ResearchPad - energy https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Genetic diversity of <i>Echinococcus multilocularis</i> and <i>Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato</i> in Kyrgyzstan: The A2 haplotype of <i>E</i>. <i>multilocularis</i> is the predominant variant infecting humans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13871 Analysis of the genetic variability in Echinococcus species from different endemic countries have contributed to the knowledge in the taxonomy and phylogeography of these parasites. The most important species of this genus, Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and Echinococcus multilocularis, co-exist in Kyrgyzstan causing serious public health issues. E. granulosus s.l. causes cystic echinococcosis and E. multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. The most relevant finding of our study is the identification of the cob/nad2/cox1 A2 haplotype of E. multilocularis as the most commonly found in humans and dogs. However, it remains unknown if this variant of E. multilocularis, based on genetic differences in mitochondrial genes, presents differences in virulence which could have contributed to the emergence of alveolar echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan. The results also show a number of non-previously described genetic variants of E. multilocularis and E. granulosus s.s.

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<![CDATA[Betanin purification from red beetroots and evaluation of its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity on LPS-activated microglial cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13861 Microglial activation can release free radicals and various pro-inflammatory cytokines, which implicates the progress of a neurodegenerative disease. Therefore suppression of microglial activation can be an appropriate strategy for combating neurodegenerative diseases. Betanin is a red food dye that acts as free radical scavenger and can be a promising candidate for this purpose. In this study, purification of betanin from red beetroots was carried out by normal phase colum chromatography, yielding 500 mg of betanin from 100 g of red beetroot. The purified betanin was evaluated by TLC, UV-visible, HPLC, ESI-MASS, FT-IR spectroscopy. Investigation on the inhibitory effect of betanin on activated microglia was performed using primary microglial culture. The results showed that betanin significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide induced microglial function including the production of nitric oxide free radicals, reactive oxygen species, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). Moreover, betanin modulated mitochondrial membrane potential, lysosomal membrane permeabilization and adenosine triphosphate. We further investigated the interaction of betanin with TNF-α, IL-6 and Nitric oxide synthase (iNOS or NOS2) using in silico molecular docking analysis. The docking results demonstrated that betanin have significant negative binding energy against active sites of TNF-α, IL-6 and iNOS.

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<![CDATA[Amino acids serve as an important energy source for adult flukes of <i>Clonorchis sinensis</i>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13829 Clonorchiasis, closely related to cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma, has led to a negative socioeconomic impact in global areas especially some Asian endemic regions. Owing to the emergence of drug resistance and hypersensitivity reactions after the massive and repeated use of praziquantel as well as the lack of effective vaccines, searching for new strategies that prevent and treat clonorchiasis has become an urgent matter. Clonorchis sinensis, the causative agent of clonorchiasis, long-term inhabits the microaerobic and limited-glucose environment of the bile ducts. Adequate nutrients are essential for adult flukes to resist the adverse condition and survive in the crowed habitat. Studies on energy metabolism of adult flukes are beneficial for further exploring host-parasite interactions and developing novel anti-parasitic drugs. Our results suggest that gluconeogenesis probably plays a vital role in energy metabolism of Clonorchis sinensis and exogenous amino acids might be an essential energy source for adult flukes to successfully survive in the host. Our foundational study opens a new avenue for explaining energy metabolism of Clonorchis sinensis and provides a valuable strategy that the gluconeogenesis pathway will be a potential and novel target for the prevention and treatment of clonorchiasis.

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<![CDATA[Instigation of indigenous thermophilic bacterial consortia for enhanced oil recovery from high temperature oil reservoirs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13812 The purpose of the study involves the development of an anaerobic, thermophilic microbial consortium TERIK from the high temperature reservoir of Gujarat for enhance oil recovery. To isolate indigenous microbial consortia, anaerobic baltch media were prepared and inoculated with the formation water; incubated at 65°C for 10 days. Further, the microbial metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography, FTIR and surface tension. The efficiency of isolated consortia towards enhancing oil recovery was analyzed through core flood assay. The novelty of studied consortia was that, it produces biomass (600 mg/l), bio-surfactant (325 mg/l), and volatile fatty acids (250 mg/l) at 65°C in the span of 10 days, that are adequate to alter the surface tension (70 to 34 mNm -1) and sweep efficiency of zones facilitating the displacement of oil. TERIK was identified as Clostridium sp. The FTIR spectra of biosurfactant indicate the presence of N-H stretch, amides and polysaccharide. A core flooding assay was designed to explore the potential of TERIK towards enhancing oil recovery. The results showed an effective reduction in permeability at residual oil saturation from 2.14 ± 0.1 to 1.39 ± 0.05 mD and 19% incremental oil recovery.

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<![CDATA[Method to allocate voting resources with unequal ballots and/or education]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N24b1ebae-217b-4666-b3f3-951e4c54c85f Image, graphical abstract

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<![CDATA[Bioclimatic Prosthesis: Experimental dataset for a low-cost Trombe wall to existing social housing refurbishment for an intermediate valley (Chillán) city in the south of Chile]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4f3f116a-70a8-4416-82c5-6db251840c03 This dataset is part of the article entitled “Design and experimental study of a low-cost prefab Trombe Wall to improve indoor temperatures in social housing in the Biobío Region in Chile” [1], [2]. The dataset represents the outcome of experimental measurements during a 1-year monitoring campaign to assess the performance of an adaptable and low-cost prefabricated Trombe Wall (TW) with a vertical water storage system. The experiments include periods with mobile insulation during winter nights and external shading during summer which were added to test their effect on the thermal performance.

Temperature sensors were used to measure and compare the temperature in two test cells: one with and one without the TW. Following the National Chilean Standard [3], the experiment was done in the interior valley (Chillan), a Mediterranean climate (Csb), according to the Köppen climate classification [4].

The two test cells were designed to represent the most used area of a social housing unit in combination with the most widely used type of window in north façades in the region. One test cell was built exactly as the social housing unit, while the second test cell included a low-cost Trombe wall. Five temperature sensors were installed in the test cells.

The thermal performance of the TW was monitored and analysed for the first time in Chile, providing insights in the thermal performance of the TW and proving the potential effectiveness of seasonal variations to improve winter and summer performances.

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<![CDATA[Proximate composition, functional properties and quantitative analysis of benzoyl peroxide and benzoic acid in wheat flour samples: effect on wheat flour quality]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0736ec7d-e38f-4e4c-ab71-fcfab2852b5d

Background

Extensive milling processes have deprived wheat flour from essential nutrients. The objective of the current study was to assess the nutritive quality of commercial wheat flour (soft flour (SF)) through analyses of proximate composition and functional properties as well as quantification of benzoyl peroxide (BPO; added as bleaching agent in the SF) by comparing the results with whole wheat flour (WF; never received any additives).

Methods

The samples included commercial SF purchased from the local supplier of different flour mills (who use BPO as additive) and a control sample without additives was prepared by grinding the seeds harvested from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.; Inqulab 91) crop grown in the experimental field of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, under optimized field conditions without any fertilizers and insecticides. Functional properties (including bulk density, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, emulsifying activity, foaming capacity, least gelatinization concentration and gelatinization temperature) and proximate composition (including moisture content, ash contents, crude protein, gluten and starch contents) were determined and compared for all the samples. Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and Benzoic Acid (BA) quantification was performed through High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Finally dietary intake was estimated for BPO and BA.

Results

Results showed that SF had lesser fiber, protein and ash contents, whereas, higher damaged starch, fat, gluten and bulk density. A parallel experiment under selected conditions (temperature, time and solute concentration) showed dissociation of BPO into BA soon after the exposure. Observed BA range (13.77 mg/g after 16 h) in SF and exposure level assessment (44.3 ± 1.36 mg/kg/BW) showed higher intake of BA on the consumption of SF. The results revealed the superiority of WF over SF in nutritive qualities as well as free of toxicants such as BA.

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<![CDATA[Data supporting the evaluation of the energy recovery potential of thermoelectric generators in diesel engines]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N61d4fa4b-f6f0-4f67-a54e-f5eb5312be97

Power generation with thermoelectric devices in internal combustion engines is an alternative to recover some of the energy loss with the exhausts. This data article supports a study that assesses the potentialities of energy recovery with thermoelectric generators in diesel engines and its influence on gaseous emissions. To this end, a set of experiments was developed with a thermoelectric generator and a waffle heat exchanger. The experimental design included nine operation points of the engine to characterize the energy recovery of the thermoelectric generator under different exploitation conditions. Three different fuels (i.e., diesel, B5, and B10) were used. The experiments were developed in a test bench with three data acquisition systems to measure the operational variables (e.g., electric power generation, pressure drop, temperature, etc.). Moreover, a gas analyzer (BrainBee AGS-688), Bacharach gas analyzer (PCA 400), and a smoke meter (BrainBee OPA-100) were used to measure exhaust emissions.

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<![CDATA[Reconciling Estimates of Ocean Heating and Earth’s Radiation Budget]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne7d52a27-96a1-4dd7-9b49-dd2270d4ac66

Purpose of review

The purpose of this review is to summarise the recent literature and scientific challenges on the topic of reconciling estimates of ocean heating rates with satellite-based monitoring of Earth’s radiation budget (ERB), including discussion of the satellite record and in situ ocean observing system.

Recent findings

State-of-the-art climate model simulations suggest that the global ocean becomes the dominant term the planetary heat budget on annual and longer timescales. Therefore, we expect to see a close correspondence between year-to-year variations in ocean heating rates and satellite measurements of ERB. Recent comparisons of satellite ERB time series and ocean heating rates show a marked improvement over earlier studies in terms of consistency and specification of uncertainties. Contemporary research has also emphasised the utility of these independent data sets for cross validation of the climate record and their fundamental importance for monitoring the rate of climate change.

Summary

Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions have brought about an imbalance in Earth’s radiation budget that is driving global climate change. Our primary means for monitoring this energy imbalance is via direct satellite measurements of ERB and through estimates of global ocean heat content (OHC) change. CERES satellite measurements of ERB offer high spatiotemporal resolution and uncertainties on annual time series of order 0.1 Wm-2 but cannot provide absolute monitoring of Earth’s energy imbalance due to limitations in sensor calibration. The Argo array of autonomous profiling floats has revolutionised the ocean observing system and our ability to estimate absolute ocean heating rates with current uncertainties estimated to be 0.5/0.1 Wm-2 on annual/decadal timescales. These ocean observations are essential to “anchor” the time series of ERB and can be used to mitigate satellite sensor drifts. Sustaining these highly complementary elements of the climate observing system is essential for improved understanding of climate variability and change. Improvements in satellite sensor calibration, estimates of total solar irradiance and more comprehensive sampling of the global oceans (e.g. Deep Argo) are key aspects to reducing uncertainties in future observations of Earth’s energy imbalance.

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<![CDATA[Process and economic data for the thermo-economic analyses of IGCC power plants employing warm gas CO2 separation technology]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N164dfece-796a-43d2-9659-3f9b45ebd287

Steady state simulations were carried out in APSEN Plus®, state-point stream data were extracted from the simulation results and tabulated in sequential order for IGCC configurations. These data give detailed insights into the performance of individual process units and enable researches to better understand the interplay of various process units as well as provide data for reproducibility of the work described in Ref. (Rosner et al., 2019). Furthermore, more detailed insights in the economic analysis are garnered by providing itemized capital and operating cost data as well as the individual unit cost correlations. In addition, a detailed plant water balance is provided for the base cases of the cold gas cleanup scenario and warm gas cleanup scenario.

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<![CDATA[Experimental data for the characterization of heat transfer processes in a cement based thermal energy storage system with helical heat exchanger]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2b52a9b5-d280-4740-876c-b6e3f8e1a9f9

This document compiles the detailed experimental data and description of four different heat charging tests presented in Nordbeck et al. ([1]), which aimed at the basic performance characterization of a lab-scale prototype of a new scalable, cement based, sensible heat storage system. The data set contains transient distributed measurements of temperatures within the storage as well as measurements of the experimental boundary conditions (heat carrier fluid flow rates, charging and laboratory temperatures) at high temporal resolution. In addition, the geometrical configuration of the storage and its component parts as well as the associated thermal material parameters are specified. The presented data is useful to assess and compare storage characteristics (storage capacities, charging/discharging rates, energy efficiency, heat loss behaviour) of the new heat storage system. The data can also be used as a reference data set for the development and verification of numerical models of modular solid-liquid heat storages or other related geothermal systems such as ground source heat pumps or energy piles using helical heat exchangers.

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<![CDATA[Dataset of Comprehensive Thermal Performance on Cooling the Hot Tube Surfaces of Vortex Tube at Different Pressure and Fraction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2db30c6c-8da1-4c4c-af86-063d9263c24a

The performance of the vortex tube is low compared to a conventional heat pump engine based on Freon refrigerants, and therefore, there is a need for an experiment on how to improve its efficiency. This data article aims to analyze the effect of the new vortex tube design on cold temperature (Tc), hot temperature (Th), delta cold temperature (ΔTc), delta hot temperature (ΔTh), heat transferred as cooling effect (Q˙c), heat transferred as heating effect (Q˙h), isentropic efficiency as cooling effect (ηisc), isentropic efficiency as heating effect (ηisc), the coefficient of performance refrigeration (COPref), and coefficient of performance heat pump (COPh), which is tested based on pressure and fraction variations. The data were obtained from the experimental measurements. Data were collected at conditions with temperature controlled at 27 ± 0.1°C. All measuring instruments were supposed to be consistent for at least 5 min for data to be collected, although retrieval was conducted 4 times.

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<![CDATA[Data on FTIR, TGA – DTG, DSC of invasive pennisetum purpureum grass]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0a4e3827-b391-4920-99c0-fef569814702

The aim of this research is to characterize the invasive grass, Pennisetum purpureum, to evaluate the potentiality of the bioenergy production. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra are measured in order to understand the functional groups and their structure in the biomass. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG) data are provided under Pyrolysis (N2) and combustion (O2) conditions to reveal the degradation pattern of the biomass. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is the thermochemical process to measure the enthalpy changes pattern of the biomass. The original data presented in this work can be found in a research paper titled “Evaluation of the bioenergy potential of invasive Pennisetum purpureum through pyrolysis and thermogravimetric analysis”, by Md Sumon Reza, Shafi Noor Islam, Shammya Afroze, Muhammad S. Abu Bakar, Rahayu S. Sukri, Saidur Rahman, and Abul K. Azad [1].

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<![CDATA[Proteomic analysis of protein composition of rat hippocampus exposed to morphine for 10 days; comparison with animals after 20 days of morphine withdrawal]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2838fdc6-dc33-429a-ba0d-e2e831e6a950

Opioid addiction is recognized as a chronic relapsing brain disease resulting from repeated exposure to opioid drugs. Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the ability of organism to return back to the physiological norm after cessation of drug supply are not fully understood. The aim of this work was to extend our previous studies of morphine-induced alteration of rat forebrain cortex protein composition to the hippocampus. Rats were exposed to morphine for 10 days and sacrificed 24 h (groups +M10 and −M10) or 20 days after the last dose of morphine (groups +M10/−M20 and −M10/−M20). The six altered proteins (≥2-fold) were identified in group (+M10) when compared with group (−M10) by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). The number of differentially expressed proteins was increased to thirteen after 20 days of the drug withdrawal. Noticeably, the altered level of α-synuclein, β-synuclein, α-enolase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was also determined in both (±M10) and (±M10/−M20) samples of hippocampus. Immunoblot analysis of 2D gels by specific antibodies oriented against α/β-synucleins and GAPDH confirmed the data obtained by 2D-DIGE analysis. Label-free quantification identified nineteen differentially expressed proteins in group (+M10) when compared with group (−M10). After 20 days of morphine withdrawal (±M10/−M20), the number of altered proteins was increased to twenty. We conclude that the morphine-induced alteration of protein composition in rat hippocampus after cessation of drug supply proceeds in a different manner when compared with the forebrain cortex. In forebrain cortex, the total number of altered proteins was decreased after 20 days without morphine, whilst in hippocampus, it was increased.

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<![CDATA[The draft mitochondrial genome of Magnolia biondii and mitochondrial phylogenomics of angiosperms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1f661d3e-d0c0-407e-92c0-bb72cd78029d

The mitochondrial genomes of flowering plants are well known for their large size, variable coding-gene set and fluid genome structure. The available mitochondrial genomes of the early angiosperms show extreme genetic diversity in genome size, structure, and sequences, such as rampant HGTs in Amborella mt genome, numerous repeated sequences in Nymphaea mt genome, and conserved gene evolution in Liriodendron mt genome. However, currently available early angiosperm mt genomes are still limited, hampering us from obtaining an overall picture of the mitogenomic evolution in angiosperms. Here we sequenced and assembled the draft mitochondrial genome of Magnolia biondii Pamp. from Magnoliaceae (magnoliids) using Oxford Nanopore sequencing technology. We recovered a single linear mitochondrial contig of 967,100 bp with an average read coverage of 122 × and a GC content of 46.6%. This draft mitochondrial genome contains a rich 64-gene set, similar to those of Liriodendron and Nymphaea, including 41 protein-coding genes, 20 tRNAs, and 3 rRNAs. Twenty cis-spliced and five trans-spliced introns break ten protein-coding genes in the Magnolia mt genome. Repeated sequences account for 27% of the draft genome, with 17 out of the 1,145 repeats showing recombination evidence. Although partially assembled, the approximately 1-Mb mt genome of Magnolia is still among the largest in angiosperms, which is possibly due to the expansion of repeated sequences, retention of ancestral mtDNAs, and the incorporation of nuclear genome sequences. Mitochondrial phylogenomic analysis of the concatenated datasets of 38 conserved protein-coding genes from 91 representatives of angiosperm species supports the sister relationship of magnoliids with monocots and eudicots, which is congruent with plastid evidence.

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<![CDATA[Dysregulated biodynamics in metabolic attractor systems precede the emergence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd64c8bc4-d849-4cf6-88a9-792b4ee4d346

Evolutionarily conserved mechanisms maintain homeostasis of essential elements, and are believed to be highly time-variant. However, current approaches measure elemental biomarkers at a few discrete time-points, ignoring complex higher-order dynamical features. To study dynamical properties of elemental homeostasis, we apply laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to tooth samples to generate 500 temporally sequential measurements of elemental concentrations from birth to 10 years. We applied dynamical system and Information Theory-based analyses to reveal the longest-known attractor system in mammalian biology underlying the metabolism of nutrient elements, and identify distinct and consistent transitions between stable and unstable states throughout development. Extending these dynamical features to disease prediction, we find that attractor topography of nutrient metabolism is altered in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), as early as childhood, suggesting these pathways are involved in disease risk. Mechanistic analysis was undertaken in a transgenic mouse model of ALS, where we find similar marked disruptions in elemental attractor systems as in humans. Our results demonstrate the application of a phenomological analysis of dynamical systems underlying elemental metabolism, and emphasize the utility of these measures in characterizing risk of disease.

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<![CDATA[Life Cycle Inventories datasets for future European electricity mix scenarios]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nab87d673-68ca-438d-9990-d8b4edae125e

Datasets concerning the European electricity mix, built employing the Ecoinvent database v.3.3 processes, are reported in this paper. Foreseen future scenarios are modelled based on acknowledged projections for energy market in Europe in 2050. These electricity mix data inventories could be useful for any academic or stakeholder interested in performing long-term prospective assessment of innovative generation technologies in the future European energy market.

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<![CDATA[Effect of internal surface structure of the north wall on Chinese solar greenhouse thermal microclimate based on computational fluid dynamics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf5b70015-c0ce-4e08-9dc5-5525c2c91d69

Chinese solar greenhouses are unique facility agriculture buildings and widely used in northeastern China, providing a favorable requirement for crop growth. The north wall configurations play an essential role in heat storage and thermal insulation and directly affect the management of the internal environment. This research is devoted to further improve the thermal performance of the greenhouse and explore the potential of the north wall. A mathematical model was designed to investigate the concave-convex wall configurations based on computational fluid dynamics. Four passive heat-storage north walls were analyzed by using the same constituent materials, including a plane wall, a vertical wall, a horizontal wall and an alveolate wall. The numerical model was validated by experimental measurements. The temperature distributions of the north walls were examined and a comparative analysis of the heat storage-release capabilities was carried out. The results showed that the heat-storage capacity of the north wall is affected by the surface structure. Moreover, the critical factor influencing the air temperature is the sum of the heat load released by the wall and the energy increment of greenhouse air. The results suggested that the alveolate wall has preferable thermal accumulation capacity. The concave-convex wall configurations have a wider range of heat transfer performance along the thickness direction, while the plane wall has a superior thermal environment. This study provides a basic theoretical reference to rationally design the internal surface structures of the north wall.

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<![CDATA[Data supporting consolidating emission indices of a diesel engine powered by carbon nanoparticle-doped diesel/biodiesel emulsion fuels using life cycle assessment framework]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd8fb7184-c6b2-4735-b39d-81c830a0a9d1

Integrated environmental analysis using life cycle assessment for different fuel blends used in a single-cylinder diesel engine was performed to select the most eco-friendly fuel blend. More specifically, the inventory data in support of the integrated environmental analysis of water-emulsified 5% biodiesel/diesel blends (B5) containing different levels of carbon nanoparticles (i.e., 38, 75, and 150 µM) as a novel fuel nanoadditives at a fixed engine speed of 1000 rpm and four different engine loads (i.e., 25, 50, 75, and 100%) are presented. Neat diesel, B5, and B5 containing water (3 wt.%) were used as controls. Raw data related to the production and combustion of fuel blends were experimentally collected. Industrial (i.e., experiments at large scale) and laboratory (i.e., experiments at small scale) data were used for fuel blends production while experimental data obtained by engine tests were used for the combustion stage. Then raw data were processed with the IMPACT 2002+ methods by using the SimaPro software and EcoInvent database and were then converted into environmental impacts. Accordingly, six supplementary files including the inventory data on integrated environmental analysis of the different fuel blends are presented (Supplementary Files 1–6). The data could be applied for integrated environmental analysis in order to avoid subjective weighting of combustion parameters for selecting the most eco-friendly fuel blend for use in diesel engines. More specifically, by developing a single score indicator obtained through conducting integrated combustion analysis, comparison of various fuel blends is largely facilitated.

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<![CDATA[A dataset of the thioacetmide supported formation of ZrO2 coating on Ni-rich layered structure cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1c6d1eab-63a0-4322-9aac-48eea6312fc2

A dataset in this report is regarding a research article “Crucial Role of Thioacetamide for ZrO2 Coating on the Fragile Surface of Ni-rich Layered Cathode in Lithium Ion Batteries” [1]. Thioacetamide (TA) is introduced to form a homogeneous ZrO2-coating in a facile method through washing with Zr(SO4)2 aqueous solution. The presence of the data in this paper indicated the role of TA for surface modification of LiNi0.82Co0.09Mn0.09O2 (NCM82) materials by ZrO2, leading to improve the electrochemical performance of NCM82 Ni-rich cathode materials. These data were proceeded measurement electrochemical properties of cathode electrode on a battery cycler, the surface characteristics of the cathode materials were investigated by SEM, EDS mapping, TEM and XPS. X-ray diffraction (XRD, Rigaku, SmartLab) was used to evaluate the influence of the coating layer on the microstructure of active materials.

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