDATA[Deterministic column subset selection for single-cell RNA-Seq]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c64493fd5eed0c484c2f93e

Analysis of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) data often involves filtering out uninteresting or poorly measured genes and dimensionality reduction to reduce noise and simplify data visualization. However, techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA) fail to preserve non-negativity and sparsity structures present in the original matrices, and the coordinates of projected cells are not easily interpretable. Commonly used thresholding methods to filter genes avoid those pitfalls, but ignore collinearity and covariance in the original matrix. We show that a deterministic column subset selection (DCSS) method possesses many of the favorable properties of common thresholding methods and PCA, while avoiding pitfalls from both. We derive new spectral bounds for DCSS. We apply DCSS to two measures of gene expression from two scRNA-Seq experiments with different clustering workflows, and compare to three thresholding methods. In each case study, the clusters based on the small subset of the complete gene expression profile selected by DCSS are similar to clusters produced from the full set. The resulting clusters are informative for cell type.

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<![CDATA[On identifying collective displacements in apo-proteins that reveal eventual binding pathways]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c43d5eed0c484bd1278

Binding of small molecules to proteins often involves large conformational changes in the latter, which open up pathways to the binding site. Observing and pinpointing these rare events in large scale, all-atom, computations of specific protein-ligand complexes, is expensive and to a great extent serendipitous. Further, relevant collective variables which characterise specific binding or un-binding scenarios are still difficult to identify despite the large body of work on the subject. Here, we show that possible primary and secondary binding pathways can be discovered from short simulations of the apo-protein without waiting for an actual binding event to occur. We use a projection formalism, introduced earlier to study deformation in solids, to analyse local atomic displacements into two mutually orthogonal subspaces—those which are “affine” i.e. expressible as a homogeneous deformation of the native structure, and those which are not. The susceptibility to non-affine displacements among the various residues in the apo- protein is then shown to correlate with typical binding pathways and sites crucial for allosteric modifications. We validate our observation with all-atom computations of three proteins, T4-Lysozyme, Src kinase and Cytochrome P450.

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<![CDATA[Coherency of circadian rhythms in the SCN is governed by the interplay of two coupling factors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c18139dd5eed0c4847755e7

Circadian clocks are autonomous oscillators driving daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. In mammals, a network of coupled neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is entrained to environmental light-dark cycles and orchestrates the timing of peripheral organs. In each neuron, transcriptional feedbacks generate noisy oscillations. Coupling mediated by neuropeptides such as VIP and AVP lends precision and robustness to circadian rhythms. The detailed coupling mechanisms between SCN neurons are debated. We analyze organotypic SCN slices from neonatal and adult mice in wild-type and multiple knockout conditions. Different degrees of rhythmicity are quantified by pixel-level analysis of bioluminescence data. We use empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) to characterize spatio-temporal patterns. Simulations of coupled stochastic single cell oscillators can reproduce the diversity of observed patterns. Our combination of data analysis and modeling provides deeper insight into the enormous complexity of the data: (1) Neonatal slices are typically stronger oscillators than adult slices pointing to developmental changes of coupling. (2) Wild-type slices are completely synchronized and exhibit specific spatio-temporal patterns of phases. (3) Some slices of Cry double knockouts obey impaired synchrony that can lead to co–existing rhythms (“splitting”). (4) The loss of VIP-coupling leads to desynchronized rhythms with few residual local clusters. Additional information was extracted from co–culturing slices with rhythmic neonatal wild-type SCNs. These co–culturing experiments were simulated using external forcing terms representing VIP and AVP signaling. The rescue of rhythmicity via co–culturing lead to surprising results, since a cocktail of AVP-antagonists improved synchrony. Our modeling suggests that these counter-intuitive observations are pointing to an antagonistic action of VIP and AVP coupling. Our systematic theoretical and experimental study shows that dual coupling mechanisms can explain the astonishing complexity of spatio-temporal patterns in SCN slices.

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<![CDATA[The empirical characteristics of human pattern vision defy theoretically-driven expectations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c102883d5eed0c4842475f9

Contrast is the most fundamental property of images. Consequently, any comprehensive model of biological vision must incorporate this attribute and provide a veritable description of its impact on visual perception. Current theoretical and computational models predict that vision should modify its characteristics at low contrast: for example, it should become broader (more lowpass) to protect from noise, as often demonstrated by individual neurons. We find that the opposite is true for human discrimination of elementary image elements: vision becomes sharper, not broader, as contrast approaches threshold levels. Furthermore, it suffers from increased internal variability at low contrast and it transitions from a surprisingly linear regime at high contrast to a markedly nonlinear processing mode in the low-contrast range. These characteristics are hard-wired in that they happen on a single trial without memory or expectation. Overall, the empirical results urge caution when attempting to interpret human vision from the standpoint of optimality and related theoretical constructs. Direct measurements of this phenomenon indicate that the actual constraints derive from intrinsic architectural features, such as the co-existence of complex-cell-like and simple-cell-like components. Small circuits built around these elements can indeed account for the empirical results, but do not appear to operate in a manner that conforms to optimality even approximately. More generally, our results provide a compelling demonstration of how far we still are from securing an adequate computational account of the most basic operations carried out by human vision.

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<![CDATA[North Sea demersal fisheries prefer specific benthic habitats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c22a0c4d5eed0c4849ec217

Introduction

The future protection of marine biodiversity through good conservation planning requires both the identification of key habitats with unique ecological characteristics and detailed knowledge of their human utilization through fisheries. Demersal fisheries are important disturbers of benthic habitats. They often have a heterogeneous spatial distribution, pressurizing particular habitats with high abundances of target species. For the North Sea, we quantified the commonness/rarity of habitats in relation to the environmental determinants of so-called fishing hotspots, to support better-informed conservation planning of benthic habitats in this intensively used continental shelf.

Methods

We first distinguished 9 main seascapes in the study area based on seabed morphology. Secondly, we determined average fishing intensity and fishing hotspots using VMS-data for the three dominant Dutch fisheries from 2008 to 2015: beam-trawlers targeting sole Solea solea (Beam-Sole), beam-trawlers targeting plaice Pleuronectes platessa (Beam-Plaice), and otter-trawlers targeting Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus and demersal fish (Otter-Mix). Within the seascapes subjected to >80% of the fishing activity, nineteen environmental factors (summarized by PCA) were used to ecologically characterize fishing hotspot locations using MaxEnt response modelling.

Results

We found that all three fisheries target highly specific, uncommon habitats. Beam-Sole fishers targeted warmer, shallow, dynamic, nearshore habitats, and within these specifically the depressions between sand ridges. Beam-Plaice fishers mainly targeted the exposed, non-muddy flanks of the Dogger Bank and similar large-scale elevations (50–75 km) where especially the ridges of smaller sand banks are used. Otter-Mix fisheries concentrated in areas with low bed shear stress, located in muddy, relatively deeper areas.

Implications

This study is the first to provide insight in benthic habitat types that are frequently targeted by fishers in the North Sea. We demonstrated unequal exploitation pressure between seabed habitats, with the majority of hotspots in the less common habitats. Our results hence contribute to a more effective, ecologically informed planning for the protection and monitoring of all seabed habitats and biodiversity of the North Sea.

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<![CDATA[Moral growth mindset is associated with change in voluntary service engagement]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b8acdf740307c144d0de05e

Incremental implicit theories are associated with a belief regarding it is possible to improve one’s intelligence or ability through efforts. Previous studies have demonstrated that incremental implicit theories contributed to better academic achievement and positive youth development. Our study aimed to examine whether incremental implicit theories of morality significantly influenced change in students’ engagement in voluntary service activities. In our study, 54 Korean college students for Study 1 and 180 Korean 8th graders for Study 2 were recruited to conduct two two-wave studies. We surveyed participants’ implicit theories of morality and participation in voluntary service activities. The effect of implicit theories of morality on change in service engagement was analyzed through regression analysis. In Study 1, the moral growth mindset significantly moderated longitudinal change in service engagement. In Study 2, the moral growth mindset significantly influenced engagement in art-related activities, while it significantly moderated change in engagement in youth-related activities.

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<![CDATA[Is mobile app a new political discussion platform? An empirical study of the effect of WeChat use on college students’ political discussion and political efficacy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0c04f8d5eed0c48481d22d

In the last couple of years, the increasing application and popularization of mobile app have dramatically transformed people’s daily political lives through offering innovative mechanisms for interpersonal communication. While a majority of past studies on WeChat have mainly focused on its characteristics, only few documents have unearthed the potential effect of using such emerging social media on facilitating political discussion and increasing political efficacy. Given those, this study adopted uses and gratifications approach to explore the possible relationships between gratifications-sought, the intensity of WeChat usage on mobile phones, online political discussion, and political efficacy among college students in China. An empirical survey with 282 WeChat users reveals that WeChat as a relatively new outlet of political information, which fosters online political discussion with others about government and politics. Contrary to the expectation, the intensity of WeChat usages is not helped to strengthen or enhance individual’s level of internal or external political efficacy. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analyses demonstrate that information needs and recognition needs are positive predictors of internal political efficacy. Overall, these obtained findings may shed more up-to-date insights on the meaningful role of the mobile-based communication technology in promoting citizens’ democratic engagement in a developing country.

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<![CDATA[An efficient outlier removal method for scattered point cloud data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b6da1b2463d7e4dccc5faec

Outlier removal is a fundamental data processing task to ensure the quality of scanned point cloud data (PCD), which is becoming increasing important in industrial applications and reverse engineering. Acquired scanned PCD is usually noisy, sparse and temporarily incoherent. Thus the processing of scanned data is typically an ill-posed problem. In the paper, we present a simple and effective method based on two geometrical characteristics constraints to trim the noisy points. One of the geometrical characteristics is the local density information and another is the deviation from the local fitting plane. The local density based method provides a preprocessing step, which could remove those sparse outlier and isolated outlier. The non-isolated outlier removal in this paper depends on a local projection method, which placing those points onto objects. There is no doubt that the deviation of any point from the local fitting plane should be a criterion to reduce the noisy points. The experimental results demonstrate the ability to remove the noisy point from various man-made objects consisting of complex outlier.

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<![CDATA[Enzyme sequestration by the substrate: An analysis in the deterministic and stochastic domains]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b07d0f1463d7e0d4a37a6f4

This paper is concerned with the potential multistability of protein concentrations in the cell. That is, situations where one, or a family of, proteins may sit at one of two or more different steady state concentrations in otherwise identical cells, and in spite of them being in the same environment. For models of multisite protein phosphorylation for example, in the presence of excess substrate, it has been shown that the achievable number of stable steady states can increase linearly with the number of phosphosites available. In this paper, we analyse the consequences of adding enzyme docking to these and similar models, with the resultant sequestration of phosphatase and kinase by the fully unphosphorylated and by the fully phosphorylated substrates respectively. In the large molecule numbers limit, where deterministic analysis is applicable, we prove that there are always values for these rates of sequestration which, when exceeded, limit the extent of multistability. For the models considered here, these numbers are much smaller than the affinity of the enzymes to the substrate when it is in a modifiable state. As substrate enzyme-sequestration is increased, we further prove that the number of steady states will inevitably be reduced to one. For smaller molecule numbers a stochastic analysis is more appropriate, where multistability in the large molecule numbers limit can manifest itself as multimodality of the probability distribution; the system spending periods of time in the vicinity of one mode before jumping to another. Here, we find that substrate enzyme sequestration can induce bimodality even in systems where only a single steady state can exist at large numbers. To facilitate this analysis, we develop a weakly chained diagonally dominant M-matrix formulation of the Chemical Master Equation, allowing greater insights in the way particular mechanisms, like enzyme sequestration, can shape probability distributions and therefore exhibit different behaviour across different regimes.

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<![CDATA[New approach for visualization of relationships between RR and JT intervals]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc1a3

This paper presents the concept of perfect matrices of Lagrange differences which are used to analyze relationships between RR and JT intervals during the bicycle ergometry exercise. The concept of the perfect matrix of Lagrange differences, its parameters, the construction of the load function and the corresponding optimization problem, the introduction of internal and external smoothing, embedding of the scalar parameter time series into the phase plane—all these computational techniques allow visualization of complex dynamical processes taking place in the cardiovascular system during the load and the recovery processes. Detailed analysis is performed with one person’s RR and JT records only—but the presented techniques open new possibilities for novel interpretation of the dynamics of the cardiovascular system.

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