ResearchPad - enterovirus-infection https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Virus detections among patients with severe acute respiratory illness, Northern Vietnam]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13805 Severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) is a major cause of death and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries, however, the etiologic agents are often undetermined due to the lack of molecular diagnostics in hospitals and clinics. To examine evidence for select viral infections among patients with SARI in northern Vietnam, we studied 348 nasopharyngeal samples from military and civilian patients admitted to 4 hospitals in the greater Hanoi area from 2017–2019. Initial screening for human respiratory viral pathogens was performed in Hanoi, Vietnam at the National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology (NIHE) or the Military Institute of Preventative Medicine (MIPM), and an aliquot was shipped to Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore for validation. Patient demographics were recorded and used to epidemiologically describe the infections. Among military and civilian cases of SARI, 184 (52.9%) tested positive for one or more respiratory viruses. Influenza A virus was the most prevalent virus detected (64.7%), followed by influenza B virus (29.3%), enterovirus (3.8%), adenovirus (1.1%), and coronavirus (1.1%). Risk factor analyses demonstrated an increased risk of influenza A virus detection among military hospital patients (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2–3.2), and an increased risk of influenza B virus detection among patients enrolled in year 2017 (adjusted OR, 7.9; 95% CI, 2.7–22.9). As influenza A and B viruses were commonly associated with SARI and are treatable, SARI patients entering these hospitals would benefit if the hospitals were able to adapt onsite molecular diagnostics.

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<![CDATA[Identification and characterization of nonpolio enterovirus associated with nonpolio-acute flaccid paralysis in polio endemic state of Uttar Pradesh, Northern India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b5244d5eed0c4842bc5c5

Despite polio eradication, nonpolio enterovirus (NPEV) detection amid polio surveillance, which is considered to have implications in paralysis, requires attention. The attributes of NPEV infections in nonpolio-AFP (NPAFP) cases from Uttar Pradesh (UP), India, remain undetermined and are thus investigated. A total of 1839 stool samples collected from patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) from UP, India, between January 2010 and October 2011 were analyzed as per the WHO algorithm. A total of 359 NPAFP cases yielded NPEVs, which were subjected to microneutralization assay, partial VP1 gene-based molecular serotyping and phylogenetic analysis. Demographic and clinical-epidemiological features were also ascertained. Echoviruses (29%) and Coxsackievirus (CV)-B (17%) were the most common viruses identified by the microneutralization assay. The molecular genotyping characterized the NPEVs into 34 different serotypes, corresponding to Enterovirus (EV)-A (1.6%), EV-B (94%) and EV-C (5.3%) species. The rarely described EV serotypes, such as EV-C95, CV-A20, EV-C105, EV-B75, EV-B101, and EV-B107, were also identified. NPEV-associated AFP was more prevalent in younger male children, peaked in the monsoon months and was predominantly found in the central part of the state. The NPEV strains isolated in the study exhibited genetic diversity from those isolated in other countries. These form part of a different cluster or subcluster existing in cocirculation, limited to India only. This study augments the understanding of epidemiological features and demonstrates the extensive diversity exhibited by the NPEV strains in NPAFP cases from the polio-endemic region. It also underscores the need or effective long-term strategies to monitor NPEV circulation and its associated health risks in the post-polio eradication era.

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<![CDATA[Molecular characterization of viruses associated with encephalitis in São Paulo, Brazil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c46657cd5eed0c48451968d

The objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence of viral encephalitis due to arbovirus infection of the Togaviridae and Flaviviridae families in São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 500 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected between August 2012 and January 2013, from patients with symptoms of acute encephalitis were analyzed. Findings suggestive of viral encephalitis—elevations in cell concentration, glucose and total protein—were observed in 234 (46.8%) samples, designated as Group 1. The remaining 266 samples comprised Group 2. All samples were tested for Flaviviruses (dengue virus 1, 2, 3 and 4, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus), Alphavirus (NS5 region) and enterovirus by RT- PCR and for herpesviruses and enteroviruses using CLART-Entherpex. A presumptive viral etiological agent was detected in 26 samples (5.2%), 18 (8.0%) in Group 1 and 8 (3.0%) in Group 2. In Group 1 human herpesviruses were detected in 9 cases, enteroviruses in 7 cases, dengue viruses (DENV) in 2 CSFs and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) in one case. In Group 2 there were 3 CSFs positive for human herpesviruses, 2 for enteroviruses, 2 for DENV and 1 for SLEV. Detection of arboviruses, even though present in a minority of infected patients, identifies these viruses as a probable etiological agent of encephalitis. This is of special concern in regions where this class of viruses is endemic and has been linked to other recent epidemics.

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<![CDATA[Population based hospitalization burden of laboratory-confirmed hand, foot and mouth disease caused by multiple enterovirus serotypes in Southern China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0a8bd5eed0c48442636c

Background

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is spread widely across Asia, and the hospitalization burden is currently not well understood. Here, we estimated serotype-specific and age-specific hospitalization rates of HFMD in Southern China.

Methods

We enrolled pediatric HFMD patients admitted to 3/3 county-level hospitals, and 3/23 township-level hospitals in Anhua county, Hunan (CN). Samples were collected to identify enterovirus serotypes by RT-PCRs between October 2013 and September 2016. Information on other eligible, but un-enrolled, patients were retrospectively collected from the same six hospitals. Monthly numbers of all-cause hospitalizations were collected from each of the 23 township-level hospitals to extrapolate hospitalizations associated with HFMD among these.

Results

During the three years, an estimated 3,236 pediatric patients were hospitalized with lab-confirmed HFMD, and among these only one case was severe. The mean hospitalization rate was 660 (95% CI: 638–684) per 100,000 person-years for lab-confirmed HFMD, with higher rates among CV-A16 and CV-A6 associated HFMD (213 vs 209 per 100,000 person-years), and lower among EV-A71, CV-A10 and other enterovirus associated HFMD (134, 39 and 66 per 100,000 person-years respectively, p<0.001). Children aged 12–23 months had the highest hospitalization rates (3,594/100,000 person-years), followed by those aged 24–35 months (1,828/100,000 person-years) and 6–11 months (1,572/100,000 person-years). Compared with other serotypes, CV-A6-associated hospitalizations were evident at younger ages.

Conclusions

Our study indicates a substantial hospitalization burden associated with non-severe HFMD in a rural county in southern China. Future mitigation policies should take into account the disease burden identified, and optimize interventions for HFMD.

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<![CDATA[A Retrospective Overview of Enterovirus Infection Diagnosis and Molecular Epidemiology in the Public Hospitals of Marseille, France (1985–2005)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafaab0ee8fa60bc4486

Human enteroviruses (HEV) are frequent human pathogens and, associated in particular with large outbreaks of aseptic meningitis. Here, we have compiled a database of clinical HEV isolates from the Public Hospitals of Marseille, from 1985 to 2005. Amongst 654 isolates that could be characterized by complete sequencing of the VP1 gene, 98% belonged to species HEV-B; the most frequently isolated serotypes were Echovirus E30, E11, E7, E6 and E4. The high incidence of E30 and the recent emergence of E13 are consistent with reports worldwide and peak HEV isolation occurred mostly in the late spring and summer months. The proportion of echoviruses has decreased across the years, while that of coxsackieviruses has increased. Stool (the most frequent sample type) allowed detection of all identified serotypes. MRC5 (Human lung fibroblasts) cell line was the most conducive cell line for HEV isolation (84.9% of 10 most common serotype isolates, 96.3% in association with BGM (Buffalo green monkey kidney cells)). Previous seroneutralization-based serotype identification demonstrated 55.4% accuracy when compared with molecular VP1 analysis. Our analysis of a large number of clinical strains over 20 years reinforced the validity of VP1 serotyping and showed that comparative p-distance scores can be coupled with phylogenetic analysis to provide non-ambiguous serotype identification. Phylogenetic analysis in the VP1, 2C and 3D regions also provided evidence for recombination events amongst clinical isolates. In particular, it identified isolates with dissimilar VP1 but almost identical nonstructural regions.

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<![CDATA[Identification and Typing of Human Enterovirus: A Genomic Barcode Approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadfab0ee8fa60bbb193

Identification and typing of human enterovirus (HEVs) are important to pathogen detection and therapy. Previous phylogeny-based typing methods are mainly based on multiple sequence alignments of specific genes in the HEVs, but the results are not stable with respect to different choices of genes. Here we report a novel method for identification and typing of HEVs based on information derived from their whole genomes. Specifically, we calculate the k-mer based barcode image for each genome, HEV or other human viruses, for a fixed k, 1<k<7, where a genome barcode is defined in terms of the k-mer frequency distribution across the whole genome for all combinations of k-mers. A phylogenetic tree is constructed using a barcode-based distance and a neighbor-joining method among a set of 443 representative non-HEV human viruses and 395 HEV sequences. The tree shows a clear separation of the HEV viruses from all the non-HEV viruses with 100% accuracy and a separation of the HEVs into four distinct clads with 93.4% consistency with a multiple sequence alignment-based phylogeny. Our detailed analyses of the HEVs having different typing results by the two methods indicate that our results are in better agreement with known information about the HEVs.

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<![CDATA[Different Antibody Response against the Coxsackievirus A16 VP1 Capsid Protein: Specific or Non-Specific]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa5ab0ee8fa60ba74f4

Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease worldwide. The non-neutralizing antibody response that targets CA16 VP1 remains poorly elucidated. In the present study, antibody responses against CA16 VP1 in Shanghai blood donors and Shanxi individuals were analyzed by ELISA and inhibitory ELISA using five CA16 VP1 antigens: VP11-297, VP141-297, VP11-60, VP145-58 and VP161-297. The correlation coefficients for most of the reactions against each of the five antigens and the inhibition of the anti-CA16 VP1 antibody response produced by the various antigens were higher in Shanghai blood donors compared to those in Shanxi individuals. VP11-297 and VP141-297 strongly inhibited the anti-CA16 VP1 response in serum samples from both populations, while VP145-58 and VP161-297 intermediately and weakly inhibited the anti-CA16 VP1 response, respectively, in only Shanghai group. A specific type of inhibition (anti-CA16 VP1 was completely inhibited by both VP11-60 and VP141-297) characterized by high neutralizing antibody titers was identified and accounted for 71.4% of the strongly reactive samples from the Shanghai group. These results indicate that the Shanghai blood donors exhibited a consistent and specific antibody response, while the Shanxi individuals showed an inconsistent and non-specific antibody response. These findings may improve the understanding of host humoral immunity against CA16 and help to identify an effective approach for seroepidemiological surveillance and specific diagnosis of CA16 infection based on normal and competitive ELISA.

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<![CDATA[A Single Nucleotide in Stem Loop II of 5′-Untranslated Region Contributes to Virulence of Enterovirus 71 in Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da00ab0ee8fa60b73e86

Background

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a neuroinvasive virus responsible for several large outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region while virulence determinant remains unexplored.

Principal Findings

In this report, we investigated increased virulence of unadapted EV71 clinical isolate 237 as compared with isolate 4643 in mice. A fragment 12 nucleotides in length in stem loop (SL) II of 237 5′-untranslated region (UTR) visibly reduced survival time and rate in mice was identified by constructing a series of infectious clones harboring chimeric 5′-UTR. In cells transfected with bicistronic plasmids, and replicon RNAs, the 12-nt fragment of isolate 237 enhanced translational activities and accelerated replication of subgenomic EV71. Finally, single nucleotide change from cytosine to uridine at base 158 in this short fragment of 5′-UTR was proven to reduce viral translation and EV71 virulence in mice. Results collectively indicated a pivotal role of novel virulence determinant C158 on virus translation in vitro and EV71 virulence in vivo.

Conclusions

These results presented the first reported virulence determinant in EV71 5′-UTR and first position discovered from unadapted isolates.

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<![CDATA[Quinacrine Impairs Enterovirus 71 RNA Replication by Preventing Binding of Polypyrimidine-Tract Binding Protein with Internal Ribosome Entry Sites]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da01ab0ee8fa60b740b6

Since the 1980s, epidemics of enterovirus 71 (EV71) and other enteroviruses have occurred in Asian countries and regions, causing a wide range of human diseases. No effective therapy is available for the treatment of these infections. Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) are indispensable for the initiation of translation in enteroviruses. Several cellular factors, as well as the ribosome, are recruited to the conserved IRES during this process. Quinacrine intercalates into the RNA architecture and inhibits RNA transcription and protein synthesis, and a recent study showed that quinacrine inhibited encephalomyocarditis virus and poliovirus IRES-mediated translation in vitro without disrupting internal cellular IRES. Here, we report that quinacrine was highly active against EV71, protecting cells from EV71 infection. Replication of viral RNA, expression of viral capsid protein, and production of virus were all strongly inhibited by quinacrine. Interaction of the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) with the conserved IRES was prevented by quinacrine. Coxsackieviruses and echovirus were also inhibited by quinacrine in cultured cells. These results indicate that quinacrine may serve as a potential protective agent for use in the treatment of patients with chronic enterovirus infection.

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<![CDATA[A novel enterovirus species identified from severe diarrheal goats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcc49

Backgrounds

The Enterovirus genus of the family of Picornaviridae consists of 9 species of Enteroviruses and 3 species of Rhinoviruses based on the latest virus taxonomy. Those viruses contribute significantly to respiratory and digestive disorders in human and animals. Out of 9 Enterovirus species, Enterovirus E-G are closely related to diseases affecting on livestock industry. While enterovirus infection has been increasingly reported in cattle and swine, the enterovirus infections in small ruminants remain largely unknown.

Methods

Virology, molecular and bioinformatics methods were employed to characterize a novel enterovirus CEV-JL14 from goats manifesting severe diarrhea with morbidity and mortality respectively up to 84% and 54% in China.

Results

CEV-JL14 was defined and proposed as a new Enterovirus species L within the genus of Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae. CEV-JL14 had a complete genome sequence of 7461 nucleotides with an ORF encoding 2172 amino acids, and shared 77.1% of genomic sequence identity with TB4-OEV, an ovine enterovirus. Comparison of 5’-UTR and structural genes of CEV-JL14 with known Enterovirus species revealed highly genetic variations among CEV-JL14 with known Enterovirus species. VP1 nucleotide sequence identities of CEV-14 were 51.8%-53.5% with those of Enterovirus E and F, 30.9%-65.3% with Enterovirus G, and 43.8–51. 5% with Enterovirus A-D, respectively. CEV-JL14 was proposed as a novel species within the genus of Enterovirus according to the current ICTV demarcation criteria of enteroviruses.

Conclusions

CEV-JL14 clustered phylogenetically to neither Enterovirus E and F, nor to Enterovirus G. It was defined and proposed as novel species L within the genus of Enterovirus. This is the first report of caprine enterovirus in China, the first complete genomic sequence of a caprine enterovirus revealed, and the unveiling of significant genetic variations between ovine enterovirus and caprine enterovirus, thus broadening the current understanding of enteroviruses.

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<![CDATA[African Non-Human Primates Host Diverse Enteroviruses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bd410c0d5eed0c4847c6af9

Enteroviruses (EVs) belong to the family Picornaviridae and are responsible for mild to severe diseases in mammals including humans and non-human primates (NHP). Simian EVs were first discovered in the 1950s in the Old World Monkeys and recently in wild chimpanzee, gorilla and mandrill in Cameroon. In the present study, we screened by PCR EVs in 600 fecal samples of wild apes and monkeys that were collected at four sites in Gabon. A total of 32 samples were positive for EVs (25 from mandrills, 7 from chimpanzees, none from gorillas). The phylogenetic analysis of VP1 and VP2 genes showed that EVs identified in chimpanzees were members of two human EV species, EV-A and EV-B, and those identified in mandrills were members of the human species EV-B and the simian species EV-J. The identification of two novel enterovirus types, EV-B112 in a chimpanzee and EV-B113 in a mandrill, suggests these NHPs could be potential sources of new EV types. The identification of EV-B107 and EV90 that were previously found in humans indicates cross-species transfers. Also the identification of chimpanzee-derived EV110 in a mandrill demonstrated a wide host range of this EV. Further research of EVs in NHPs would help understanding emergence of new types or variants, and evaluating the real risk of cross-species transmission for humans as well for NHPs populations.

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<![CDATA[Lineages, Sub-Lineages and Variants of Enterovirus 68 in Recent Outbreaks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0fab0ee8fa60bcb84e

Enterovirus 68 (EV68) was first isolated in 1962. Very few cases of EV68 infection were described over the ensuing 40 years. However, in the past few years, an increase in severe respiratory tract infections associated with EV68 has been reported. We identified two clusters of EV68 infection in South London, UK, one each in the autumn/winters of 2009 and 2010. Sequence comparison showed significant homology of the UK strains with those from other countries including the Netherlands, Japan and the Philippines, which reported EV68 outbreaks between 2008 and 2010. Phylogenetic analysis of all available VP1 sequences indicated the presence of two modern EV68 lineages. The 2010 UK strains belonged to lineage 2. Lineage 1 could be further divided into two sub-lineages: some Japanese and Dutch strains collected between 2004 and 2010 form a distinct sub-lineages (sub-lineage 1.1), whereas other strains from the UK, Japan, Netherlands and Philippines collected between 2008 and 2010 represent sub-lineage 1.2. The UK 2009 strains together with several Dutch and Japanese strains from 2009/2010 represents one variant (1.2.1), whereas those from the Philippines a second variant (1.2.2). Based on specific deletions and substitutions, we suggest rules for the assignment of lineages and sub-lineages. Molecular epidemiological analysis indicates rapid recent evolution of EV68 and this may explain the recent findings of a global resurgence of EV68. Continuous global monitoring of the clinical and molecular epidemiology of EV68 is recommended.

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<![CDATA[A Cost Effectiveness and Capacity Analysis for the Introduction of Universal Rotavirus Vaccination in Kenya: Comparison between Rotarix and RotaTeq Vaccines]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da96ab0ee8fa60ba1d5a

Background

Diarrhoea is an important cause of death in the developing world, and rotavirus is the single most important cause of diarrhoea associated mortality. Two vaccines (Rotarix and RotaTeq) are available to prevent rotavirus disease. This analysis was undertaken to aid the decision in Kenya as to which vaccine to choose when introducing rotavirus vaccination.

Methods

Cost-effectiveness modelling, using national and sentinel surveillance data, and an impact assessment on the cold chain.

Results

The median estimated incidence of rotavirus disease in Kenya was 3015 outpatient visits, 279 hospitalisations and 65 deaths per 100,000 children under five years of age per year. Cumulated over the first five years of life vaccination was predicted to prevent 34% of the outpatient visits, 31% of the hospitalizations and 42% of the deaths. The estimated prevented costs accumulated over five years totalled US$1,782,761 (direct and indirect costs) with an associated 48,585 DALYs. From a societal perspective Rotarix had a cost-effectiveness ratio of US$142 per DALY (US$5 for the full course of two doses) and RotaTeq US$288 per DALY ($10.5 for the full course of three doses). RotaTeq will have a bigger impact on the cold chain compared to Rotarix.

Conclusion

Vaccination against rotavirus disease is cost-effective for Kenya irrespective of the vaccine. Of the two vaccines Rotarix was the preferred choice due to a better cost-effectiveness ratio, the presence of a vaccine vial monitor, the requirement of fewer doses and less storage space, and proven thermo-stability.

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<![CDATA[Emergence and Transmission Pathways of Rapidly Evolving Evolutionary Branch C4a Strains of Human Enterovirus 71 in the Central Plain of China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d9ab0ee8fa60b66ebd

Background

Large-scale outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) occurred repeatedly in the Central Plain of China (Shandong, Anhui, and Henan provinces) from 2007 until now. These epidemics have increased in size and severity each year and are a major public health concern in mainland China.

Principal Findings

Phylogenetic analysis was performed and a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo tree was constructed based on the complete VP1 sequences of HEV71 isolates. These analyses showed that the HFMD epidemic in the Central Plain of China was caused by at least 5 chains of HEV71 transmission and that the virus continued to circulate and evolve over the winter seasons between outbreaks. Between 1998 and 2010, there were 2 stages of HEV71 circulation in mainland China, with a shift from evolutionary branch C4b to C4a in 2003–2004. The evolution rate of C4a HEV71 was 4.99×10-3 substitutions per site per year, faster than the mean of all HEV71 genotypes. The most recent common ancestor estimates for the Chinese clusters dated to October 1994 and November 1993 for the C4a and C4b evolutionary branches, respectively. Compared with all C4a HEV71 strains, a nucleotide substitution in all C4b HEV71 genome (A to C reversion at nt2503 in the VP1 coding region, which caused amino acid substitution of VP1–10: Gln to His) had reverted.

Conclusions

The data suggest that C4a HEV71 strains introduced into the Central Plain of China are responsible for the recent outbreaks. The relationships among HEV71 isolates determined from the combined sequence and epidemiological data reveal the underlying seasonal dynamics of HEV71 circulation. At least 5 HEV71 lineages circulated in the Central Plain of China from 2007 to 2009, and the Shandong and Anhui lineages were found to have passed through a genetic bottleneck during the low-transmission winter season.

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<![CDATA[Structural Basis for Recognition of Human Enterovirus 71 by a Bivalent Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0bab0ee8fa60b779b8

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease with severe neurological complications and even death in young children. We have recently identified a highly potent anti-EV71 neutralizing monoclonal antibody, termed D5. Here we investigated the structural basis for recognition of EV71 by the antibody D5. Four three-dimensional structures of EV71 particles in complex with IgG or Fab of D5 were reconstructed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) single particle analysis all at subnanometer resolutions. The most critical EV71 mature virion-Fab structure was resolved to a resolution of 4.8 Å, which is rare in cryo-EM studies of virus-antibody complex so far. The structures reveal a bivalent binding pattern of D5 antibody across the icosahedral 2-fold axis on mature virion, suggesting that D5 binding may rigidify virions to prevent their conformational changes required for subsequent RNA release. Moreover, we also identified that the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) of D5 heavy chain directly interacts with the extremely conserved VP1 GH-loop of EV71, which was validated by biochemical and virological assays. We further showed that D5 is indeed able to neutralize a variety of EV71 genotypes and strains. Moreover, D5 could potently confer protection in a mouse model of EV71 infection. Since the conserved VP1 GH-loop is involved in EV71 binding with its uncoating receptor, the scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2), the broadly neutralizing ability of D5 might attribute to its inhibition of EV71 from binding SCARB2. Altogether, our results elucidate the structural basis for the binding and neutralization of EV71 by the broadly neutralizing antibody D5, thereby enhancing our understanding of antibody-based protection against EV71 infection.

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<![CDATA[Immunodominant IgM and IgG Epitopes Recognized by Antibodies Induced in Enterovirus A71-Associated Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daaaab0ee8fa60ba8fee

Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is one of the main causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Unlike other enteroviruses that cause HFMD, EV-A71 is more frequently associated with severe neurological complications and fatality. To date, no effective licensed antivirals are available to combat EV-A71 infection. Little is known about the immunogenicity of viral non-structural proteins in humans. Previous studies have mainly focused on characterization of epitopes of EV-A71 structural proteins by using immunized animal antisera. In this study, we have characterized human antibody responses against the structural and non-structural proteins of EV-A71. Each viral protein was cloned and expressed in either bacterial or mammalian systems, and tested with antisera by western blot. Results revealed that all structural proteins (VP1-4), and non-structural proteins 2A, 3C and 3D were targets of EV-A71 IgM, whereas EV-A71 IgG recognized all the structural and non-structural proteins. Sixty three synthetic peptides predicted to be immunogenic in silico were synthesized and used for the characterization of EV-A71 linear B-cell epitopes. In total, we identified 22 IgM and four IgG dominant epitopes. Synthetic peptide PEP27, corresponding to residues 142–156 of VP1, was identified as the EV-A71 IgM-specific immunodominant epitope. PEP23, mapped to VP1 41–55, was recognized as the EV-A71 IgG cross-reactive immunodominant epitope. The structural protein VP1 is the major immunodominant site targeted by anti-EV-A71 IgM and IgG antibodies, but epitopes against non-structural proteins were also detected. These data provide new understanding of the immune response to EV-A71 infection, which benefits the development of diagnostic tools, potential therapeutics and subunit vaccine candidates.

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<![CDATA[The Association between Enterovirus 71 Infections and Meteorological Parameters in Taiwan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0dab0ee8fa60bcad92

Background

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections are a significant cause of neurological disorder and death in children worldwide. Seasonal variations in EV71 infections have been recognized, but the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between meteorological parameters and EV71 infection.

Methods and Findings

We analyzed the number of EV71 infections and daily climate data collected in Taiwan between 1998 and 2008 and used Poisson regression analysis and case-crossover methodology to evaluate the association between weather variability and the incidence of EV71 infection. A total of 1,914 EV71-infected patients were reported between 1998 and 2008. The incidence of EV71 infections reflected significant summertime seasonality (for oscillation, p<0.001). The incidence of EV71 infections began to rise at temperatures above 13°C (r2 = 0.76, p<0.001); at temperatures higher than approximately 26°C (r2 = 0.94, p<0.05), the incidence began to decline, producing an inverted V-shaped relationship. The increase in the incidence with increasing relative humidity was positive and linear (r2 = 0.68, p<0.05). EV71 infection was most highly correlated with temperature and relative humidity in the period that likely preceded the infection.

Conclusion

Our study provides quantitative evidence that the rate of EV71 infection increased significantly with increasing mean temperature and relative humidity in Taiwan.

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<![CDATA[Population Dynamics and Genetic Diversity of C4 Strains of Human Enterovirus 71 in Mainland China, 1998–2010]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da80ab0ee8fa60b9a41e

Background

Since 1997, several countries within the Asian Pacific region have been affected by one or more massive outbreaks of Hand Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD). Virus typing experiments revealed that these outbreaks were caused by strains of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) belonging to several different, recently emerged subgenogroups. In mainland China, a different situation was observed. The first outbreak, localized in Shangdong Province, was reported in 2007, and was followed by a wide-spread outbreak in mainland China in 2008. Since then, numbers of reported HFMD cases have been persistently high.

Methodology/Principal Findings

To gain insight in the epidemiological behavior of EV71 in China, we studied genetic diversity and EV71 population dynamics to address whether the increase in number of reported EV71 infections reflects a real increase in viral spread or is just the result of increased awareness and surveillance. We used systematically collected VP1 gene sequences of 257 EV71 strains collected in Guangdong province from 2008 to 2010 as part of HFMD surveillance activities, and supplemented them with 305 GenBank EV71 reference stains collected in China from 1998 to 2010. All isolates from Guangdong Province belonged to subgenogroup C4. Viral population dynamics indicated that the increased reporting of HFMD in China since 2007 reflects a real increase in viral spread and continued replacement of viral lineages through time. Amino acid sequence comparisons revealed substitution of amino acid in residues 22, 145 and 289 through time regularly with the VP1 gene of EV71 strains isolated in mainland China from 1998 to 2010.

Conclusions

EV71 strains isolated in mainland China mainly belonged to subgenogroup C4. There was exponential growth of the EV71 virus population in 2007 and 2008. There was amino acid substitution through time regularly with the VP1 gene which possibly increased viral spread and/or ability of the virus to circulate persistently among the Chinese population.

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<![CDATA[Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Hunan Province, China, 2009-2014: Epidemiology and Death Risk Factors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da46ab0ee8fa60b8bed6

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an arising public health problem in Asia, including China. Epidemiological data is necessary to enable judicious public health responses and interventions. We analyzed the epidemiological and laboratory data of 759,301 HFMD cases reported to the Hunan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2014. Univariate and multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors of fatality in HFMD. The incidence of HFMD was highest among children aged 1–3 years, compared with other age groups. Of the total HFMD cases, 7,222 (0.95%) were considered severe and 338 (0.04%) were fatal. Enterovirus-A71 was the major cause of severe and fatal cases (65.75% and 88.78%, respectively). For severe cases, the median time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 0.5 days (interquartile range [IQR] 0–1.5 days); the median time from diagnosis to severe illness was 2 days (IQR 1–3 days). For fatal cases, the median time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 0.5 days (IQR 0–1.5 days); the median time from diagnosis to death was 1.5 days (IQR 0.5–2.5 days). In multivariable analysis, the abuse of antibiotic, glucocorticoid and pyrazolone in village clinics at basic medical institutions were identified as independent risk factors for HFMD fatal cases. In conclusion, our results suggest that the future direction to control and respond to HFMD is intensive surveillance of enterovirus-A71 and improving the ability to diagnose disease and treat patients, especially in basic medical institutions.

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<![CDATA[Niclosamide Is a Proton Carrier and Targets Acidic Endosomes with Broad Antiviral Effects]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad0ab0ee8fa60bb602c

Viruses use a limited set of host pathways for infection. These pathways represent bona fide antiviral targets with low likelihood of viral resistance. We identified the salicylanilide niclosamide as a broad range antiviral agent targeting acidified endosomes. Niclosamide is approved for human use against helminthic infections, and has anti-neoplastic and antiviral effects. Its mode of action is unknown. Here, we show that niclosamide, which is a weak lipophilic acid inhibited infection with pH-dependent human rhinoviruses (HRV) and influenza virus. Structure-activity studies showed that antiviral efficacy and endolysosomal pH neutralization co-tracked, and acidification of the extracellular medium bypassed the virus entry block. Niclosamide did not affect the vacuolar H+-ATPase, but neutralized coated vesicles or synthetic liposomes, indicating a proton carrier mode-of-action independent of any protein target. This report demonstrates that physico-chemical interference with host pathways has broad range antiviral effects, and provides a proof of concept for the development of host-directed antivirals.

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