ResearchPad - electrocardiography https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Aging-associated sinus arrest and sick sinus syndrome in adult zebrafish]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13853 Because of its powerful genetics, the adult zebrafish has been increasingly used for studying cardiovascular diseases. Considering its heart rate of ~100 beats per minute at ambient temperature, which is very close to human, we assessed the use of this vertebrate animal for modeling heart rhythm disorders such as sinus arrest (SA) and sick sinus syndrome (SSS). We firstly optimized a protocol to measure electrocardiogram in adult zebrafish. We determined the location of the probes, implemented an open-chest microsurgery procedure, measured the effects of temperature, and determined appropriate anesthesia dose and time. We then proposed an PP interval of more than 1.5 seconds as an arbitrary criterion to define an SA episode in an adult fish at ambient temperature, based on comparison between the current definition of an SA episode in humans and our studies of candidate SA episodes in aged wild-type fish and Tg(SCN5A-D1275N) fish (a fish model for inherited SSS). With this criterion, a subpopulation of about 5% wild-type fish can be considered to have SA episodes, and this percentage significantly increases to about 25% in 3-year-old fish. In response to atropine, this subpopulation has both common SSS phenotypic traits that are shared with the Tg(SCN5A-D1275N) model, such as bradycardia; and unique SSS phenotypic traits, such as increased QRS/P ratio and chronotropic incompetence. In summary, this study defined baseline SA and SSS in adult zebrafish and underscored use of the zebrafish as an alternative model to study aging-associated SSS.

]]>
<![CDATA[Model based estimation of QT intervals in non-invasive fetal ECG signals]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7659 The end timing of T waves in fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) is important for the evaluation of ST and QT intervals which are vital markers to assess cardiac repolarization patterns. Monitoring malignant fetal arrhythmias in utero is fundamental to care in congenital heart anomalies preventing perinatal death. Currently, reliable detection of end of T waves is possible only by using fetal scalp ECG (fsECG) and fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG). fMCG is expensive and less accessible and fsECG is an invasive technique available only during intrapartum period. Another safer and affordable alternative is the non-invasive fECG (nfECG) which can provide similar assessment provided by fsECG and fMECG but with less accuracy (not beat by beat). Detection of T waves using nfECG is challenging because of their low amplitudes and high noise. In this study, a novel model-based method that estimates the end of T waves in nfECG signals is proposed. The repolarization phase has been modeled as the discharging phase of a capacitor. To test the model, fECG signals were collected from 58 pregnant women (age: (34 ± 6) years old) bearing normal and abnormal fetuses with gestational age (GA) 20-41 weeks. QT and QTc intervals have been calculated to test the level of agreement between the model-based and reference values (fsECG and Doppler Ultrasound (DUS) signals) in normal subjects. The results of the test showed high agreement between model-based and reference values (difference < 5%), which implies that the proposed model could be an alternative method to detect the end of T waves in nfECG signals.

]]>
<![CDATA[Evaluation of upconverting nanoparticles towards heart theranostics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf188e231-36c5-4bb6-9ed3-e7a465fadb41

Restricted and controlled drug delivery to the heart remains a challenge giving frequent off-target effects as well as limited retention of drugs in the heart. There is a need to develop and optimize tools to allow for improved design of drug candidates for treatment of heart diseases. Over the last decade, novel drug platforms and nanomaterials were designed to confine bioactive materials to the heart. Yet, the research remains in its infancy, not only in the development of tools but also in the understanding of effects of these materials on cardiac function and tissue integrity. Upconverting nanoparticles are nanomaterials that recently accelerated interest in theranostic nanomedicine technologies. Their unique photophysical properties allow for sensitive in vivo imaging that can be combined with spatio-temporal control for targeted release of encapsulated drugs.

Here we synthesized upconverting NaYF4:Yb,Tm nanoparticles and show for the first time their innocuity in the heart, when injected in the myocardium or in the pericardial space in mice. Nanoparticle retention and upconversion in the cardiac region did not alter heart rate variability, nor cardiac function as determined over a 15-day time course ensuing the sole injection. Altogether, our nanoparticles show innocuity primarily in the pericardial region and can be safely used for controlled spatiotemporal drug delivery. Our results support the use of upconverting nanoparticles as potential theranostics tools overcoming some of the key limitations associated with conventional experimental cardiology.

]]>
<![CDATA[Exploring magnetohydrodynamic voltage distributions in the human body: Preliminary results]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c89777ed5eed0c4847d2e42

Background

The aim of this study was to noninvasively measure regional contributions of vasculature in the human body using magnetohydrodynamic voltages (VMHD) obtained from electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings performed inside MRI’s static magnetic field (B0). Integrating the regional VMHD over the Swave-Twave segment of the cardiac cycle (Vsegment) provides a non-invasive method for measuring regional blood volumes, which can be rapidly obtained during MRI without incurring additional cost.

Methods

VMHD was extracted from 12-lead ECG traces acquired during gradual introduction into a 3T MRI. Regional contributions were computed utilizing weights based on B0’s strength at specified distances from isocenter. Vsegment mapping was performed in six subjects and validated against MR angiograms (MRA).

Results

Fluctuations in Vsegment, which presented as positive trace deflections, were found to be associated with aortic-arch flow in the thoracic cavity, the main branches of the abdominal aorta, and the bifurcation of the common iliac artery. The largest fluctuation corresponded to the location where the aortic arch was approximately orthogonal to B0. The smallest fluctuations corresponded to areas of vasculature that were parallel to B0. Significant correlations (specifically, Spearman’s ranked correlation coefficients of 0.96 and 0.97 for abdominal and thoracic cavities, respectively) were found between the MRA and Vsegment maps (p < 0.001).

Conclusions

A novel non-invasive method to extract regional blood volumes from ECGs was developed and shown to be a rapid means to quantify peripheral and abdominal blood volumes.

]]>
<![CDATA[The demanding grey zone: Sport indices by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging differentiate hypertrophic cardiomyopathy from athlete’s heart]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f152bd5eed0c48467ae7f

Background

We aimed to characterize gender specific left ventricular hypertrophy using a novel, accurate and less time demanding cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) quantification method to differentiate physiological hypertrophy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy based on a large population of highly trained athletes and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients.

Methods

Elite athletes (n = 150,>18 training hours/week), HCM patients (n = 194) and athletes with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 10) were examined by CMR. CMR based sport indices such as maximal end-diastolic wall thickness to left ventricular end-diastolic volume index ratio (EDWT/LVEDVi) and left ventricular mass to left ventricular end-diastolic volume ratio (LVM/LVEDV) were calculated, established using both conventional and threshold-based quantification method.

Results

Whereas 47.5% of male athletes, only 4.1% of female athletes were in the grey zone of hypertrophy (EDWT 13-16mm). EDWT/LVEDVi discriminated between physiological and pathological left ventricular hypertrophy with excellent diagnostic accuracy (AUCCQ:0.998, AUCTQ:0.999). Cut-off value for LVM/LVEDVCQ<0.82 mm×m2/ml and for EDWT/LVEDViTQ<1.27 discriminated between physiological and pathological left ventricular hypertrophy with a sensitivity of 77.8% and 89.2%, a specificity of 86.7% and 91.3%, respectively. LVM/LVEDV evaluated using threshold-based quantification performed significantly better than conventional quantification even in the male subgroup with EDWT between 13-16mm (p<0.001).

Conclusions

Almost 50% of male highly trained athletes can reach EDWT of 13 mm. CMR based sport indices provide an important tool to distinguish hypertrophic cardiomyopathy from athlete’s heart, especially in highly trained athletes in the grey zone of hypertrophy.

]]>
<![CDATA[Isolated diastolic potentials as predictors of success in ablation of right ventricular outflow tract idiopathic premature ventricular contractions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648cdbd5eed0c484c8196e

Background and aims

Discrete potentials, low voltage and fragmented electrograms, have been previously reported at ablation site, in patients with premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) originating in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). The aim of this study was to review the electrograms at ablation site and assess the presence of diastolic potentials and their association with success.

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed the electrograms obtained at the radiofrequency (RF) delivery sites of 48 patients subjected to ablation of RVOT frequent PVCs. We assessed the duration and amplitude of local electrogram, local activation time, and presence of diastolic potentials and fragmented electrograms.

Results

We reviewed 134 electrograms, median 2 (1–4) per patient. Success was achieved in 40 patients (83%). At successful sites the local activation time was earlier– 54 (-35 to -77) ms vs -26 (-12 to -35) ms, p<0.0001; the local electrogram had lower amplitude 1 (0.45–1.15) vs 1.5 (0.5–2.1) mV, p = 0.006, and longer duration 106 (80–154) vs 74 (60–90) ms, p<0.0001. Diastolic potentials and fragmented electrograms were more frequently present, respectively 76% vs 9%, p <0.0001 and 54% vs 11%, p<0.0001. In univariable analysis these variables were all associated with success. In multivariable analysis only the presence of diastolic potentials [OR 15.5 (95% CI: 3.92–61.2; p<0.0001)], and the value of local activation time [OR 1.11 (95% CI: 1.049–1.172 p<0.0001)], were significantly associated with success.

Conclusion

In this group of patients the presence of diastolic potentials at the ablation site was associated with success.

]]>
<![CDATA[Non-cardiac chest pain patients in the emergency department: Do physicians have a plan how to diagnose and treat them? A retrospective study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df334d5eed0c484580ecd

Background

Non-cardiac chest pain is common and there is no formal recommendation on what diagnostic tests to use to identify underlying diseases after an acute coronary syndrome has been ruled out.

Objective

To evaluate the diagnostic tests, treatment recommendations and initiated treatments in patients presenting with non-cardiac chest pain to the emergency department (ED).

Methods

Single-center, retrospective medical chart review of patients presenting to the ED. Included were all medical records of patients aged 18 years and older presenting to the ED with chest pain and a non-cardiac discharge diagnosis between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2011. Information on the diagnosis, diagnostic tests performed, treatment initiated and recommendation for further diagnostic testing or treatment were extracted. The primary outcomes of interest were the final diagnosis, diagnostic tests, and treatment recommendations. A formal ACS rule out testing was defined as serial three troponin testing.

Results

In total, 1341 ED admissions for non-cardiac chest pain (4.2% of all ED admissions) were analyzed. Non-specific chest pain remained the discharge diagnosis in 44.7% (n = 599). Identified underlying diseases included musculoskeletal chest pain (n = 602, 44.9%), pulmonary (n = 30, 2.2%), GI-tract (n = 35, 2.6%), or psychiatric diseases (n = 75, 5.6%). In 81.4% at least one troponin test and in 89% one ECG were performed. A formal ACS rule out troponin testing was performed in 9.2% (GI-tract disease 14.3%, non-specific chest pain 14.0%, pulmonary disease 10.0%, musculoskeletal chest pain 4.7%, and psychiatric disease 4.0%). Most frequently analgesics were prescribed (51%). A diagnostic test with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) was prescribed in 20% (mainly in gastrointestinal diseases). At discharge, over 72 different recommendations were given, ranging from no further measures to extensive cardiac evaluation.

Conclusion

In this retrospective study, a formal work-up to rule out ACS was found in a minority of patients presenting to the ED with chest pain of non-cardiac origin. A wide variation in diagnostic processes and treatment recommendations reflect the uncertainty of clinicians on how to approach patients after a cardiac cause was considered unlikely. Panic and anxiety disorders were rarely considered and a useful PPI treatment trial to diagnose gastroesophageal reflux disease was infrequently recommended.

]]>
<![CDATA[The distribution of cardiac diagnostic testing for acute coronary syndrome in the Brazilian healthcare system: A national geospatial evaluation of health access]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f7bfd5eed0c48438680a

Background

Little is known about the utilization of cardiac diagnostic testing in Brazil and how such testing is related with local rates of acute coronary syndrome (ACS)-related mortality.

Methods and results

Using data from DATASUS, the public national healthcare database, absolute counts of diagnostic tests performed were calculated for each of the 5570 municipalities and mapped. Spatial error regression and geographic weighted regression models were used to describe the geographic variation in the association between ACS mortality, income, and access to diagnostic testing.

From 2008 to 2014, a total of 4,653,884 cardiac diagnostic procedures were performed in Brazil, at a total cost of $271 million USD. The overall ACS mortality rate during this time period was 133.8 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants aged 20 to 79. The most commonly utilized test was the stress ECG (3,015,993), followed by catheterization (862,627), scintigraphy (669,969) and stress echocardiography (105,295). The majority of these procedures were conducted in large urban centers in more economically developed regions of the country. Increased access to testing and increased income were not uniformly associated with decreased ACS mortality, and tremendous geographic heterogeneity was observed in the relationship between these variables.

Conclusions

The majority of testing for ACS in Brazil is conducted at referral centers in developed urban settings. Stress ECG is the dominant testing modality in use. Increased access to diagnostic testing was not consistently associated with decreased ACS mortality across the country.

]]>
<![CDATA[Changes in QTc interval in long-term hemodialysis patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b7b1d5eed0c48449098e

Background

Cardiovascular diseases, including sudden cardiac death (SCD), are the leading cause of death in hemodialysis (HD) patients. A prolonged QT interval on the electrocardiogram (ECG) is a risk factor for SCD in HD patients. This study investigated whether the heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval becomes prolonged along with dialysis vintage.

Methods

A total of 102 HD patients were retrospectively studied. Their ECG data were analyzed at 1, 4, and 7 years after HD initiation. The control group comprised 68 age-matched individuals who had normal renal function and two available ECG reports at an interval of more than 4 years. QTc was measured according to the Bazett formula. The association between QTc interval and dialysis vintage was studied. Additionally, clinically relevant variables related to QTc duration at 1 year after HD initiation were assessed.

Results

Average QTc interval at 4 and 7 years after HD initiation was significantly longer than that at 1 year after HD initiation (443, 445, and 437 ms) (p<0.05). On the other hand, QTc interval in the control group was 425 ms in the first year and 426 ms after an average of 6 years. They had no significant differences, although they were much shorter than that in HD patients. Multivariate regression analysis of baseline variables revealed that the corrected calcium levels (p = 0.041) and diabetes (p = 0.043) were independently associated with longer QTc interval.

Conclusions

The QTc interval at 1 year after HD initiation was longer than in the control subjects and was prolonged over several years of HD treatment. Providing clinical management with a focus on QTc interval may be helpful for reducing the incidence of SCD in HD patients.

]]>
<![CDATA[Dynamical anchoring of distant arrhythmia sources by fibrotic regions via restructuring of the activation pattern]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c254501d5eed0c48442bcd2

Rotors are functional reentry sources identified in clinically relevant cardiac arrhythmias, such as ventricular and atrial fibrillation. Ablation targeting rotor sites has resulted in arrhythmia termination. Recent clinical, experimental and modelling studies demonstrate that rotors are often anchored around fibrotic scars or regions with increased fibrosis. However, the mechanisms leading to abundance of rotors at these locations are not clear. The current study explores the hypothesis whether fibrotic scars just serve as anchoring sites for the rotors or whether there are other active processes which drive the rotors to these fibrotic regions. Rotors were induced at different distances from fibrotic scars of various sizes and degree of fibrosis. Simulations were performed in a 2D model of human ventricular tissue and in a patient-specific model of the left ventricle of a patient with remote myocardial infarction. In both the 2D and the patient-specific model we found that without fibrotic scars, the rotors were stable at the site of their initiation. However, in the presence of a scar, rotors were eventually dynamically anchored from large distances by the fibrotic scar via a process of dynamical reorganization of the excitation pattern. This process coalesces with a change from polymorphic to monomorphic ventricular tachycardia.

]]>
<![CDATA[Cardiorespiratory fitness data from 18,189 participants who underwent treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise testing in a Brazilian population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5a8d5eed0c484ca6ff7

Purpose

Cardiorespiratory fitness is inversely associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, and mortality attributable to various cancers. It is often estimated indirectly using mathematical formulas for estimating oxygen uptake. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing, especially oxygen uptake, represents the “gold standard” for assessing exercise capacity. The purpose of this report was to develop reference standards for exercise capacity by establishing cardiorespiratory fitness values derived from cardiopulmonary exercise testing in a Brazilian population. We focused on oxygen uptake standards and compared the maximal oxygen uptake [mLO2·kg-1·min-1] values with those in the existing literature.

Methods

A database was constructed using reports from cardiopulmonary exercise testing performed at Fleury laboratory. The final cohort included 18,189 individuals considered to be free of structural heart disease. Percentiles of maximal oxygen uptake for men and women were determined for six age groups between 7 and 84 years. We compared the values with existing reference data from patients from Norway and the United States.

Results

There were significant differences in maximal oxygen uptake between sexes and across the age groups. In our cohort, the 50th percentile maximal oxygen uptake values for men and women decreased from 44.7 and 36.3 mLO2·kg-1·min-1 to 28.4 and 22.3 mLO2·kg-1·min-1 for patients aged 20–29 years to patients aged 60–69 years, respectively. For each age group, both Norwegian men and women had greater cardiorespiratory fitness than cohorts in the United States and Brazil.

Conclusion

To our knowledge, our analysis represents the largest reference data for cardiorespiratory fitness based on treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Our findings provide reference values of maximal oxygen uptake measurements from treadmill tests in Brazilian populations that are more accurate than previous standard values based on workload-derived estimations. This data may also add information to the global data used for the interpretation of cardiorespiratory fitness.

]]>
<![CDATA[Artificial intelligence to predict needs for urgent revascularization from 12-leads electrocardiography in emergency patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5a6d5eed0c484ca6e4b

Background

Patient with acute coronary syndrome benefits from early revascularization. However, methods for the selection of patients who require urgent revascularization from a variety of patients visiting the emergency room with chest symptoms is not fully established. Electrocardiogram is an easy and rapid procedure, but may contain crucial information not recognized even by well-trained physicians.

Objective

To make a prediction model for the needs for urgent revascularization from 12-lead electrocardiogram recorded in the emergency room.

Method

We developed an artificial intelligence model enabling the detection of hidden information from a 12-lead electrocardiogram recorded in the emergency room. Electrocardiograms obtained from consecutive patients visiting the emergency room at Keio University Hospital from January 2012 to April 2018 with chest discomfort was collected. These data were splitted into validation and derivation dataset with no duplication in each dataset. The artificial intelligence model was constructed to select patients who require urgent revascularization within 48 hours. The model was trained with the derivation dataset and tested using the validation dataset.

Results

Of the consecutive 39,619 patients visiting the emergency room with chest discomfort, 362 underwent urgent revascularization. Of them, 249 were included in the derivation dataset and the remaining 113 were included in validation dataset. For the control, 300 were randomly selected as derivation dataset and another 130 patients were randomly selected for validation dataset from the 39,317 who did not undergo urgent revascularization. On validation, our artificial intelligence model had predictive value of the c-statistics 0.88 (95% CI 0.84–0.93) for detecting patients who required urgent revascularization.

Conclusions

Our artificial intelligence model provides information to select patients who need urgent revascularization from only 12-leads electrocardiogram in those visiting the emergency room with chest discomfort.

]]>
<![CDATA[The predictive value of Cardiodynamicsgram in myocardial perfusion abnormalities]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2151c1d5eed0c4843fbbee

Myocardial perfusion abnormalities are the first sign of the ischemic cascade in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Thus, the early detection of myocardial perfusion abnormalities is significant for the prevention of CAD. Recently, a novel noninvasive method named Cardiodynamicsgram (CDG) has been proposed for early detection of CAD. This study aims to evaluate the predictive value of CDG in myocardial perfusion abnormalities for suspected ischemic heart disease. In the study, 86 suspected patients were enrolled. Standard 12-lead ECG and CDG were performed simultaneously before single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Diagnostic accuracy of CDG for myocardial perfusion abnormalities detection is assessed using SPECT MPI as the reference standard. Of these 86 suspected patients, 37 patients were positive in CDG, 49 patients were negative in CDG. Diagnostic accuracy of CDG at presentation for myocardial perfusion abnormalities was 84.9%, sensitivity 84.0%, and specificity 89.4%. Furthermore, of the 10 patients whose SPECT MPI results are reverse redistribution, 9 patients were positive in CDG. Underlying causes of false positive CDG findings included the factors that can change the stability of cardiac electrical conduction and measurement noise. Myocardial remodeling in patients with old myocardial infarction might be the major cause of false negative findings. Results show a good consistency between the CDG and SPECT MPI in evaluating myocardial perfusion abnormalities. It suggests that CDG might be used as a cost-effective tool for assessing the myocardial perfusion abnormalities in the clinic.

]]>
<![CDATA[Dexmedetomidine combined with etomidate or emulsified isoflurane for induction reduced cardiopulmonary response in dogs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141ecbd5eed0c484d284a4

To investigate the effects of etomidate, emulsified isoflurane, and their combination with dexmedetomidine on physiological parameters, electrocardiogram (ECG) results, and the quality of induction and recovery during isoflurane maintenance anaesthesia. 5 mixed-breed dogs received each of four treatments: etomidate (E group); emulsified isoflurane (EI group); both dexmedetomidine and etomidate (DE group); or both dexmedetomidine and emulsified isoflurane (DEI group). All drugs were IV injection administered for induction, followed by 1.5 MAC (minimal alveolar concentration) of isoflurane to maintain anaesthesia. Rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and ECG were measured at baseline, 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 minutes after intubation. The quality of induction and recovery was evaluated for all dogs. All the anaesthetic procedures provided good conditions for induction of anaesthesia. The quality of induction and recovery in the E group was worse than other groups. The decrease of RR in the E and DE groups was stronger than that in the EI and DEI groups. The dogs in the E group had the most significant prolongation of the Q-T interval and changes in the S-T segment. Deviation and extension of the S-T segment were noted in the El group. The dogs in the DE and DEI groups had fewer changes in the ECG results than those in the E and EI groups. The addition of dexmedetomidine caused less effect on cardiopulmonary parameters and the ECG results than either etomidate or emulsified isoflurane alone. Thus, etomidate or emulsified isoflurane in combination with dexmedetomidine may be useful clinically for the induction of anaesthesia.

]]>
<![CDATA[Doctors’ perceptions of the impact of upfront point-of-care testing in the emergency department]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0b08d5eed0c4844272a0

Objectives

Special investigations (e.g. blood tests, electrocardiograms, x-rays) play an integral role in patient management in the emergency department (ED). Having results immediately available prior to assessing a patient may lead to improved efficiency. This could be instituted by utilizing point-of-care (POC) testing with an alternative ED workflow, but the implementation would be dependent on acceptance by the end-users. The aim of this study was to assess doctors’ perceptions of POC testing in the ED when the normal treatment pathway was modified to use upfront POC tests performed prior to doctor evaluation in an effort to decrease treatment times.

Methods

A prospective, randomized, controlled trial was performed in the ED where medical patients received either the normal ED workflow pathway or one of the enhanced workflow pathways with POC tests in various combinations prior to doctor evaluation. At the end of the study period, doctors were invited to participate in an anonymous survey to gauge their opinions on the implementation of the early POC testing.

Results

Overall, the doctors surveyed were very satisfied with use of upfront POC in the ED. One hundred per cent of the 28 doctors surveyed found it helpful to assess patients who already had test results available and would want it to be permanently available. Normalized satisfaction scores were more favorable for combinations of 3 or more tests (0.7–1.0) as opposed to combinations with 2 or less tests (0.3–0.7). There was a preference for combinations that included comprehensive blood results.

Conclusion

The implementation of workflow changes to assist doctors in the ED can potentially make them more productive. End-user buy-in is essential in order for the change to be successful. Upfront, protocolised, POC testing is a low-input, high-yield intervention that decreased treatment time and satisfied doctors.

]]>
<![CDATA[Continuing evidence of Chagas disease along the Texas-Mexico border]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bf5cbf2d5eed0c484a80e42

Background

Chagas disease is a chronic parasitic infection that progresses to dilated cardiomyopathy in 30% of human cases. Public health efforts target diagnosing asymptomatic cases, as therapeutic efficacy diminishes as irreversible tissue damage progresses. Physician diagnosis of Chagas disease cases in the United States is low, partially due to lack of awareness of the potential burden in the United States.

Methodology/Principal findings

The current study tested a patient cohort of 1,196 Starr County, Texas residents using the Hemagen Chagas ELISA Kit as a preliminary screening assay. Samples testing positive using the Hemagen test were subjected to additional confirmatory tests. Two patients (0.17%) without previous Chagas disease diagnosis were identified; both had evidence of acquiring disease in the United States or along the Texas-Mexico border.

Conclusions/Significance

The Texas-Mexico border is a foci of Chagas disease human cases, with a local disease burden potentially twice the national estimate of Hispanic populations. It is imperative that physicians consider persons with residential histories along the Texas-Mexico border for Chagas disease testing.

]]>
<![CDATA[Prognostic implications of late gadolinium enhancement at the right ventricular insertion point in patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy: A multicenter retrospective cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c084207d5eed0c484fcb878

Introduction

The presence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) at the right ventricular insertion point (RVIP) on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is generally believed to be nonspecific, but the clinical implication of this unique LGE pattern in patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NICM) has not been elucidated.

Objectives

We investigated the prognostic significance of RVIP-LGE in NICM patients.

Methods

A total of 360 consecutive NICM patients referred for CMR (102 with no LGE, 50 with RVIP-LGE, 121 with left ventricular [LV]-LGE, and 87 with both an LV and RVIP-LGE) were studied. The primary endpoint was a composite of the all-cause death, hospitalization due to worsening of heart failure, and major arrhythmic events.

Results

During a mean follow-up of 45.2 ± 36.5 months, 149 (41.4%) patients (22 [21.6%] no LGE vs. 16 [32.0%] RVIP-LGE vs. 62 [51.2%] LV-LGE vs. 49 [56.3%] both LV and RVIP-LGE, P < 0.0001) reached the primary endpoint. A Kaplan Meier curve demonstrated that RVIP-LGE patients had an intermediate trend of an event free survival rate for the composite endpoint (log-rank P < 0.0001). In a multivariable Cox regression model, LV-LGE (P = 0.008) and both LV and RVIP-LGE (P = 0.003) were significantly associated with a worse outcome, whereas RVIP-LGE was not (P = 0.101). In addition, RVIP-LGE patients (n = 32) had a more favorable outcome compared to LV-LGE patients (n = 32) even after matching the extent of the LGE (median 3.4% [interquartile range, 3.1–3.8], 8 [25.0%] RVIP-LGE vs. 20 [62.5%] LV-LGE, P = 0.002).

Conclusions

LGE confined to the RVIP among NICM patients did not significantly increase the risk of adverse cardiac events, and also showed a better outcome than the same extent of LGE located in the LV. Identification of this unique LGE distribution may help refine the current risk stratification.

]]>
<![CDATA[Two-stage motion artefact reduction algorithm for electrocardiogram using weighted adaptive noise cancelling and recursive Hampel filter]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bfdb380d5eed0c4845c9fc3

The presence of motion artefacts in ECG signals can cause misleading interpretation of cardiovascular status. Recently, reducing the motion artefact from ECG signal has gained the interest of many researchers. Due to the overlapping nature of the motion artefact with the ECG signal, it is difficult to reduce motion artefact without distorting the original ECG signal. However, the application of an adaptive noise canceler has shown that it is effective in reducing motion artefacts if the appropriate noise reference that is correlated with the noise in the ECG signal is available. Unfortunately, the noise reference is not always correlated with motion artefact. Consequently, filtering with such a noise reference may lead to contaminating the ECG signal. In this paper, a two-stage filtering motion artefact reduction algorithm is proposed. In the algorithm, two methods are proposed, each of which works in one stage. The weighted adaptive noise filtering method (WAF) is proposed for the first stage. The acceleration derivative is used as motion artefact reference and the Pearson correlation coefficient between acceleration and ECG signal is used as a weighting factor. In the second stage, a recursive Hampel filter-based estimation method (RHFBE) is proposed for estimating the ECG signal segments, based on the spatial correlation of the ECG segment component that is obtained from successive ECG signals. Real-World dataset is used to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methods compared to the conventional adaptive filter. The results show a promising enhancement in terms of reducing motion artefacts from the ECG signals recorded by a cost-effective single lead ECG sensor during several activities of different subjects.

]]>
<![CDATA[Deletion of Nkx2-5 in trabecular myocardium reveals the developmental origins of pathological heterogeneity associated with ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4a28c7463d7e4513b8982a

Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is a rare cardiomyopathy associated with a hypertrabeculated phenotype and a large spectrum of symptoms. It is still unclear whether LVNC results from a defect of ventricular trabeculae development and the mechanistic basis that underlies the varying severity of this pathology is unknown. To investigate these issues, we inactivated the cardiac transcription factor Nkx2-5 in trabecular myocardium at different stages of trabecular morphogenesis using an inducible Cx40-creERT2 allele. Conditional deletion of Nkx2-5 at embryonic stages, during trabecular formation, provokes a severe hypertrabeculated phenotype associated with subendocardial fibrosis and Purkinje fiber hypoplasia. A milder phenotype was observed after Nkx2-5 deletion at fetal stages, during trabecular compaction. A longitudinal study of cardiac function in adult Nkx2-5 conditional mutant mice demonstrates that excessive trabeculation is associated with complex ventricular conduction defects, progressively leading to strain defects, and, in 50% of mutant mice, to heart failure. Progressive impaired cardiac function correlates with conduction and strain defects independently of the degree of hypertrabeculation. Transcriptomic analysis of molecular pathways reflects myocardial remodeling with a larger number of differentially expressed genes in the severe versus mild phenotype and identifies Six1 as being upregulated in hypertrabeculated hearts. Our results provide insights into the etiology of LVNC and link its pathogenicity with compromised trabecular development including compaction defects and ventricular conduction system hypoplasia.

]]>
<![CDATA[New approach for visualization of relationships between RR and JT intervals]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc1a3

This paper presents the concept of perfect matrices of Lagrange differences which are used to analyze relationships between RR and JT intervals during the bicycle ergometry exercise. The concept of the perfect matrix of Lagrange differences, its parameters, the construction of the load function and the corresponding optimization problem, the introduction of internal and external smoothing, embedding of the scalar parameter time series into the phase plane—all these computational techniques allow visualization of complex dynamical processes taking place in the cardiovascular system during the load and the recovery processes. Detailed analysis is performed with one person’s RR and JT records only—but the presented techniques open new possibilities for novel interpretation of the dynamics of the cardiovascular system.

]]>