ResearchPad - environment-and-management https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The influence of shade allocation or total shade plus overhead fan on growth performance, efficiency of dietary energy utilization, and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle under tropical ambient conditions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14453 The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of shade allocation and shade plus fan on growth performance, dietary energy utilization and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle under tropical ambient conditionsMethodsTwo trials were conducted, involving a total of 1,560 young bulls (289±22 kg BW) assigned to 24 pens (65 bulls/pen and 6 pens/treatment). Pens were 585 m2 with 15 m fence line feed bunks. Shade treatments (m2 shade/animal) were: i) limited shade (LS) to 1.2 m2 shade/animal (LS1.2); ii) limited shade to 2.4 m2 shade/animal (LS2.4); iii) total shade (TS) which correspond to 9 m2/animal, and iv) total shade equipped with fans (TS+F). Trials lasted 158 and 183 days. In both studies, the average weekly maximum temperature exceeded 34°C.ResultsIncreasing shade allocation tended (p = 0.08) to linearly increases average daily gain (ADG), and dry matter intake (DMI, quadratic effect, p = 0.03). This effect was most apparent between LS1.2 and LS2.4. Shade allocation, per se, did not affect gain efficiency or estimated dietary net energy (NE). Compared with TS, TS+F increased (p<0.05) ADG, gain efficiency, and tended (p = 0.06) to increase dietary NE. There was a quadratic effect of shade on longissimus area and marbling score, with values being lower (p<0.01) for LS2.4 than for LS1.2 or TS. Likewise, marbling score was lower for TS+F than for TS. Percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart (KPH) linearly decreased with increasing shade. In contrast, KPH was greater for TS than for TS+F.ConclusionProviding more than 2.4 m2 shade/animal will not further enhance feedlot performance. The use of fans in combination with shade increases ADG and gain efficiency beyond that of shade, alone. These enhancements were not associated with increased DMI, but rather, to an amelioration of ambient temperature humidity index on maintenance energy requirement. ]]> <![CDATA[Differences in microbiome and virome between cattle and horses in the same farm]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14451 The ecosystem of an animal farm is composed of various elements, such as animals, farmers, plants, feed, soil, and microorganisms. A domesticated animal’s health is largely connected with the reservoir of bacteria and viruses in animal farms. Although a few studies have focused on exploring the gut microbiome of animals, communities of microbiota and viruses in feedlots have not been thoroughly investigated.MethodsHere, we collected feces and dust samples (4 groups: cattle feces, C_F; horse feces, H_F; cattle dust, C_D; and horse dust, H_D) from cattle and horse farms sharing the same housing and investigated their microbiome/virome communities by Illumina sequencing.ResultsDust groups (C_D and H_D) showed higher microbial diversity than feces groups (C_F and H_F) regardless of animal species. From the microbial community analysis, all the samples from the four groups have major phyla such as Proteobacteria (min 37.1% to max 42.8%), Firmicutes (19.1% to 24.9%), Bacteroidetes (10.6% to 22.1%), and Actinobacteria (6.1% to 20.5%). The abundance of Streptococcus, which commonly recognized as equine pathogens, was significantly higher in the horse group (H_D and H_F). Over 99% among the classified virome reads were classified as Caudovirales, a group of tailed bacteriophages, in all four groups. Foot-and-mouth disease virus and equine adenovirus, which cause deadly diseases in cattle and horse, respectively, were not detected.ConclusionOur results will provide baseline information to understand different gut and environmental microbial ecology between two livestock species. ]]> <![CDATA[Cacao bean husk: an applicable bedding material in dairy free-stall barns]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b408f54463d7e5939a91e1f

Objective

The objectives of the study were to assess the effect of cacao bean husk as bedding material in free-stall barn on the behavior, productivity, and udder health of dairy cattle, and on the ammonia concentrations in the barn.

Methods

Four different stall surfaces (no bedding, cacao bean husk, sawdust, and chopped wheat straw) were each continuously tested for a period of 1 week to determine their effects on nine lactating Holstein cows housed in the free-stall barn with rubber matting. The lying time and the milk yield were measured between d 4 and d 7. Blood samples for plasma cortisol concentration and teat swabs for bacterial counts were obtained prior to morning milking on d 7. The time-averaged gas-phase ammonia concentrations in the barn were measured between d 2 and d 7.

Results

The cows spent approximately 2 h more per day lying in the stalls when bedding was available than without bedding. The milk yield increased in the experimental periods when cows had access to bedding materials as compared to the period without bedding. The lying time was positively correlated with the milk yield. Bacterial counts on the teat ends recorded for cows housed on cacao bean husk were significantly lower than those recorded for cows housed without bedding. Ammonia concentration under cacao bean husk bedding decreased by 6%, 15%, and 21% as compared to no bedding, sawdust, and chopped wheat straw, respectively. The cortisol concentration was lowest in the period when cacao bean husk bedding was used. We observed a positive correlation between the ammonia concentrations in the barn and the plasma cortisol concentrations.

Conclusion

Cacao bean husk is a potential alternative of conventional bedding material, such as sawdust or chopped wheat straw, with beneficial effects on udder health and ammonia concentrations in the barns.

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<![CDATA[Isolation and characterization of new Methanosarcina mazei strains KOR-3, -4, -5, and -6 from an anaerobic digester using pig slurry]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4167d7463d7e676284f0a1

Objective

An experiment was conducted to isolate and identify new methanogens in Korea from an anaerobic digester that uses pig slurry.

Methods

An anaerobic digestate sample was collected from an anaerobic digester using pig slurry. Pre-reduced media were used for the growth and isolation of methanogens. Growth temperature range, pH range, NaCl concentration range, substrate utilization, and antibiotic tolerance were investigated to determine the physiological characteristics of isolated methanogens. The isolates were also examined microscopically for their morphology and Gram-stained. Polymerase chain reaction of 16S rRNA and mcrA gene-based amplicons was used for identification purpose.

Results

Four strains, designated KOR-3, -4, -5, and -6, were isolated and were non-motile, irregular coccoid, and 0.5 to 1.5 μm in diameter. Moreover, the cell walls of isolated strains were Gram-negative. KOR-3 and KOR-4 strains used acetate for methane production but did not use H2+CO2, formate, or methanol as a growth substrate KOR-5 and KOR-6 strains utilized acetate, methanol, and trimethylamine for methanogenesis but did not use H2+CO2 or formate as a growth substrate. The optimum temperature and pH for growth of four strains were 39°C and 6.8 to 7.2, respectively. The optimum concentration of NaCl for growth of KOR-3, KOR-5, and KOR-6 were 1.0% (w/v). The optimum NaCl concentration for KOR-4 was 0.5% (w/v). All of the strains tolerated ampicillin, penicillin G, kanamycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline; however, chloramphenicol inhibited cell growth. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes demonstrated that strains KOR-3, -4, -5, and -6 are related to Methanosarcina mazei (M. mazei, 99% sequence similarity).

Conclusion

On the basis of physiological and phylogenetic characteristics, strains KOR-3, -4, -5, and -6 are proposed to be new strains within the genus Methanosarcina, named M. mazei KOR-3, -4, -5, and -6.

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