ResearchPad - endocrine-hypertension-and-aldosterone-excess https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[SUN-LB96 Basal Contralateral Aldosterone Suppression Is Rare in Lateralized Primary Aldosteronism and Can Be Useful in Predicting Surgical Outcome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9554 Background: Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is performed to distinguish between unilateral or bilateral source of aldosterone in primary aldosteronism (PA). Unilateral aldosteronomas should lead to suppression of renin and contralateral (CL) aldosterone secretion, assessed by the CL suppression ratio. We recently found that CL aldosterone suppression was relatively rare using the ratio of basal aldosterone concentration of the opposite adrenal vein/periphery (AOPP/AP) in contrast to the traditional cortisol-corrected aldosterone ratio ((A/C)OPP(A/C)P). Pathology studies showed frequent zona glomerulosa (ZG) hyperplasia adjacent to a dominant aldosteronoma, which could also indicate probable ZG hyperplasia in the CL adrenal. The ratio of basal CL suppression could be a usefull parameter to predict cure following unilateral adrenalectomy (UA), but controversy remains in the literature.

Objectives:

1. To evaluate the prevalence of basal CL suppression using the AOPP/AP ratio as compared to the (A/C)OPP/(A/C)P ratio at previously established cut-offs.

2. To determine the best cut-off to predict clinical and biochemical surgical cure in two Canadian referral centers.

3. To compare the accuracy of the AOPP/AP ratio to the basal lateralization ratio (LR) and the post-ACTH LR in predicting the surgical outcome.

Methods: 330 patients with PA and successful bilateral simultaneous basal and post-ACTH stimulated AVS (selectivity index >2 basally and >5 post-ACTH) were included; 124 patients found to be lateralized underwent UA. The follow-up data were evaluated for clinical and biochemical cure at 3 and 12 months using the PASO criteria.

Results: Using AOPP/AP and (A/C)OPP/(A/C)P at the cut-off of 1, the prevalence of CL suppression is 6% and 45%, respectively. The median CL suppression ratio is 2.3 (1.3-5.1) in lateralized cases of PA using AOPP/AP. Using ROC curves, the AOPP/AP ratio is associated with clinical cure at 3 and 12 months and biochemical cure at 12 months. (A/C)OPP/(A/C)P is associated with biochemical cure only. The cut-offs for AOPP/AP offering the best sensitivity and specificity for clinical and biochemical cures at 12 months are 2.15 (Se 63% and Sp 71%) and 6.15 (Se 84% and Sp 77%), respectively. Basal LR and post-ACTH LR are associated with clinical cure but only the post-ACTH LR is associated with biochemical cure.

Conclusions: Basal CL suppression defined by the AOPP/AP ratio is rare and incomplete compared to the traditional (A/C)OPP/(A/C)P ratio in lateralized cases of PA. This may reflect the frequent micronodular hyperplasia adjacent to dominant aldosteronomas and possibly in the CL adrenal. Basal CL aldosterone suppression may predict clinical postoperative outcome, but with modest accuracy.

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<![CDATA[SAT-553 Use of Optimal Cutting Temperature Compound (OCT)-Embedded Adrenal Tumor Tissue for Intratumoral Steroid Hormone Profiling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8775 Background: Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of secondary hypertension, accounting for 5-8% of all hypertension. PA is most commonly attributed to an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) or to bilateral hyperaldosteronism (BHA). Mutations in the inward-rectifying K+ channel (mKCNJ5), which increase autonomous aldosterone production, are most frequently detected in APAs. APAs with mKCNJ5 display aberrant expression of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) and 17α-hydroxylase (CYP17A1), which are involved in aldosterone and cortisol synthesis, respectively. Co-expression of these enzymes results in the production of a set of “hybrid” steroids, which have been proposed as serum biomarkers. The relative production of hybrid steroids in adrenal tumors vs. adjacent normal adrenal (NA) tissue has not been investigated. Objectives: To determine the utility of OCT-embedded adrenal tumor tissue for steroid profiling. To use immunohistochemistry (IHC)-guided OCT tumor capture for intratumoral hybrid steroid profiling in mKCNJ5 APA and NA tissue. Methods: OCT-embedded adrenal tissue from 9 patients (8 women, Age 45.9 ± 3.3 years) with APAs harboring known KCNJ5 mutations were used for the study. Where available OCT-embedded normal adrenal (NA) tissue adjacent to APAs were used as controls (n=4). IHC was performed for CYP11B2 and CYP17A1 on OCT tissue allowing guided APA capture from serial sections. Steroids were extracted from APA and adjacent NA tissue, and quantified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Steroids measured were normalized to the protein content of the extracted tissue. Results: Compared to NA, APA tissue demonstrated 23-, 5.6- and 6.4-fold higher levels of aldosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, and 18-hydroxycorticosterone, respectively (P<0.05). In addition, the “hybrid” steroid products, 18-oxocortisol and 18-hydroxycortisol, were significantly elevated in APA vs. NA (P<0.01). Conversely, the adrenal androgens dehydroepiandrosterone and 11-hydroxyandrostenedione were lower in APA as compared with NA (P<0.05). All mKCNJ5 APAs were also found to co-express CYP11B2 and CYP17A1. Conclusion: IHC-guided mKCNJ5 APA capture and steroid extraction identified a distinct intratumoral hybrid steroid signature that associated with co-expression of CYP11B2 and CYP17A1.These findings also demonstrate that OCT-embedded tissue can be used to accurately define intra-tissue steroid profiles, which will have application for steroid-producing and steroid-responsive tumors.

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<![CDATA[SAT-559 Patients with Hyperaldosteronism Have Higher Prevalence of Obstructive Sleep Apnea. From the National Inpatient Sample]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8738 Introduction: Previous studies suggested that aldosterone excess may worsen obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) through causing peri-pharyngeal edema. Objective: In this study we sought to examine if hyperaldosteronism is associated with OSA. Methods: The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) data was queried for adults with diagnosis of primary and secondary hyperaldosteronism during the years 2012 - 2015. Patients with hyperaldosteronism were identified using the international classification of disease (ICD-9). Each patient who was diagnosed with hyperaldosteronism was matched to randomly selected controls at a 1:4 ratio by age, gender and year of hospitalization. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of OSA among patients with hyperaldosternoism. We adjusted for patient demographics, socioeconomic factors, hospital factors and clinical comorbidities. Subgroup analysis was performed based on gender, race and age groups; young adults (aged 18–35 years), middle aged (> 35-<55 years) and older adults (aged > 55 years). Results: There were 23,465 patients diagnosed with hyperaldosteronism identified. The mean age was 59 (standard error of the mean (SEM): 0.1. Females represented 48.5%. Compared to control, patients with hyperaldosteronism had higher prevalence of hypertension, CHF, stroke, obesity, diabetes, renal failure and lower prevalence of tobacco use and COPD. The proportions of African Americans were higher among patients with hyperaldosteronism compared to the control 30.1 vs 15.5, p<0.001. Patients with hyperaldosteronism had higher prevalence of OSA 16.4 vs 8.3, p<0.001. On multivariate analysis, hyperaldosteronism was independently associated with higher odds for OSA with aOR 2.01 (95%CI: 1.81–2.23) p<0.001. On subgroup analysis, similar findings were observed irrespective of gender, age group or race. Conclusion: Prevalence of OSA is higher among patients with hyperaldosteronism. Physicians may need to consider a case detection of hyperaldosteronism in patients with OSA and hypertension. Similarly we suggest to evaluate patients with hyperaldosteronism for OSA.

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<![CDATA[SAT-551 Sparing Confirmatory Tests in Primary Aldosteronism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6935 Context: The current clinical guidelines suggest that confirmatory tests for primary aldosteronism (PA) may be excluded in some of patients who have elevated plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) under plasma renin suppression. However, this has low priority evidence and is under debate in use of serum potassium. Objective: This study aimed to investigate an appropriate setting for sparing confirmatory tests in PA. Design and Setting: A retrospective cross-sectional study in a single referral center. Participants: This study included 327 patients who had hypertension under plasma renin suppression and underwent captopril challenge test (CCT) between January 2007 and April 2019. CCT results were used to diagnose PA. Main outcome measure: Diagnostic value of PAC and serum potassium in confirmation of PA. Results: Of the studied patients, 252 of 327 (77%) were diagnosed with PA. All 61 patients with PAC >30 ng/dl were diagnosed with PA. In patients with PAC between 20 and 30 ng/dl, 44 of 55 (80%) were diagnosed with PA, while all 26 with PAC between 20 to 30 ng/dl who had spontaneous hypokalemia were diagnosed with PA. Areceiver operator curve analysis showed that the sensitivity of diagnosis of PA is 100% in our patients, when PAC set at > 28.8 ng/dl and showed that the sensitivity of diagnosis of PA is 100% in our patients with spontaneous hypokalemia, who had PAC < 30 ng/dl, when PAC was set at > 19.2 ng/dl. While, the prevalence of PA was higher in patients with hypokalemia, who had PAC between 10 and 20 ng/dl than in those with PAC < 10 ng/dl. Collectively, 100 out of 102 (98%) with hypokalemia, who had PAC > 10 ng/dl were diagnosed as PA. The proportion of unilateral PA determined by adrenal vein sampling (AVS) was higher in patients who had PAC >30 ng/dl or those with spontaneous hypokalemia who had PAC between 20 and 30 ng/dl than those who did not meet the criteria (76% vs. 17%, P<0.001). Conclusion: Confirmatory tests in PA could be spared in patients who have typical features of PA and these patients had a high probability of unilateral PA on AVS.

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<![CDATA[SAT-563 The Unsuppressed Plasma Renin Activity May Not Enough for Management of Non-Surgically Treated Primary Aldosteronism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6635 It is well known the primary aldosteronism (PA) is most common endocrinological hypertension and accounted for 10% among all hypertension population, and it develops cardiovascular disease more frequently than blood pressure matched essential hypertension. Those patients with bilateral hyperaldosteronism, called idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA), or unwilling for surgical treatment are treated by mineralcorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs). Although it had been unclear how titrate MRAs to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular events, a managemental target for those patients was recently reported as plasma renin activity (PRA) ≥ 1.0 ng/ml/hr to prevent cardiovascular events (Hundemer GL, et. al. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2018 Jan;6(1):51-59).

Thus, we investigated 77 cases of adrenal venous sampling performed patients with PA and followed up for 3 years in our hospital since 2007, including 24 males and 53 females, and their mean age was 56.3 ± 12.5 years old. All patients underwent AVS and showed bilateral hyperaldosteronism and treated with MRAs and followed up more than 3 years. We collected blood pressure, serum sodium and potassium concentration, estimated glomerular filtration ratio (eGFR), PRA, plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC), atherosclerotic parameter, such as mean intima media thickness (IMT), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and ankle-brachial index (ABI). We evaluated the relationship of those patients’ PRA and aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR) with eGFR, IMT, baPWV, and ABI. The change of mean IMT after 3 year-follow up were 0.03 ± 0.11 mm vs. 0.06 ± 0.09 mm for well controlled (PRA ≥ 1.0 ng/ml/hr) and poorly controlled (PRA < 1.0 ng/ml/hr), respectively, and no significant difference between them. In the other hand, the change of mean IMT after 3 year-follow up showed 0.03 ± 0.10 mm vs. 0.08 ± 0.10 mm for well controlled (PRA ≥ 1.0 ng/ml/hr and ARR <20) and poorly controlled (PRA < 1.0 ng/ml/hr or ARR ≥ 20), respectively, and the mean IMT increase was significantly lower in this group.

The mean IMT increase showed significantly lower only with PRA ≥ 1.0 ng/ml/hr and ARR <20 rather than PRA ≥ 1.0 ng/ml/hr alone.

In our results, both PRA ≥ 1.0 ng/ml/hr and ARR<20 are important to prevent or improve atherosclerosis, rather than only PRA ≥ 1.0 ng/ml/hr and should be titrated MRAs to achieve this target.

In conclusion, our result revealed the titration of MRAs is important to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular event and not only PRA ≥ 1.0 ng/ml/hr, but both PRA and ARR <20 should be achieved.

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<![CDATA[SAT-550 Changes in Albuminuria Precede Dietary Sodium-Dependent Changes in BP During Aging - a Longitudinal Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6574 Background: Hypertension (HT) is a well-established independent risk factor for adverse cardiovascular and renal (CVR) outcomes and a high salt (HS) diet is the main cause for high blood pressure (BP). Despite extensive research focusing on HT, surprisingly there are no longitudinal studies assessing the long-term effects of HS. Aims: This study aimed (1) to evaluate the timing of onset for changes in CVR health during long-term sodium loading and (2) to assess whether salt restriction can prevent these effects.

Methods: C57BL/6 mice were randomized to HS, moderate (NS) or low (LS) salt diet and followed longitudinally for 50 weeks (wks). BP, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (AC), plasma aldosterone (PA) and renin activity (PRA) were assessed monthly. At the end of the study, renal artery resistance and left ventricular (LV) parameters were measured by ultrasound and echocardiogram. Renal AT1 expression (Western Blot) and activity (IHQ) were quantified.

Results: At the beginning of the study, there were no differences in BP and AC between the three dietary groups. Relative to wk 1, BP (mmHg) in the HS group was higher in wk 21 (131±1.7 vs. 115±3.0, p= 0.05). Sodium restriction delayed this increase: SBP was higher in wk 41 in the NS group compared to the wk 1 (128±3.4 vs. 115±6.4, p= 0.05) but did not reach significance in the LS group until the end of the study. Similarly, relative to wk 1, AC (µg/mg) only in the HS group reached significantly higher levels in wk 17 (44±4.2, p<0.05). Again, sodium restriction delayed the occurrence of renal damage. AC reached significance in wks 25 and 41 for NS and LS (35±1.1 and 42±2.6 respectively, p<0.05 vs. baseline). Interestingly, the changes in AC always preceded the changes in BP, irrespective of diet. PA and PRA were appropriately activated by dietary salt restriction and suppressed by aging. The aging-induced suppression appeared stronger for PA than for PRA in the HS group only. Long-term sodium loading (HS) induced increased renal resistance, which was prevented in the LS but not in the NS group. Relative to HS, the LV mass index and cardiac output were lower in the NS and LS groups (p<0.05). LV volume indices and ejection fraction did not differ between groups. Renal AT1 protein expression and activation status (IHQ) were decreased in the sodium restricted group. Conclusions: Our study showed that long-term exposure to HS induced a progressive increase in BP and AC in mice. Importantly, these changes were delayed by long-term reduction in sodium intake. Interestingly, changes in AC preceded those in BP, irrespective of diet. Cardiac parameters suggest a sodium-induced eccentric cardiac hypertrophy in the older age, which was prevented by sodium restriction. One possible mechanism behind these effects is the overactivation of the AT1 receptor pathway.

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<![CDATA[SAT-549 Identification of Somatic Mutations in CLCN2 as a Cause of Aldosterone-Producing Adenomas]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6484 Background: Primary aldosteronism (PA) results from both unilateral and bilateral adrenal disease. Unilateral disease is most often caused by aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs). We recently identified aldosterone-driver somatic mutations in approximately 90% of APAs using an aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) immunohistochemistry (IHC)-guided DNA sequencing approach. In the present study, we analyzed DNA from APA samples found to be mutation negative. Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples from PA patients who underwent adrenalectomy were studied. Genomic DNA was isolated from 118 APAs (identified by CYP11B2 IHC). Next generation sequencing (NGS) was performed to identify known aldosterone-driver mutations in KCNJ5, ATP1A1, ATP2B3, and CACNA1D. APA DNA that was mutation negative and the adjacent normal adrenal tissue DNA were subjected to Whole Exome Sequencing (WES). Results: Targeted NGS and WES detected two variants in the voltage-gated chloride channel ClC-2 (encoded by CLCN2), which were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. One of the CLCN2 mutations (p.Gly24Asp) was identical to that previously found to cause germline early-onset PA. The second CLCN2 mutation, which would affect the same region of the protein, was an unreported PA mutation (p.Met22fs). The presence of these variants in two tumors suggests that CLCN2 mutations as a cause of APAs are rare with an approximate prevalence of 1.7% (2/118 APAs). Conclusion: In this study, we identified somatic mutations in CLCN2, in two of 118 APAs. Germline variants in this gene have previously been shown to cause of familial hyperaldosteronism type II and the current findings indicate that similar mutations cause a small proportion of APAs. These findings also indicate that WES of CYP11B2-guided mutation negative APAs can help determine rarer genetic causes of sporadic PA.

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<![CDATA[SUN-LB94 Impact of the Gut Microbiome and Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System in Hypertensive Patients With Low-Salt Intake]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_5954 Salt intake is one of most important environmental factors responsible for triggering the onset of hypertension. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in adjusting sodium homeostasis and blood pressure. Recently, the potential role of the gut microbiome (GM) in altering the health of the host has drawn considerable attention. We investigated the impact of intestinal microflora and RAAS in hypertensive patients with low-salt or high-salt intake using an observational study.

A total of 239 participants were enrolled and their GMs and clinical backgrounds examined, including the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and inflammatory cytokine levels. On the basis of enterotypes—determined by cluster analysis—and salt intake, the participants were classified into four groups, low salt/GM enterotype 1, low salt/GM enterotype 2, high salt/GM enterotype 1, and high salt/GM enterotype 2.

The prevalence of hypertension was significantly lower in the low-salt intake (low salt/GM enterotype 1 = 47% vs low salt/GM enterotype 2 = 27%, p = 0.04) groups. No significant difference in the prevalence of hypertension was observed for the two GM enterotype groups with high-salt intake (GM enterotype 1 = 50%, GM enterotype 2 = 47%; p = 0.83). Plasma aldosterone concentration was significantly different among the four groups (p < 0.01). Furthermore, the relative abundance of Blautia, Bifidobacterium, Escherichia-Shigella, Lachnoclostridium, and Clostridium sensu stricto was also significantly different among these enterotypes. This suggested in certain individuals (with specific gut bacteria composition) changing dietary habits—to low salt—would be ineffective for regulating hypertension through RAAS. Our findings provide a new strategy for controlling blood pressure and preventing the development of hypertension through restoring GM homeostasis.

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<![CDATA[SAT-555 Can Histology Predict the Presence of KCNJ5 Somatic Mutation in Aldosterone-Producing Adenomas?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1765a828-e4f4-4fec-90df-e428a3200202 Aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) is well known to harbor marked intratumoral heterogeneity in terms of morphology and CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) localization. In histology, APA is generally characterized by two distinct cell subtypes, namely “clear cells” and “compact cells”. Clear tumor cells harbor abundant lipid droplets in their cytoplasms and compact tumor cells generally featuring small round shape have abundant intracytoplasmic organelles including mitochondria.

Relatively close correlation between these histological characteristics (morphology and CYP11B2 immunohistochemistry) and genotypes of aldosterone-driver gene somatic mutation has been reported. Among them, KCNJ5-mutated APAs have been reported to harbor clear cell predominant features, while APAs with other rare somatic mutations including ATP1A1, ATP2B3 and CACNA1D harbor heterogenous or relatively compact cell predominant morphometry. However, these previous evaluation were based on eyeball analysis with relatively low reproducibility. Therefore, we developed the more quantitative methods using digital image software in order to analyze the widespread area, which can reflect intratumoral heterogeneity, with high reproducibility to analyze the further detailed correlation between histopathological characteristics and genotype in APA. We explored the utility of immunohistochemistry including CYP11B2 and KCNJ5. We further attempted to propose histopathological scoring system to predict the presence of KCNJ5 somatic mutation in APAs.

Results of our present study revealed that KCNJ5 was predominantly immunolocalized in zona glomerulosa among adrenal cortex (vs. ZF, P=0.0002, vs. ZR, P=0.0002), furthermore, predominantly in APCCs than in non-APCCs (P=0.0019). Among the tumors, KCNJ5 immunoreactivity was significantly higher in KCNJ5-wild type APAs than in mutated ones (P=0.0037). KCNJ5-mutated APAs had significantly lower nuclear / cytoplasm ratio and abundant clear cell components than those with wild type, harboring large tumor size. In conclusion, we firstly proposed a novel histopathological predicting scoring system for the presence of KCNJ5 somatic mutation, including the following histopathological findings; N/C ratio, clear cell (%), tumor size, CYP11B2 immunoreactivity and KCNJ5 immunoreactivity. It is true that no single histological factors above could precisely predict the presence of KCNJ5 somatic mutation but this newly developed combined histopathological predicting scoring system could provide relatively high accuracy to predict KCNJ5 somatic mutation in APAs (AUC=96%, sensitivity:100%, specificity:90%, 4 points or more). However, further prospective validation by large number of cases is required for clarification.

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<![CDATA[SAT-558 A Dedicated Endocrine Hypertension Service Increases the Timely Diagnosis of Primary Aldosteronism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0799396b-0ee9-460e-9b8c-58d16ae0492d Background: Primary aldosteronism (PA) accounts for 3.2-12.7% of hypertension in primary care but is often diagnosed late, if at all. A delayed or missed diagnosis leads to poor blood pressure control and greater cardiovascular risk that could be averted with targeted treatment. An Endocrine Hypertension Service (EHS), encompassing an education program, streamlined diagnostic tests and dedicated PA clinic, was developed to address this issue.

Aims: To analyse the impact of Victoria’s first dedicated EHS on the pattern of PA diagnoses.

Methods: Socio-demographic and clinical data from all patients who attended the EHS since July 2016 (N=267) was collected prospectively. Patients were divided into Year 1 (Y1), Year 2 (Y2), and Year 3 (Y3), based on their first visit.

Results: The proportion of referrals from primary care increased (20% in Y1 to 52% in Y3) with more referrals being made for treatment-naive hypertension (3% in Y1 to 19% in Y3). Patients with a hypertension diagnosis of 5 years or less at the time of referral to EHS increased from 34% in Y1 to 45% in Y3 whilst the percentage of patients with a hypertension diagnosis of more than 10 years decreased from 50% in Y1 to 35% in Y3. Consistent with an earlier presentation, the proportion of patients with end-organ damage at the time of referral decreased from 44% in Y1 to 29% in Y3. Almost a third of the PA patients had unilateral disease; all of those who underwent adrenalectomy had biochemical cure. Patients with bilateral PA were treated with spironolactone. Their systolic/diastolic blood pressure decreased by 15/12 mmHg in Y1, 17/13 mmHg in Y2 and 23/11 mmHg in Y3; while the mean number of antihypertensive medications decreased from 2.9 to 1.8 in Y1, 2.7 to 2.0 in Y2 and 2.2 to 1.6 in Y3

Conclusion: The EHS has facilitated an increase in referrals for PA screening from primary care, resulting in the earlier diagnosis of PA, when less complications are present, and optimised patient outcomes. A broader uptake of such a clinical service, integrated with education outreach, will bridge the gap between the reported high prevalence of PA and the actual low diagnostic rates.

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<![CDATA[SAT-564 Effectiveness of Treatment with Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonistsin Primary Aldosteronism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8d268e8e-f92a-4446-88c8-3e501b4a42f0 Background: Medical treatment with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) is preferred for patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) who are not surgical candidates. Adequate mineralocorticoid receptor blockade, as suggested by renin elevation above suppression levels, has been associated with lower rates of cardiovascular and renal complications as compared with PA with sustained renin suppression.

Objectives: To assess the timeline and rates of achieving target renin levels in patients with PA and low renin hypertension treated with MRAs.

Patients and Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult patients with hypertension who were treated with MRAs in an academic center between 2003-2019. Of these, we included patients who had suppressed renin at baseline, and repeated renin measurement(s) during MRAs therapy. Renin suppression was defined as plasma renin activity (PRA) 1.0 ng/mL/h or direct renin concentration (DRC) 8.0 pg/mL. We excluded patients with adrenal cancer, end-stage renal disease, exogenous glucocorticoids, and critically ill. Mann-Whitney test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, Chi-Square test and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed, as appropriate.

Results: So far, 89 patients (45 men), median age 56 (range, 19-84), have been included. Of these, 46% had confirmed PA; 25% had positive PA screening, but no confirmatory tests; and 29% had other forms of low-renin hypertension. On average, patients were on 2.9 1.6 antihypertensive agents; 62% of patients were prescribed beta blockers, and 38% were on K+ supplements. Overall, renin (PRA in 69 cases, and DRC in 20 cases) increased after MRA treatment (from 0.40 [0.10, 0.60] ng/mL/h to 1.10 [0.60, 2.23] ng/mL/h; and from 2.1 [2.1, 3.7] pg/mL to 5.7 [2.9, 16.7] pg/mL, respectively, p<0.0001 for both). The cumulative proportions of patients in whom renin reached target levels during MRA treatment were: 25% at 2 weeks; 38.9% at 1 month; 34.2% at 3 months; 39.5% at 6 months; and 47.2% at 1 year. Age, sex, race, blood pressure, use of beta blockers, renal function, serum K+ and aldosterone concentrations were similar between patients with target vs. suppressed renin. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that after adjusting for age and sex, higher MRA dose and higher BMI were associated with higher likelihood of achieving target renin during MRA therapy (odds ratio (95%CI): 1.021 (1.001-1.041) and 1.097 (1.008-1.193), respectively, p<0.05 for both); conversely, beta blockers use tended to be less often associated with target renin (odds ratio, 0.37 (0.13-1.008), p=0.052).

Conclusion: Although raising renin above suppression levels is important for reducing the cardiovascular risk associated with PA, this goal is achieved in less than half of patients, even after one year of treatment with MRAs, in an academic setting. Strategies for optimizing PA treatment are critically needed.

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<![CDATA[SAT-544 Primary Aldosteronism in Intracerebral Hemorrhage. Not Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Primary Aldosteronism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N97e276a2-5ce8-4232-8934-f3833bf9310f 200 and PAC >120 pg/mL) and 53 were negative. Age (68.6 vs 68.5 y), sex (male 66.7 vs 69.8 %) and blood pressure (172/97 vs 177/100 mmHg) were similar between these two groups. Bleeding volume (14.6 vs 16.2 mL) was also similar, but the lesion was more common in thalamus rather than putamen in PA positive group. Serum potassium was slightly lower in positive group (3.6 vs 3.9 mmol/L; P=0.096) on admission, and the difference became more evident two days later (3.7 vs 4.0 mmol/L; P=0.040). There were no differences in other hormones including cortisol and catecholamine. As for prognosis, PA positive patients had more severe motor or cognitive impairments. Dimension reduction procedure using t-SNE certainly divided these patients into clusters compatible with PA screening tests. Further, we extrapolated this result to 21 patients who had been taking medications which could lower PAC/PRA ratio such as ACE inhibitors, ARB or diuretics and were excluded from the analysis above. K-nearest neighbor method revealed that even in those who had been taking PAC/PRA lowering medications, PAC/PRA ratio >160 could be regarded as positive for PA screening. Discussion: This is the largest study ever that investigated the clinical features of PA in ICH patients. Contrary to expectations, ICH patients with PA were not necessarily younger than those with essential hypertension. But they were more likely to have severe outcomes even though blood pressure and bleeding volume were similar. This may be partly because of higher aldosterone. The difference in serum potassium was masked on admission probably due to increased sympathetic activity. But about two days later, when its activity peaked out, lower serum potassium in PA positive group became more evident. This can support the efficacy of PA screening tests even in ICH patients, so PA screening should not be awaited just because they have developed ICH. ]]> <![CDATA[SAT-543 Human Hair Aldosterone Measurements for Evaluation of Primary Aldosteronism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N89b5fff7-b7cb-42a6-82e0-4bf444e4327d <![CDATA[SUN-LB92 The Importance of Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Aldosteronism on the Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease, Compared With Essential Hypertension: A Retrospective Cohort Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd025ebdc-f02d-46e0-9a3a-3889c8c519d7 Introduction: Primary aldosteronism(PA) has few clinical phenotypes and features, compared with other endocrine hypertension(HTN). Even though hypokalemia is a typical sign of PA, most of PA reveals normal potassium concentration. For that reason, PA is likely to undetected and underestimated and it may account for larger proportion of total HTN than we expected. However, it has known that PA has higher risk of renal complications than essential hypertension(EH) and has been controversy which treatment between medication and operation is better for renal protection of PA. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medial records of patients with PA and EH of a single medical center from January, 2009 to December, 2019. PA patients were divided into medical and surgical treatment groups. EH patients were distinguished from one that satisfied with case detection test, called non-confirmed PA. We excluded cases with other secondary HTN and baseline eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m2. Results: Patients with PA(N=66) and patients with EH(N=514) were selected for analysis. Each baseline mean eGFR of patients with PA and EH indicated 91.2 ± 74.5 and 87.1 ± 19.7 mL/min/1.73m2 and statistically insignificant differences(P = 0.1688) as well as baseline SBP(P = 0.5403) and DBP(P = 0.8691). However, in spite of treatment of PA and controlled BP, mean eGFR of PA patients was lower than one of EH patients and its difference was statistically significant showing 66.5 ± 14.2 and 94.6 ± 195.9 mL/min/1.73m2 (P < .0001) at 2~ 5 years, 52.4 ± 17.9 and 77.6 ± 20.6 mL/min/1.73m2 (P < 0.0004) at 6~10 years. Baseline mean eGFR of PA with normokalemia and hypokalemia respectively were 77.7 ± 11.6 and 98.9 ± 92.5 mL/min/1.73m2 (P = 0.0269). Baseline mean eGFR of non-confirmed PA and EH were 82.5 ± 13.2 and 88.4 ± 21.1 mL/min/1.73m2 (P = 0.0240). Although baseline mean eGFR of PA with surgical treatment was better than one with medical treatment, it was reversal after 2~5 years indicating mean eGFR of PA patients treated with operation, 62.9 ± 16.1 mL/min/1.73m2 and one treated with spironolactone, 70.5 ± 12.6 mL/min/1.73m2 (P = 0.0010). Conclusions: This study support PA has worse effects on renal function than EH. PA is frequently unsuspected and undiagnosed because it hardly shows symptoms and signs. Many cases do not reveal main characteristics such as uncontrolled HTN and hypokalemia, so that patients with PA maybe have longstanding exposure to risk of CKD. Therefore it is necessary to do case detection test and rule out PA in initial hypertensive patients. In addition, more longitudinal study and research should be performed to decide personalized and adequate treatments for PA patients. ]]> <![CDATA[SAT-561 Effects of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists on Primary Aldosteronism Screening]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne8d95934-94b6-4b30-9241-d277bc2f59af 20 ng/dL along with suppressed renin. The impact on PA screening accuracy remained similar irrespective of the MRA dose, duration of treatment, changes in concomitant antihypertensive drugs, or hypertension type. Conclusions: Commonly, MRA treatment leads to renin elevation, ARR reduction, and consequential false negative PA screening. In a minority of patients, MRA therapy can be followed by aldosterone elevations asynchronous from renin, possibly via short feedback loops, mimicking PA. Whenever possible, PA testing should be conducted after MRA discontinuation. ]]> <![CDATA[SAT-552 Epigenetic Regulation of 11beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 1 and 2 Gene in Salt-Sensitive Hypertensive Rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2f4b8446-68e6-4100-8a4f-a984ecd64c64 <![CDATA[SAT-562 Angiotensin II Induces Aldosterone Synthesis in the Rat Heart Stressed by Angiotensin II]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N40df2d88-fea1-447c-b9b7-2ebb1eb49528 <![CDATA[SAT-540 Primary Aldosteronism Represents Earlier Myocardial Fibrosis Than Essential Hypertension by T1 Mapping]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9752d838-3472-43e2-9569-8d8a7c13985b <![CDATA[SAT-541 Difference in Aldosterone Dependency Between Cardiovascular Diseases and Renal Impairments in Patients with Primary Aldosteronism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N308587e7-b5a2-4e23-be82-03d55c4e8ea5 <![CDATA[SAT-547 Aldosterone-Potassium Ratio Predicts Primary Aldosteronism Subtype]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc5c4358f-a966-4cd2-a747-97fb8959c09d 15). Similar results were seen in the European validation cohort. Combining both cohorts, probability of bilateral disease was 76.7% (with APR <5), and probability for unilateral was 91.7% (with APR >15). Other models had similar predictive ability but required more variables, and were less sensitive for identifying bilateral PA. Conclusion The novel aldosterone-potassium ratio (APR) is a convenient score to guide clinicians and patients of various ethnicities on the probability of PA subtype. Using APR to identify patients more likely to benefit from AVS may be a cost-effective strategy to manage this common condition. ]]>