ResearchPad - endothelial-cells https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The adipokine vaspin is associated with decreased coronary in-stent restenosis <i>in vivo</i> and inhibits migration of human coronary smooth muscle cells <i>in vitro</i>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7692 Percutaneous coronary intervention represents the most important treatment modality of coronary artery stenosis. In-stent restenosis (ISR) is still a limitation for the long-term outcome despite the introduction of drug eluting stents. It has been shown that adipokines directly influence vessel wall homeostasis by influencing the function of endothelial cells and arterial smooth muscle cells. Visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin vaspin was recently identified as a member of serine protease inhibitor family and serveral studies could demonstrate a relation to metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate a role of vaspin in the development of in-stent restenosis in vivo and on migration of smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells in vitro.MethodsWe studied 85 patients with stable coronary artery disease who underwent elective and successful PCI with implatation of drug eluting stents. Blood samples were taken directly before PCI. Vaspin plasma levels were measured by specific ELISA. ISR was evaluated eight months later by coronary angiography. Human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) migration was analyzed by an in-vitro migration assay with different concentrations (0.004ng/mL up to 40ng/mL) of vaspin as well as by an scratch assay. For proliferation an impedance measurement with specialiced E-Plates was performed.ResultsDuring the follow up period, 14 patients developed ISR. Patients with ISR had significantly lower vaspin plasma levels compared to patients without ISR (0.213 ng/ml vs 0.382 ng/ml; p = 0.001). In patients with plasma vaspin levels above 1.35 ng/ml we could not observe any restenosis. There was also a significant correlation of plasma vaspin levels and late lumen loss in the stented coronary segments. Further we could demonstrate that vaspin nearly abolishes serum induced migration of HCASMC (100% vs. 9%; p<0.001) in a biphasic manner but not migration of HUVEC. Proliferation of HCASMC and HUVEC was not modulated by vaspin treatment.ConclusionWe were able to show that the adipokine vaspin selectively inhibits human coronary SMC migration in vitro and has no effect on HUVEC migration. Vaspin had no effect on proliferation of HUVEC which is an important process of the healing of the stented vessel. In addition, the occurrence of ISR after PCI with implantation of drug eluting stents was significantly associated with low vaspin plasma levels before intervention. Determination of vaspin plasma levels before PCI might be helpful in the identification of patients with high risk for development of ISR after stent implantation. In addition, the selective effects of vaspin on smooth muscle cell migration could potentially be used to reduce ISR without inhibition of re-endothelialization of the stented segment. ]]> <![CDATA[The Salmonella type III effector SpvC triggers the reverse transmigration of infected cells into the bloodstream]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N64786058-46f1-4e38-866e-6d07cb9ab4f4

Salmonella can appear in the bloodstream within CD18 expressing phagocytes following oral ingestion in as little as 15 minutes. Here, we provide evidence that the process underlying this phenomenon is reverse transmigration. Reverse transmigration is a normal host process in which dendritic cells can reenter the bloodstream by traversing endothelium in the basal to apical direction. We have developed an in vitro reverse transmigration assay in which dendritic cells are given the opportunity to cross endothelial monolayers in the basal to apical direction grown on membranes with small pores, modeling how such cells can penetrate the bloodstream. We demonstrate that exposing dendritic cells to microbial components negatively regulates reverse transmigration. We propose that microbial components normally cause the host to toggle between positively and negatively regulating reverse transmigration, balancing the need to resolve inflammation with inhibiting the spread of microbes. We show that Salmonella in part overcomes this negative regulation of reverse transmigration with the Salmonella pathogenicity island-2 encoded type III secretion system, which increases reverse transmigration by over an order of magnitude. The SPI-2 type III secretion system does this in part, but not entirely by injecting the type III effector SpvC into infected cells. We further demonstrate that SpvC greatly promotes early extra-intestinal dissemination in mice. This result combined with the previous observation that the spv operon is conserved amongst strains of non-typhoidal Salmonella capable of causing bacteremia in humans suggests that this pathway to the bloodstream could be important for understanding human infections.

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<![CDATA[Regeneration of esophagus using a scaffold-free biomimetic structure created with bio-three-dimensional printing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c1978d5eed0c484b4d71e

Various strategies have been attempted to replace esophageal defects with natural or artificial substitutes using tissue engineering. However, these methods have not yet reached clinical application because of the high risks related to their immunogenicity or insufficient biocompatibility. In this study, we developed a scaffold-free structure with a mixture of cell types using bio-three-dimensional (3D) printing technology and assessed its characteristics in vitro and in vivo after transplantation into rats. Normal human dermal fibroblasts, human esophageal smooth muscle cells, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were purchased and used as a cell source. After the preparation of multicellular spheroids, esophageal-like tube structures were prepared by bio-3D printing. The structures were matured in a bioreactor and transplanted into 10-12-week-old F344 male rats as esophageal grafts under general anesthesia. Mechanical and histochemical assessment of the structures were performed. Among 4 types of structures evaluated, those with the larger proportion of mesenchymal stem cells tended to show greater strength and expansion on mechanical testing and highly expressed α-smooth muscle actin and vascular endothelial growth factor on immunohistochemistry. Therefore, the structure with the larger proportion of mesenchymal stem cells was selected for transplantation. The scaffold-free structures had sufficient strength for transplantation between the esophagus and stomach using silicon stents. The structures were maintained in vivo for 30 days after transplantation. Smooth muscle cells were maintained, and flat epithelium extended and covered the inner surface of the lumen. Food had also passed through the structure. These results suggested that the esophagus-like scaffold-free tubular structures created using bio-3D printing could hold promise as a substitute for the repair of esophageal defects.

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<![CDATA[VGLL4 plays a critical role in heart valve development and homeostasis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c784fb6d5eed0c4840073d9

Heart valve disease is a major clinical problem worldwide. Cardiac valve development and homeostasis need to be precisely controlled. Hippo signaling is essential for organ development and tissue homeostasis, while its role in valve formation and morphology maintenance remains unknown. VGLL4 is a transcription cofactor in vertebrates and we found it was mainly expressed in valve interstitial cells at the post-EMT stage and was maintained till the adult stage. Tissue specific knockout of VGLL4 in different cell lineages revealed that only loss of VGLL4 in endothelial cell lineage led to valve malformation with expanded expression of YAP targets. We further semi-knockout YAP in VGLL4 ablated hearts, and found hyper proliferation of arterial valve interstitial cells was significantly constrained. These findings suggest that VGLL4 is important for valve development and manipulation of Hippo components would be a potential therapy for preventing the progression of congenital valve disease.

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<![CDATA[The effect of endurance training and testosterone supplementation on the expression of blood spinal cord barrier proteins in rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b2694d5eed0c484289cf8

The present study aimed to estimate the effect of endurance training, two doses of testosterone, and the combination of these stimuli on the level of the endothelial proteins claudin, occludin, JAM-1, VE-cadherin, ZO-1, ZO-2, and P-glycoprotein in rat spinal cords. Adult male Wistar rats were trained using a motor-driven treadmill for 6 weeks (40–60 min, 5 times per week) and/or were treated for 6 weeks with two doses of testosterone (i.m.; 8 mg/kg or 80 mg/kg body weight). Spinal cords were collected 48 hours after the last training cycle and stored at -80°C. The levels of selected proteins in whole tissue lysates of the spinal cord were measured by western blot. Testosterone-treated trained rats had significantly lower claudin levels than vehicle-treated trained rats. High doses of testosterone resulted in a significant decrease in claudin-5 in untrained rats compared to the control group. Both doses of testosterone significantly reduced occludin levels compared to those in vehicle-treated untrained rats. The JAM-1 level in the spinal cords of both trained and untrained animals receiving testosterone was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The JAM-1 level in the trained group treated with high doses of testosterone was significantly higher than that in the untrained rats treated with 80 mg/kg of testosterone. VE-cadherin levels were decreased in all groups receiving testosterone regardless of endurance training and were also diminished in the vehicle-treated group compared to the control group. Testosterone treatment did not exert a significant effect on ZO-1 protein levels. Testosterone and/or training had no significant effects on ZO-2 protein levels in the rat spinal cords. Endurance training increased P-glycoprotein levels in the rat spinal cords. The results suggest that an excessive supply of testosterone may adversely impact the expression of endothelial proteins in the central nervous system, which, in turn, may affect the blood-brain barrier function.

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<![CDATA[Equilin in conjugated equine estrogen increases monocyte-endothelial adhesion via NF-κB signaling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b5254d5eed0c4842bc66d

The adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells, which is mediated by adhesion molecules, plays a crucial role in the onset of atherosclerosis. Conjugated equine estrogen, which is widely used for estrogen-replacement therapy, contains both estrone sulfate and various nonhuman estrogens, including equilin. To investigate the association between various estrogen types and atherosclerosis risk, we examined their effect on adhesion-molecule expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In estrogen-treated HUVECs, the mRNA and protein expression levels of adhesion molecules were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme immunoassay. Additionally, a flow-chamber system was used to assess the effects of estrogens on the adherence of U937 monocytoid cells to HUVECs. Equilin, but not 17β-estradiol (E2) or other types of estrogen, significantly increased the mRNA (P < 0.01) and protein (P < 0.05) expression of the adhesion molecules E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 as compared with levels in controls. Equilin treatment increased the adherence of U937 monocytoid cells to HUVECs relative to the that in the control (P < 0.05), decreased estrogen receptor (ER)β expression, and increased the expression of proteins involved in nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation relative to levels in controls. Furthermore, the accumulation of NF-κB subunit p65 in HUVEC nuclei was promoted by equilin treatment. By contrast, E2 treatment neither increased the number of adhered monocytoid cells to HUVECs nor altered the expression of ERβ or NF-κB-activating proteins. Our findings suggest that in terms of the adhesion of monocytes at the onset of atherosclerosis, E2 may be preferable for estrogen-replacement therapy. Further studies comparing equilin treatment with that of E2 are needed to investigate their differential impacts on atherosclerosis.

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<![CDATA[Extracellular vesicles from Kaposi Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lymphoma induce long-term endothelial cell reprogramming]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e941d5eed0c48496fae8

Extracellular signaling is a mechanism that higher eukaryotes have evolved to facilitate organismal homeostasis. Recent years have seen an emerging interest in the role of secreted microvesicles, termed extracellular vesicles (EV) or exosomes in this signaling network. EV contents can be modified by the cell in response to stimuli, allowing them to relay information to neighboring cells, influencing their physiology. Here we show that the tumor virus Kaposi’s Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) hijacks this signaling pathway to induce cell proliferation, migration, and transcriptome reprogramming in cells not infected with the virus. KSHV-EV activates the canonical MEK/ERK pathway, while not alerting innate immune regulators, allowing the virus to exert these changes without cellular pathogen recognition. Collectively, we propose that KSHV establishes a niche favorable for viral spread and cell transformation through cell-derived vesicles, all while avoiding detection.

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<![CDATA[Fc gamma RIIb expression levels in human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells during progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59fedbd5eed0c48413572f

Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) play a pivotal role in hepatic function and homeostasis. LSEC dysfunction has been recognized to be closely involved in various liver diseases, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but not much is known about the fate of the scavenger receptors in LSECs during NASH. Fc gamma receptor IIb (FcγRIIb), known as a scavenger receptor, contributes to receptor-mediated endocytosis and immune complexes clearance. In this study, to elucidate the fate of FcγRIIb in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we examined FcγRIIb levels in NAFLD biopsy specimens by immunohistochemistry, and investigated their correlation with the exacerbation of biological indexes and clinicopathological scores of NASH. The FcγRIIb expression levels indicated significant negative correlations with serum levels of blood lipids (triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol), type 4 collagen and hyaluronic acid, which are involved in hepatic lipid metabolism disorder, fibrosis, and inflammation, respectively. However, there was no significant difference of FcγRIIb expression levels among the pathological grades of NAFLD. During NAFLD progression, inflammation and fibrosis may influence the expression of FcγRIIb and their scavenger functions to maintain hepatic homeostasis.

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<![CDATA[Trinucleotide repeat expansion length as a predictor of the clinical progression of Fuchs’ Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e6cbd5eed0c484ef3e0d

Purpose

To determine if CTG18.1 TNR expansion length prognosticates the clinical progression of Fuchs’ Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD).

Methods

This was a prospective cohort study. A total of 51 patients with newly diagnosed FECD were recruited and followed-up over a period of 12 years, from November 2004 to April 2016. Baseline clinical measurements included central corneal thickness (CCT), endothelial cell density (ECD) and CTG18.1 TNR expansion length from peripheral leukocytes, with yearly repeat measurements of CCT and ECD. A patient was defined to have experienced significant clinical progression and to have developed Threshold Disease if any of these criteria were fulfilled in either eye: a) CCT increased to >700μm, b) ECD decreased to <700 cells/mm2, or c) underwent keratoplasty for treatment of FECD.

Results

Patients were categorized as having at least one allele whose maximum allele length was equal to or greater than 40 repeats (L≥40, n = 22, 43.1%), or having both alleles shorter than 40 repeats (L<40). Threshold Disease rates at the 5-year time point were 87.5% for the L≥40 group and 47.8% for the L<40 group (p = 0.012). This difference narrowed and was no longer statistically significant at the 8-years (92.9% vs 78.9%, p = 0.278) and 10-years (92.9% vs 84.2%, p = 0.426) time points.

Conclusions

L≥40 patients are at greater risk of FECD progression and development of Threshold Disease within the first 5 years following diagnosis.

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<![CDATA[Comparisons of early vascular reactions in biodegradable and durable polymer-based drug-eluting stents in the porcine coronary artery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f823d5eed0c48438714e

Current drug-eluting stents have abluminal polymer coating; however, thrombus formation in these compared with that in uniformly coated stents remains controversial. We evaluated thrombus formation and early endothelialization after using abluminal biodegradable polymer-coated sirolimus- (BP-SES), and everolimus-eluting stents (BP-EES) versus a durable polymer-coated everolimus-eluting stent (DP-EES) in an in vivo setting. BP-SES, BP-EES, and DP-EES (n = 6 each) were implanted in coronary arteries of 12 mini-pigs that were then sacrificed after 7 and 10 days. Stents were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and a combined Verhoeff and Masson trichrome stain. Areas of fibrin deposition were digitally detected and measured with off-line morphometric software. Stents were investigated for re-endothelialization by transmission electron microscopy. At 7 days, histological analysis revealed the lowest area of fibrin deposition in BP-SES (BP-SES vs. BP-EES vs. DP-EES; 0.10 ± 0.06 mm2 vs. 0.15 ± 0.07 mm2 vs. 0.19 ± 0.06 mm2, p = 0.0004). At 10 days, the area of fibrin deposition was significantly greater in DP-EES (0.13 ± 0.04 mm2 vs. 0.14 ± 0.05 mm2 vs. 0.19 ± 0.08 mm2, p = 0.007). Endothelial cells in BP-SES demonstrated a significantly greater number of tight junctions than those in DP-EES according to by transmission electron microscopy for both days (p<0.05). Various parameters, including an inflammatory reaction and neointimal formation, were comparable among the groups at 7 and 10 days. An abluminal biodegradable polymer-coated SES showed the least fibrin deposition and greatest endothelial cell recovery at an early stage following implantation in the coronary arteries of mini-pigs.

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<![CDATA[Phorbol ester-induced angiogenesis of endothelial progenitor cells: The role of NADPH oxidase-mediated, redox-related matrix metalloproteinase pathways]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478cb0d5eed0c484bd3eb3

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may contribute to ischemia-induced angiogenesis in atherosclerotic diseases. The protein kinase C (PKC) family is involved in the regulation of angiogenesis, however the role of PKCα in EPCs during angiogenesis is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of PKCα in EPCs during angiogenesis. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), a PKCα activator, significantly increased the activity and expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) -2 and -9 in human (late outgrowth) EPCs in vitro. The MMPs promoted the migratory function and vascular formation of EPCs, which then contributed to neovascularization in a mouse hindlimb-ischemia model. Reactive oxygen species derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase enhanced the expression of MMPs to increase the bioactivity of EPCs during angiogenesis. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway was associated with the activation of NADPH oxidase. PMA extensively activated the extracellular signal–regulated kinase (Erk) signal pathway to increase the expression of MMP-9. PMA also activated the p38, Erk, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signal pathways to increase the expression of MMP-2. PMA-stimulated EPCs enhanced neovascularization in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia via nuclear factor-κB translocation to up-regulation of the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. PMA could activate PKCα and promote the angiogenesis capacity of human EPCs via NADPH oxidase-mediated, redox-related, MMP-2 and MMP-9 pathways. The PKCα-activated, NADPH oxidase-mediated, redox-related MMP pathways could contribute to the function of human EPCs for ischemia-induced neovascularization, which may provide novel insights into the potential modification of EPCs for therapeutic angiogenesis.

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<![CDATA[Human polyomavirus BKV infection of endothelial cells results in interferon pathway induction and persistence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e5082d5eed0c484d82780

Polyomavirus BKV is highly prevalent among humans. The virus establishes an asymptomatic persistent infection in the urinary system in healthy people, but uncontrolled productive infection of the virus in immunocompromised patients can lead to serious diseases. In spite of its high prevalence, our knowledge regarding key aspects of BKV polyomavirus infection remains incomplete. To determine tissue and cell type tropism of the virus, primary human epithelial cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts isolated from the respiratory and urinary systems were tested. Results from this study demonstrated that all 9 different types of human cells were infectable by BKV polyomavirus but showed differential cellular responses. In microvascular endothelial cells from the lung and the bladder, BKV persistent infection led to prolonged viral protein expression, low yield of infectious progeny and delayed cell death, in contrast with infection in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells, a widely used cell culture model for studying productive infection of this virus. Transcriptomic profiling revealed the activation of interferon signaling and induction of multiple interferon stimulated genes in infected microvascular endothelial cells. Further investigation demonstrated production of IFNβ and secretion of chemokine CXCL10 by infected endothelial cells. Activation of IRF3 and STAT1 in infected endothelial cells was also confirmed. In contrast, renal proximal tubular epithelial cells failed to mount an interferon response and underwent progressive cell death. These results demonstrated that microvascular endothelial cells are able to activate interferon signaling in response to polyomavirus BKV infection. This raises the possibility that endothelial cells might provide initial immune defense against BKV infection. Our results shed light on the persistence of and immunity against infection by BKV polyomavirus.

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<![CDATA[Engineering vasculature: Architectural effects on microcapillary-like structure self-assembly]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e4faed5eed0c484d78005

One of the greatest obstacles to clinical translation of bone tissue engineering is the inability to effectively and efficiently vascularize scaffolds. The goal of this work was to explore systematically whether architecture, at a scale of hundreds of microns, can be used to direct the growth of microcapillary-like structures into the core of scaffolds. Biphasic bioceramic patterned architectures were produced using silicone molds of 3D printed parts. Grooves and ridges were designed to have widths of 330 μm and 660 μm, with periodicities respectively of 1240 μm and 630 μm. Groove depth was varied between 150 μm and 585 μm. Co-cultures of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) and human osteoblasts (hOBs) were used to grow microcapillary-like structures on substrates. Bioceramic architecture was found to significantly affect microcapillary-like structure location and orientation. Microcapillary-like structures were found to form predominantly in grooves or between convexities. For all patterned samples, the CD31 (endothelial cell marker) signal was at least 2.5 times higher along grooves versus perpendicular to grooves. In addition, the average signal was at least two times higher within grooves than outside grooves for all samples. Grooves with a width of 330 μm and a depth of 300 μm resulted in the formation of individual, highly aligned microcapillary-like structures with lengths around 5 mm. Extensive literature has focused on the role of nano- and micro-topography (on the scale below tens of microns) on cellular response. However, the idea that architecture at a scale much larger than a cell could be used to modulate angiogenesis has not been systematically investigated. This work shows the crucial influence of architecture on microcapillary-like structure self-assembly at the scale of hundreds of microns. Elucidating the precise correspondence between architecture and microcapillary-like structure organization will ultimately allow the engineering of microvasculature by tuning local scaffold design to achieve desirable microvessel properties.

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<![CDATA[Generating Vegfr3 reporter transgenic mouse expressing membrane-tagged Venus for visualization of VEGFR3 expression in vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c366797d5eed0c4841a5c74

Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (Vegfr3) has been widely used as a marker for lymphatic and vascular endothelial cells during mouse embryonic development and in adult mouse, making it valuable for studying angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis under normal and pathological conditions. Here, we report the generation of a novel transgenic (Tg) mouse that expresses a membrane-localized fluorescent reporter protein, Gap43-Venus, under the control of the Vegfr3 regulatory sequence. Vegfr3-Gap43-Venus BAC Tg recapitulated endogenous Vegfr3 expression in vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells during embryonic development and tumor development. Thus, this Tg mouse line contributes a valuable model to study angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in physiological and pathological contexts.

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<![CDATA[Corneal endothelium features in Fuchs’ Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy: A preliminary 3D anterior segment optical coherence tomography study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c09944cd5eed0c4842ae9a3

Purpose

To evaluate the feasibility of 3D anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) for the detection of corneal endothelial features in patients with Fuchs’ Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD).

Methods

Twenty patients with clinical diagnosis of FECD (group A), and 20 control subjects (group B) were enrolled. In all patients a complete ophthalmological examination was performed, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), slit lamp examination for subjective grading of FECD and corneal endothelial specular microscopy. A 512x128 AS-OCT cube centered on the corneal apex was performed, and then the inner surface of the cornea was visualized and analyzed individually.

Results

Overall, the study participants were adults (mean age was 57.35 ± 8.45 years [mean ± SD] 80% female) with a BCVA ranged from 1.3 to 0 LogMAR. The OCT analysis disclosed three different patterns of the corneal endothelium (1, 2, 3) according to the signal distribution and the level of reflectivity: a homogenous, hypo-reflective surface (pattern 1); the presence of hyper-reflective orange-yellowish points (pattern 2); and a mottled appearance with a variable number of hyper-reflective areas (pattern 3). The distributions of these morphological models in the two populations were as follows: patterns 1, 2 and 3 were observed respectively in 0%, 80%, and 20% of patients in group A, and in 80%, 20% and 0% of subjects in group B. Correlation analysis unveiled a positive relationship between OCT corneal endothelium reflectivity and the clinical severity score (assessed with biomicroscopy), as well as an inverse relationship between the OCT pattern and the integrity of corneal endothelium.

Conclusion

3D AS-OCT is a useful tool in investigation of endothelial features and therefore may represent a valuable support in the setting of FECD diagnosis and staging.

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<![CDATA[Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is critical for dengue NS1-induced endothelial glycocalyx degradation and hyperpermeability]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5af0b540463d7e1d4f6521d7

Vascular leakage is one of the salient characteristics of severe dengue. Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of dengue virus (DENV) can stimulate endothelial cells to secrete endothelial hyperpermeability factor, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and the glycocalyx degradation factor heparanase 1 (HPA-1). However, it is unclear whether MIF is directly involved in NS1-induced glycocalyx degradation. In this study, we observed that among NS1, MIF and glycocalyx degradation-related molecules, the HPA-1, metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and syndecan 1 (CD138) serum levels were all increased in dengue patients, and only NS1 and MIF showed a positive correlation with the CD138 level in severe patients. To further characterize and clarify the relationship between MIF and CD138, we used recombinant NS1 to stimulate human cells in vitro and challenge mice in vivo. Our tabulated results suggested that NS1 stimulation could induce human endothelial cells to secrete HPA-1 and immune cells to secrete MMP-9, resulting in endothelial glycocalyx degradation and hyperpermeability. Moreover, HPA-1, MMP-9, and CD138 secretion after NS1 stimulation was blocked by MIF inhibitors or antibodies both in vitro and in mice. Taken together, these results suggest that MIF directly engages in dengue NS1-induced glycocalyx degradation and that targeting MIF may represent a possible therapeutic approach for preventing dengue-induced vascular leakage.

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<![CDATA[CDKN1B/p27 is localized in mitochondria and improves respiration-dependent processes in the cardiovascular system—New mode of action for caffeine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b49cacb463d7e33e4eac05d

We show that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B)/p27, previously known as a cell cycle inhibitor, is also localized within mitochondria. The migratory capacity of endothelial cells, which need intact mitochondria, is completely dependent on mitochondrial p27. Mitochondrial p27 improves mitochondrial membrane potential, increases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, and is required for the promigratory effect of caffeine. Domain mapping of p27 revealed that the N-terminus and C-terminus are required for those improvements. Further analysis of those regions revealed that the translocation of p27 into the mitochondria and its promigratory activity depend on serine 10 and threonine 187. In addition, mitochondrial p27 protects cardiomyocytes against apoptosis. Moreover, mitochondrial p27 is necessary and sufficient for cardiac myofibroblast differentiation. In addition, p27 deficiency and aging decrease respiration in heart mitochondria. Caffeine does not increase respiration in p27-deficient animals, whereas aged mice display improvement after 10 days of caffeine in drinking water. Moreover, caffeine induces transcriptome changes in a p27-dependent manner, affecting mostly genes relevant for mitochondrial processes. Caffeine also reduces infarct size after myocardial infarction in prediabetic mice and increases mitochondrial p27. Our data characterize mitochondrial p27 as a common denominator that improves mitochondria-dependent processes and define an increase in mitochondrial p27 as a new mode of action of caffeine.

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<![CDATA[Enhancement of bradykinin-induced relaxation by focal brain ischemia in the rat middle cerebral artery: Receptor expression upregulation and activation of multiple pathways]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b498f9f463d7e0897c6e018

Focal brain ischemia markedly affects cerebrovascular reactivity. So far, these changes have mainly been related to alterations in the level of smooth muscle cell function while alterations of the endothelial lining have not yet been studied in detail. We have, therefore, investigated the effects of ischemia/reperfusion injury on bradykinin (BK)-induced relaxation since BK is an important mediator of tissue inflammation and affects vascular function in an endothelium-dependent manner. Focal brain ischemia was induced in rats by endovascular filament occlusion (2h) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). After 22h reperfusion, both MCAs were harvested and the response to BK studied in organ bath experiments. Expression of the BK receptor subtypes 1 and 2 (B1, B2) was determined by real-time semi-quantitative RT-qPCR methodology, and whole mount immunofluorescence staining was performed to show the B2 receptor protein expression. In control animals, BK did not induce significant vasomotor effects despite a functionally intact endothelium and robust expression of B2 mRNA. After ischemia/reperfusion injury, BK induced a concentration-related sustained relaxation in all arteries studied, more pronounced in the ipsilateral than in the contralateral MCA. The B2 mRNA was significantly upregulated and the B1 mRNA displayed de novo expression, again more pronounced ipsi- than contralaterally. Endothelial cells displaying B2 receptor immunofluorescence were observed scattered or clustered in previously occluded MCAs. Relaxation to BK was mediated by B2 receptor activation, abolished after endothelium denudation, and largely diminished by blocking nitric oxide (NO) release or soluble guanylyl cyclase activity. Relaxation to BK was partially inhibited by charybdotoxin (ChTx), but not apamin or iberiotoxin suggesting activation of an endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization pathway. When the NO-cGMP pathway was blocked, BK induced a transient relaxation which was suppressed by ChTx. After ischemia/reperfusion injury BK elicits endothelium-dependent relaxation which was not detectable in control MCAs. This gain of function is mediated by B2 receptor activation and involves the release of NO and activation of an endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization. It goes along with increased B2 mRNA and protein expression, leaving the functional role of the de novo B1 receptor expression still open.

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<![CDATA[Increased Endothelial Cell-Leukocyte Interaction in Murine Schistosomiasis: Possible Priming of Endothelial Cells by the Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad7ab0ee8fa60bb83fb

Background and Aims

Schistosomiasis is an intravascular parasitic disease associated with inflammation. Endothelial cells control leukocyte transmigration and vascular permeability being modulated by pro-inflammatory mediators. Recent data have shown that endothelial cells primed in vivo in the course of a disease keep the information in culture. Herein, we evaluated the impact of schistosomiasis on endothelial cell-regulated events in vivo and in vitro.

Methodology and Principal Findings

The experimental groups consisted of Schistosoma mansoni-infected and age-matched control mice. In vivo infection caused a marked influx of leukocytes and an increased protein leakage in the peritoneal cavity, characterizing an inflamed vascular and cellular profile. In vitro leukocyte-mesenteric endothelial cell adhesion was higher in cultured cells from infected mice as compared to controls, either in the basal condition or after treatment with the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Nitric oxide (NO) donation reduced leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells from control and infected groups; however, in the later group the effect was more pronounced, probably due to a reduced NO production. Inhibition of control endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) increased leukocyte adhesion to a level similar to the one observed in the infected group. Besides, the adhesion of control leukocytes to endothelial cells from infected animals is similar to the result of infected animals, confirming that schistosomiasis alters endothelial cells function. Furthermore, NO production as well as the expression of eNOS were reduced in cultured endothelial cells from infected animals. On the other hand, the expression of its repressor protein, namely caveolin-1, was similar in both control and infected groups.

Conclusion/Significance

Schistosomiasis increases vascular permeability and endothelial cell-leukocyte interaction in vivo and in vitro. These effects are partially explained by a reduced eNOS expression. In addition, our data show that the disease primes endothelial cells in vivo, which keep the acquired phenotype in culture.

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<![CDATA[Rehmannia Glutinosa Extract Activates Endothelial Progenitor Cells in a Rat Model of Myocardial Infarction through a SDF-1 α/CXCR4 Cascade]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da08ab0ee8fa60b7671c

Objectives

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can be used to repair tissues after myocardial infarction (MI) but EPC activators have adverse reactions. Rehmannia glutinosa is a herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, which can promote bone-marrow proliferation and protect the ischemic myocardium. We investigated the effects of Rehmannia glutinosa extract (RGE) on EPCs in a rat model of MI.

Methods

A total of 120 male Wistar rats were randomized to 2 groups (n = 60 each) for treatment: high-dose RGE (1.5 g·kg−1·day−1 orally) for 8 weeks, then left anterior descending coronary artery ligation, mock surgery or no treatment, then RGE orally for 4 weeks; or normal saline (NS) as the above protocol. The infarct region of the left ventricle was assessed by serial sectioning and morphology. EPCs were evaluated by number and function. Protein and mRNA levels of CD133, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), chemokine C-X-C motif receptor 4 (CXCR4), stromal cell–derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) were measured by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and quantitative PCR analysis.

Results

RGE significantly improved left ventricular function, decreased the ischemic area and the apoptotic index in the infarct myocardium, also decreased the concentration of serum cardiac troponin T and brain natriuretic peptide at the chronic stage after MI (from week 2 to week 4). RGE increased EPC number, proliferation, migration and tube-formation capacity. It was able to up-regulate the expression of angiogenesis-associated ligand/receptor, including CD133, VEGFR2 and SDF-1α/CXCR4. In vitro, the effect of RGE on SDF-1α/CXCR4 cascade was reversed by the CXCR4 specific antagonist AMD3100.

Conclusion

RGE may enhance the mobilization, migration and therapeutic angiogenesis of EPCs after MI by activating the SDF-1α/CXCR4 cascade.

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