ResearchPad - emergency-critical-care-medicine https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Revised Triage and Surveillance Protocols for Temporary Emergency Department Closures in Tertiary Hospitals as a Response to COVID-19 Crisis in Daegu Metropolitan City]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8426

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<![CDATA[Vasospasm-related Sudden Cardiac Death Has Outcomes Comparable with Coronary Stenosis in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8422

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<![CDATA[Relationship between Use of Rehabilitation Resources and ICU Readmission and ER Visits in ICU Survivors: the Korean ICU National Data Study 2008-2015]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N34d8441b-cb47-4aa2-bd6b-af7f2e6bfcef

Background

Despite the increasing importance of rehabilitation for critically ill patients, there is little information regarding how rehabilitation therapy is utilized in clinical practice. Our objectives were to evaluate the implementation rate of rehabilitation therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) survivors and to investigate the effects of rehabilitation therapy on outcomes.

Methods

A retrospective nationwide cohort study with including > 18 years of ages admitted to ICU between January 2008 and May 2015 (n = 1,465,776). The analyzed outcomes were readmission to ICU readmission and emergency room (ER) visit.

Results

During the study period, 249,918 (17.1%) patients received rehabilitation therapy. The percentage of patients receiving any rehabilitation therapy increased annually from 14% in 2008 to 20% in 2014, and the percentages for each type of therapy also increased over time. The most common type of rehabilitation was physical therapy (91.9%), followed by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (29.6%), occupational (28.6%), respiratory, (11.6%) and swallowing (10.3%) therapies. After adjusting for confounding variables, the risk of 30-day ICU readmission was lower in patients who received rehabilitation therapy than in those who did not (P < 0.001; hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65–0.75). And, the risk of 30-day ER visit was also lower in patients who received rehabilitation therapy (P < 0.001; HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.77–0.88).

Conclusion

In this nationwide cohort study in Korea, only 17% of all ICU patients received rehabilitation therapy. However, rehabilitation is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of 30-day ICU readmission and ER visit.

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<![CDATA[Iatrogenic Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome in Critically Ill Patients: a Retrospective Cohort Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2ef6d816-f9f6-4f19-8aa6-41e1e79e8c4a

Background

Opioid withdrawal syndrome (OWS) may occur following the reduction or discontinuation of opioid analgesics. In critically ill pediatric patients, OWS is a common and clinically significant condition. However, OWS in adult patients has not been assessed in detail. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the incidence, risk factors, and clinical features of OWS in mechanically ventilated patients treated in an adult intensive care unit (ICU).

Methods

This study was a retrospective evaluation of data from patients treated in the medical ICU for > 3 days and who received only one type of opioid analgesic. OWS was assessed over a 24 hours period from discontinuation or reduction (by > 50%) of continuous opioid infusion. OWS was defined as the presence of ≥ 3 central nervous system or autonomic nervous system symptoms.

Results

In 126 patients treated with remifentanil (n = 58), fentanyl (n = 47), or morphine (n = 21), OWS was seen in 31.0%, 36.2%, and 9.5% of patients, respectively (P = 0.078). The most common symptom was a change in respiratory rate (remifentanil, 94.4%; fentanyl, 76.5%; morphine, 100%). Multivariate Cox-proportional hazards model showed that OWS was negatively associated with morphine treatment (hazard ratio [HR], 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.037–0.743) and duration of opioid infusion (HR, 0.566; 95% CI, 0.451–0.712).

Conclusion

OWS is not uncommon in mechanically ventilated adult patients who received continuous infusion of opioids for > 3 days. The use of morphine may be associated with a decreased risk of OWS.

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<![CDATA[Calculation of the Residual Blood Volume after Acute, Non-Ongoing Hemorrhage Using Serial Hematocrit Measurements and the Volume of Isotonic Fluid Infused: Theoretical Hypothesis Generating Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5afc0d43463d7e43b20d41db

Fluid resuscitation, hemostasis, and transfusion is essential in care of hemorrhagic shock. Although estimation of the residual blood volume is crucial, the standard measuring methods are impractical or unsafe. Vital signs, central venous or pulmonary artery pressures are inaccurate. We hypothesized that the residual blood volume for acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage was calculable using serial hematocrit measurements and the volume of isotonic solution infused. Blood volume is the sum of volumes of red blood cells and plasma. For acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage, red blood cell volume would not change. A certain portion of the isotonic fluid would increase plasma volume. Mathematically, we suggest that the residual blood volume after acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage might be calculated as 0·25N/[(Hct1/Hct2)–1], where Hct1 and Hct2 are the initial and subsequent hematocrits, respectively, and N is the volume of isotonic solution infused. In vivo validation and modification is needed before clinical application of this model.

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