ResearchPad - epidemiology-public-health https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Region-Wise Distribution of Schizophrenia With Cannabis Abuse and Medication Non-Compliance in the United States: A Nationwide Analysis of 51,975 Hospitalizations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16917 Objectives

To understand the region-wise differences in demographics, comorbid substance abuse, and hospital outcomes in adult schizophrenia inpatients with cannabis abuse and medication non-compliance.

Methods

We included 51,975 adults (18-65 years) from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2012 to 2014) with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia and comorbid diagnosis of cannabis abuse and medication non-compliance. We used descriptive statistics and linear-by-linear association to evaluate the region-wise differences in demographics and comorbid substance abuse. Analysis of variance was used for continuous variables such as length of stay (LOS) and total charges during hospitalization to measure the differences across the regions.

Results

Our study inpatients were from the United States regions: northeast ([NE] 30.4%), midwest ([MW] 24.3%), south (27.3%), and west (18%). A higher proportion of young adults (age: 18-35 years; overall total: 62.4%) were from the south (65.1%) and the NE (64.3%) regions. The study population comprised majorly of males in all the regions, ranging from 78.6% to 82.2% (overall total: 80.5%). The west region comprised majorly of whites (42.6%), whereas all other regions majorly had blacks, with the highest seen in the MW (63.2%) and south (63%) regions. The most prevalent comorbid substances in the study inpatients were tobacco (46.3%) and alcohol (32.3%). The mean LOS and total charges for the hospitalization were much higher in the NE region (LOS: 15.8 days; total charges: $44,336).

Conclusion

Cannabis abuse and medication non-compliance in schizophrenia patients were prevalent in the NE region of the United States and in the overall regions, and affects young adults, males, and Blacks from low-income families. This is associated with higher hospitalization stay and cost, which indirectly increase the healthcare burden.

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<![CDATA[Hepatic and Renal Profile of Scrub Typhus Patients at a Tertiary Care Center in India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16915 Introduction

Scrub typhus is a resurging zoonotic infection prevalent in South Asia with many recent outbreaks in India. It can mimic other tropical infections and the disease spectrum ranges from subclinical illness to life-threatening disease with multiorgan dysfunction. This study was conducted to study the pattern of hepatic and renal injury.

Methods

A retrospective study was done on 176 patients diagnosed by detecting IgM antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) over a period of three years at a tertiary center in Chandigarh, India. They were treated with doxycycline (azithromycin if pregnant) and supportive therapies. The patterns of hepatic and renal functions, along with the need of renal replacement therapy, were recorded and evaluated. The values were expressed as mean ± SD, and p values were calculated to establish statistical significance.

Results

Most of the cases were from the state of Haryana (37.5%), followed by Punjab (33.5%), Himachal Pradesh (13.6%), Uttar Pradesh (10.2%) and Chandigarh (5%). 30% of the study population was engaged in agriculture. The mean age was 32.3 ± 13.5 years with range of 13-65 years. A peak in the incidence was observed during monsoon months. Approximately 13% of the patients died. Urea, creatinine, bilirubin and aspartate transaminase were found to be higher in mortality group with statistical significance (p < 0.05). Alanine transaminase was higher and albumin was lower in the mortality group but without statistical significance. 27.8% had acute kidney injury, 90.9% had liver dysfunction and one patient had acute liver failure. All the pregnant patients had fetal loss.

Conclusion

Renal and liver dysfunctions are common in scrub typhus, and their occurrence adversely affects the outcome.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10713 Background

In the recent years, controversy has emerged regarding the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and the potential effects it could have on glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). This study investigates the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in pediatric patients with T1D from a single, large volume practice.

Methods

This was a retrospective chart review that collected clinical/demographic data as well as serum 25(OH) D levels from medical records of 395 children between the ages of 3 and 18 years with T1D followed at Nemours Children’s Hospital. This data was compared to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database. A Pearson’s Chi-square test was used between group associations. All statistical tests were two-sided and p < 0.05 was used for statistical significance.

Results

Of the 395 children included in these analyses, 4% were vitamin D deficient and 60% were vitamin D insufficient. There were no significant associations of vitamin D deficiency based on sex and age. Vitamin D deficiency was more common among White children when compared to Hispanic children and African American children (42% vs 29%; p < 0.001). Of those that were vitamin D insufficient (n = 235), most were Hispanic (51%), 36% White and 13% African American. There was a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.035). In the summer, children were less likely to be vitamin D deficient (3% vs 6% in winter) and less likely to be vitamin D insufficient (55% vs 71% in winter) (p = 0.007).

Conclusions

Vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent among pediatric type 1 diabetics of Central Florida and statistically significant correlation was found between vitamin D status and ethnicity, BMI as well as seasonal variation.

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<![CDATA[COVID-19 Awareness Among Healthcare Students and Professionals in Mumbai Metropolitan Region: A Questionnaire-Based Survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne9aae5a7-1f7b-4bbd-890e-3ffca7be7622 Background and objectives

The rapid and extensive spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has become a major cause of concern for the healthcare profession. The aim of this study is to assess the awareness of COVID-19 disease and related infection control practices among healthcare professionals and students in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region.

Materials and methods

A total of 1562 responders from the Mumbai Metropolitan Region completed a questionnaire-based survey on the awareness, knowledge, and infection control practices related to COVID-19 infection in the healthcare setting. The questionnaire was adapted from the current interim guidance and information for healthcare workers published by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Convenient sampling method was used for data collection and the distribution of responses was presented as frequencies and percentages. Descriptive statistics were performed for all groups and subgroups based on the percentage of correct responses. Individual pairwise comparisons were done using the median test for the percentage of correct responses.

Results

The overall awareness for all subgroups was adequate with 71.2% reporting correct answers. The highest percentage of correct responses were from undergraduate medical students and the lowest was from non-clinical/administrative staff. Less than half of the total respondents could correctly define “close contact.” More than three-fourths of the responders were aware of the various infection control measures like rapid triage, respiratory hygiene, and cough etiquette and having a separate, well ventilated waiting area for suspected COVID-19 patients. However, only 45.4% of the responders were aware of the correct sequence for the application of a mask/respirator, and only 52.5% of the responders were aware of the preferred hand hygiene method for visibly soiled hands.

Conclusion

There is a need for regular educational interventions and training programs on infection control practices for COVID-19 across all healthcare professions. Occupational health and safety are of paramount importance to minimize the risk of transmission to healthcare students and professionals and provide optimal care for patients.

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<![CDATA[How Essential Is to Focus on Physician's Health and Burnout in Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N33737985-b554-4e43-9c31-490fe233a225 An infection of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) that originated from Wuhan city of China in December 2019 converted rapidly into pandemic by March 11, 2020. To date, the number of confirmed cases and deaths has risen exponentially in more than 200 countries, with an estimated crude mortality ratio of at least over 2%. The unpreparedness to tackle the unprecedented situation of coronavirus has contributed to the rising number of cases, which has generated an immense sense of fear and anxiety amongst the public. It has further resulted in the inadequacy and unavailability of essential medical supplies, physicians, and healthcare workers (HCW). Although the chief focus is on minimizing transmission through prevention, combating infection, and saving lives by ramping up the development of treatment and vaccines, very little attention is on the critical issue of physician burnout, resident burnout, and the psychological well-being of HCW. Until now, no significant steps have been taken by the authorities to minimize the COVID-19 specific contributing factors for burnout. The COVID-19 has posed strain on the entire healthcare system already, and it is vital to remediate the issue of physician and resident burnout urgently with concrete actions to avoid subsequent potential short-term and long-term adverse implications.

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<![CDATA[Risk Factors for Early Childhood Caries in Toddlers: An Institution-based Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfa1e43c8-5c60-43e8-97ac-2914c42d0205 Background

Tooth decay experience among toddlers and preschoolers is of epidemic proportions worldwide and dental caries still remains an important childhood disease affecting a considerable part of this population. Though the prevalence of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is associated with several risk factors such as feeding and oral hygiene practices, Streptococcus mutans levels, socioeconomic status (SES), etc., it is suggested that these factors should be studied adequately to aid in the early prevention and management of ECC.

Objective

The objectives of the study were to: a) evaluate the distribution of ECC, b) study the role of SES in the occurrence of ECC, c) record the variations in feeding and dietary practices along with oral hygiene practices and d) Correlate the sweet score with ECC.

Materials and Methods

This cross-sectional observational study was conducted over a period of 6 months among 100 toddlers (12-36 months) attending the Pediatric outpatient department of a single medical institution in Chennai, India. The study consisted of an intra-oral examination followed by a face to face interview of the mothers of the children using a validated structured oral health questionnaire.

Results

SES and ECC were negatively correlated with statistically significant association. Majority of the subjects did not follow any oral hygiene practices before teeth erupted; few subjects used tooth brush and tooth paste after teeth erupted and followed oral hygiene practices once a day. Statistically significant positive correlation with ICDAS scores was noted in relation to the sweet score and the frequency of intake of sweet foods, candy, etc. Cavitated lesions were more common than non-cavitated lesions and majority of the posterior teeth had ICDAS score 4.

Conclusion

Healthcare providers for children must be well informed on the etiology and risk factors of ECC and guide children for their first dental visit within one year of age.

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<![CDATA[Frequent Hand Washing for COVID-19 Prevention Can Cause Hand Dermatitis: Management Tips]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2f939939-8cff-4d8a-a82d-4a7d57746646 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread globally, outpacing the capacity and resources of health systems worldwide. A therapeutic vaccine is not yet on the rise, and preventive measures are the current approach to restraint the transmission of cases. As the virus is highly contagious via respiratory route (droplets from infected persons, widely spread by coughing or sneezing) and via contact with contaminated surfaces, community transmission and spread can be decreased through the practice of regular and diligent hand hygiene. Frequent hand washing implies a prolonged exposure to water and other chemical or physical agents and may induce several pathophysiologic changes, such as epidermal barrier disruption, impairment of keratinocytes, the subsequent release of proinflammatory cytokines, activation of the skin immune system, and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Adverse dermatologic effects, such as excessive skin dryness or even contact dermatitis (particularly the irritant subtype and, to a lesser extent, the allergic subtype), can occur, especially in individuals with a history of atopic dermatitis. These skin conditions are perfectly manageable, and applying a moisturizer immediately after washing hands or after using a portable hand sanitizer is the cornerstone in preventing the development of eczematous changes in the hands. In the current global context, the potential occurrence of these dermatological adverse events should in no way cause people to deviate from strict hand hygiene rules.

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<![CDATA[The Association of Electronic Cigarette Use and the Subjective Domains of Physical and Mental Health: The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nec0b9f9f-02da-48b4-a6a3-e6a27307256c

Introduction

Individuals who use electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may have a poor perception of physical and mental health. We, therefore, studied the association of e-cigarettes with subjectively reported health domains.

Methods

We utilized cross-sectional data from the 2016 and 2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a nationally representative U.S. telephone-based survey. All variables were self-reported. E-cigarette use was characterized as never, former, or current. Health domains included overall health, physical health, and mental health, which was assessed as the frequency of emotional support, life satisfaction, and feeling stressed. Weighted multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were used to examine the association between e-cigarette use and these health domains.

Results

Our study population consisted of 755,355 (79%) never e-cigarette users, 111,940 (16%) former users, and 28,917 (5%) current users. There was a significant association between e-cigarette use and the less favorable perceived state of overall health, physical health, or mental health. For example, the OR (95% CI) for the association of current e-cigarette use with health domains was as follows: good perception of overall health: 0.78 (0.74,0.83), physical health: 0.69 (0.66,0.73), adequate emotional support: 0.89 (0.79,0.99), feeling satisfied: 0.83 (0.71,0.96), or being free of stress: 0.64 (0.53,0.76). Similar results were obtained in younger individuals (aged 18-34 years).

Conclusions

E-cigarette use is associated with a less favorable perception of physical and mental health as compared to never use, particularly among younger adults. These results have important implications for clinicians for patient counseling and regulatory agencies to regulate e-cigarette sales.

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<![CDATA[Computer Vision Syndrome Among Health Sciences Students in Saudi Arabia: Prevalence and Risk Factors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbd610bc0-2dc7-432e-a6a0-3c3a59298019

Introduction

Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is defined as a group of vision-related symptoms that result from the continuous use of devices with digital displays, such as computers, tablets, and smartphones. Students nowadays can find resources and books online on their smartphones easily, hence, reducing the use of paper-based reading materials. This might lead to a number of ocular symptoms. In this study, we aim to assess the prevalence and determine the risk factors of CVS among students at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAUHS) in Jeddah.

Materials and methods

This is an observational descriptive cross-sectional study design. Students of Colleges of Medicine, Applied Medical Sciences, and Science and Health Professions at KSAUHS were asked to fill an electronic self-administered survey. The survey instrument included questions on demographic information, digital devices using habits, frequency of eye symptoms, and ergonomic practices. 

Results

The sample size was 334 students, 55% of whom were males. The most used device was the mobile phone (78%), and the most common reason for using an electronic device was for entertainment (80%). The frequency of reported eye symptoms was as follows: headache (68%), feeling of an affected eyesight (short- or long-sightedness (65%)), eye itchiness (63%), burning sensation (62%), excessive tearing (58%), unclear vision (52%), redness (51%), dryness (48.3%), photophobia (47%), painful eye (44%), foreign body sensation (40%), excessive blinking (40%), difficulty in focusing on near objects (31%), halos around objects (28%), double vision (21%), and difficulty moving eyelids (9%). The most commonly applied ergonomic practice was adjusting display brightness based on the surrounding light brightness (82%). The rest of the ergonomic practices were less applied as follows: taking breaks while using the device (66%), sitting with the screen on face level (59%), sitting while the top of the screen on eye level (43%), sitting with the screen more than 50 cm away (32%), using antiglare filter (16%). The number of eye symptoms reported was significantly greater in female students (using Mann-Whitney U test) (U= 11056.500, p= 0.002), students who wear glasses (U= 11026, 0.002), and students who observe glare on their screens (U= 8363, p= 0.043).

Conclusion

CVS symptoms are commonly reported among health sciences students who use different electronic devices. The occurrence of CVS symptoms was significantly higher among female students, those who observe glare on screens, and those who wear eyeglasses. However, long duration of device use was not significantly associated with increased CVS symptoms. Ergonomic practices are not usually applied by most of the students, which necessitates more efforts to increase their awareness of the correct way of using devices.

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<![CDATA[Coronavirus Disease: A Review of a New Threat to Public Health]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4b0a99f9-acbf-4a34-9db0-6813134434e4

In December 2019, several patients from Wuhan, China were admitted to hospitals with symptoms of pneumonia. As the number of patients presenting with similar symptoms started to rise, the causative agent was eventually isolated from samples. It was initially called the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) and has been recently relabelled as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); the disease it causes has been named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Over the next few weeks, the virus spread from Wuhan to affect different provinces in China and, after a few months, it is now present in 109 countries. As of March 10, 2020, there have been 113,702 confirmed cases globally, and 4,012 deaths have been registered. The World Health Organization (WHO) called COVID-19 a pandemic on March 11, 2020. There are multiple drug trials going on with some positive results. However, since no vaccine is available, the best way to combat the virus is by preventive methods.

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<![CDATA[Coronavirus Goes Viral: Quantifying the COVID-19 Misinformation Epidemic on Twitter]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9d147816-5bf0-4a82-bcd5-1c9ca3ff3ff8

Background

Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, misinformation has been spreading uninhibited over traditional and social media at a rapid pace. We sought to analyze the magnitude of misinformation that is being spread on Twitter (Twitter, Inc., San Francisco, CA) regarding the coronavirus epidemic. 

Materials and methods

We conducted a search on Twitter using 14 different trending hashtags and keywords related to the COVID-19 epidemic. We then summarized and assessed individual tweets for misinformation in comparison to verified and peer-reviewed resources. Descriptive statistics were used to compare terms and hashtags, and to identify individual tweets and account characteristics.

Results

The study included 673 tweets. Most tweets were posted by informal individuals/groups (66%), and 129 (19.2%) belonged to verified Twitter accounts. The majority of included tweets contained serious content (91.2%); 548 tweets (81.4%) included genuine information pertaining to the COVID-19 epidemic. Around 70% of the tweets tackled medical/public health information, while the others were pertaining to sociopolitical and financial factors. In total, 153 tweets (24.8%) included misinformation, and 107 (17.4%) included unverifiable information regarding the COVID-19 epidemic. The rate of misinformation was higher among informal individual/group accounts (33.8%, p: <0.001). Tweets from unverified Twitter accounts contained more misinformation (31.0% vs 12.6% for verified accounts, p: <0.001). Tweets from healthcare/public health accounts had the lowest rate of unverifiable information (12.3%, p: 0.04). The number of likes and retweets per tweet was not associated with a difference in either false or unverifiable content. The keyword “COVID-19” had the lowest rate of misinformation and unverifiable information, while the keywords “#2019_ncov” and “Corona” were associated with the highest amount of misinformation and unverifiable content respectively.

Conclusions

Medical misinformation and unverifiable content pertaining to the global COVID-19 epidemic are being propagated at an alarming rate on social media. We provide an early quantification of the magnitude of misinformation spread and highlight the importance of early interventions in order to curb this phenomenon that endangers public safety at a time when awareness and appropriate preventive actions are paramount.

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<![CDATA[A Comprehensive Literature Review on the Clinical Presentation, and Management of the Pandemic Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb01bf2ae-0a1d-4d73-ab83-4e3a4f2d5389

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a declared global pandemic. There are multiple parameters of the clinical course and management of the COVID-19 that need optimization. A hindrance to this development is the vast amount of misinformation present due to scarcely sourced manuscript preprints and social media. This literature review aims to presents accredited and the most current studies pertaining to the basic sciences of SARS-CoV-2, clinical presentation and disease course of COVID-19, public health interventions, and current epidemiological developments.

The review on basic sciences aims to clarify the jargon in virology, describe the virion structure of SARS-CoV-2 and present pertinent details relevant to clinical practice. Another component discussed is the brief history on the series of experiments used to explore the origins and evolution of the phylogeny of the viral genome of SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, the clinical and epidemiological differences between COVID-19 and other infections causing outbreaks (SARS, MERS, H1N1) are elucidated.

Emphasis is placed on evidence-based medicine to evaluate the frequency of presentation of various symptoms to create a stratification system of the most important epidemiological risk factors for COVID-19. These can be used to triage and expedite risk assessment. Furthermore, the limitations and statistical strength of the diagnostic tools currently in clinical practice are evaluated. Criteria on rapid screening, discharge from hospital and discontinuation of self-quarantine are clarified. Epidemiological factors influencing the rapid rate of spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus are described. Accurate information pertinent to improving prevention strategies is also discussed.

The penultimate portion of the review aims to explain the involvement of micronutrients such as vitamin C and vitamin D in COVID19 treatment and prophylaxis. Furthermore, the biochemistry of the major candidates for novel therapies is briefly reviewed and a summary of their current status in the clinical trials is presented. Lastly, the current scientific data and status of governing bodies such as the Center of Disease Control (CDC) and the WHO on the usage of controversial therapies such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (Ibuprofen), and corticosteroids usage in COVID-19 are discussed.

The composite collection of accredited studies on each of these subtopics of COVID-19 within this review will enable clarification and focus on the current status and direction in the planning of the management of this global pandemic.

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<![CDATA[Relationship Between Oral Health and Clinical Osteoporosis Among Hospitalized Patients with and Without Diabetes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2593ae98-fadb-4317-970d-37dca78f8b9f

Objective

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with poor oral health and osteoporosis (OP). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between OP, periodontal disease (PD), and other dental and health outcomes in a cohort of hospitalized patients with and without DM.

Method

Using a cross-sectional study design, we enrolled consecutive hospitalized patients. We administered a questionnaire to gather demographic information, oral health history, smoking history, and history of OP. We inspected their dentition and reviewed their charts. Data were analyzed using t-tests, chi-square tests, and logistic regression models.

Result 

Out of 301 patients enrolled, 275 had PD, 102 had DM, and 30 had OP. In univariate analyses, factors associated with OP included older age (p<0.001), female gender (p=0.046), presence of DM (p=0.049), and having more discharge medications (p=0.01). There was no significant relationship between PD and OP. In logistic regression analyses, age remained significantly associated with having OP among all hospitalized patients and in the non-DM populations. In the DM population, female gender was the only significant predictor for having OP.

Conclusion

Although we found no significant relationship between having PD and OP in our population, we found that among patients with DM, female gender predicted OP, whereas in patients without DM, age was a stronger predictor. Earlier screening for OP in female patients with DM may be useful in identifying and treating OP sooner in this population.

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<![CDATA[Isovaleric Acidemia: A Rare Case of an Inborn Error of Metabolism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N53583a70-d748-4e88-87cd-3ff00b7ebe1f

Isovaleric acidemia (IVA) is an autosomal recessive disease of the leucine metabolism due to a deficiency of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD). We report the case of a six-month-old girl admitted with a seven-day history of fever, cough, stridor, vomiting, and respiratory distress. Second-degree consanguinity was documented between the parents. Urine organic acid analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed marked excretion of 3-hydroxybutyric acid along with moderate excretion of 3- hydroxy-isovaleric acid. Isovaleric acidemia was diagnosed based on history, examination, and laboratory evaluation. The patient managed with fluid resuscitation, correction of her metabolic acidosis, antibiotics, and supportive care.

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<![CDATA[Global Trends and Forecast of the Burden of Adverse Effects of Medical Treatment: Epidemiological Analysis Based on the Global Burden of Disease Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N07449161-3236-454a-80ff-30548dc37f38

Aim

To quantify and update the years of life lost (YLL), years lived with disability (YLD) and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) due to the adverse effects of medical treatment (AEMT) between 1990 and 2017.

Subject and methods

We analyzed the latest dataset from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study. We described the burden of AEMT based on the number of DALY. We additionally evaluated the global age and sex-specific DALY and compared the age-standardized rates of DALY across the World Health Organization (WHO) regions from 1990 to 2017.

Results

Worldwide, the total DALYs due to AEMT were 84.93 [95% uncertainty interval (UI), 62.52 to 102.21] in 1990 and 62.79 (52.09 to 75.45) in 2017 per 100,000 population. The global percentage of change in DALY showed a negative trend of −26.06 % (−41.52 to −10.59) across all WHO regions between 1990 and 2017. The YLD has increased during the period from 1997 to 2017 by 29.47% (17.87 to 41.06). In 2017, men were affected more than women with a DALY of 66.78 in comparison to 58.91 DALY in women. DALY rates per 100,000 were highest across all the WHO regions in the first years of life. The predicted DALY rates were 59.92 (57.52 to 62.32) in the year 2020, 50.36 (32.03 to 68.70) in 2030, and 40.8 (−1.33 to 82.93) in 2040.

Conclusion

Using the GBD 2017 study data, we found a decrease in the DALY rate due to AEMT between 1990 and 2017 with a varying range of DALY between different WHO regions. DALY also differed by age and sex. The forecasting analyses showed a decrease in DALY due to AEMTs with a significant drop in the European region when compared to the African and American regions. However, the increasing trend for YLD signifies an increasing burden of people living with poor health due to AEMT. Our study proposes to identify disability due to AEMT as a significant public health crisis and calls for policymakers to create a robust revised policy.

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<![CDATA[Global Incidence and Mortality Trends due to Adverse Effects of Medical Treatment, 1990–2017: A Systematic Analysis from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndf7599f1-3475-4c0a-be3b-71d00c40e2a6

Aim

To quantify the global incidence and mortality of adverse effects of medical treatment (AEMT) and forecast the possible emerging trends of AEMT.

Materials and methods

We analyzed the latest data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study. We describe the burden of AEMT based on age- and region-specific incidence and mortality rates between 1990 and 2017. Additionally, we evaluated the change of burden due to AEMT by different periods between 1990 and 2017, and compared the age-standardized incidence and mortality rates among different World Health Organization (WHO) regions.

Results

Globally, AEMT incidence rates varied across WHO regions and countries. The estimated age-standardized average incidence rates of AEMT were 309 [95% uncertainty interval (UI), 270 to 351], 340 (298 to 384), 401 (348 to 458), and 439 (376 to 505) per 100,000 population across the world in 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2017, respectively, showing an increasing trend in the new occurrence of adverse events. The incidence rate among women (469/100,000) was higher compared to men (409/100,000) in 2017. Between 1990 and 2017, we observed an upward trend in the incidence rates of AEMT across global regions, with a substantial increase in the incidence by 42% (27 to 57) between the years 1990 and 2017, translated to an annualized rate of incline of 1.5%. In the age group of 60-64 years, the incidence rates increased by 96% in 2017 compared to 1990. The global incidence rate due to AEMT is forecasted to increase to 446.94 (433.65 to 460.22) by 2020, 478.49 (376.88 to 580.09) in 2030, and to reach 510.03 (276.58 to 743.49) per 100,000 by 2040. We observed a decline in mortality rates due to AEMT across global regions, and the annualized rate of mortality change was -0.90 percentage points between 1990 and 2017. Overall, the AEMT mortality rate was higher in men (1.73/100,000) than in women (1.48/100,000), and age-specific mortality rates showed a bimodal increase between the age group of birth to one year, and an increase in the age group of 65 years and above. The global mortality rate due to AEMT is expected to be 1.55 (1.48 to 1.61) in 2020, 1.37 (0.88 to 1.86 ) in 2030 and 1.2 deaths per 100,000 (0.08 to 2.32) by 2040.

Conclusion

Using the GBD 2017 study data, we found an increase in the incidence of AEMT, and an overall decrease in the mortality rate between 1990 and 2017, with varying estimates between different countries and regions, gender and age groups. The forecast analysis displayed the same trends - an increase in AEMT incidence and a decline in mortality between 2020 and 2040. The high burden of AEMT warrants the implementation of robust policies in the healthcare system including appropriate patient safety training for the healthcare professionals, and safe culture of feedback with the implementation of electronic medical records to achieve WHO patient safety strategy goals.

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<![CDATA[Internal Medicine Residents and the Practice of Defensive Medicine: A Pilot Study Across Three Internal Medicine Residency Programs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9e27c6c4-3230-4e7c-9ad7-f733a75faa5e

Background

Defensive medicine is becoming increasingly prevalent in the United States and is estimated to cost billions of dollars in excess healthcare spending. There is evidence that the practice of defensive medicine starts early in the medical career. Defensive medicine has been investigated among residents in high medico-legal risk specialties, but there is a paucity of information on its prevalence among internal medicine residents.

Objective 

To examine the prevalence and patterns of defensive medical practices among internal medicine residents.

Methods

We conducted an online survey among the residents of three internal medicine residency programs in the 2018-2019 academic cycle. We invited all internal medicine residents within the selected programs to participate through email and asked them to complete an electronic survey assessing defensive medical practices.

Results

A total of 49 out of 143 residents participated in the study (response rate: 34.3%); 55% (n = 27) of the residents who participated considered the risk of being sued during residency to be low, compared to 40.8% (n = 20) who considered it to be moderate and 4.1% (n = 2) who considered it to be high. Defensive medical practices were found to be widely prevalent (40.0-91.3%) among internal medicine residents across all three clinical training stages. Assurance defensive practices were more common than avoidance practices.

Conclusion

Defensive medical practices, especially of the assurance type, were widely prevalent among our sample of internal medicine residents.

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<![CDATA[Unintentional Drug-related Deaths in Cambridgeshire: A Retrospective Observational Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1fa24fe6-2921-4cc3-b838-e14871d7286d

Background: Drug-related deaths are a growing public health problem in the United Kingdom, overtaking road fatalities and homicides in terms of annual deaths. In this study, we investigated the causes and circumstances of unintentional drug-related deaths occurring in the county of Cambridgeshire, with the objective of identifying the prevalence of physical, mental, and social health problems within this cohort.

Methods: We collected data on the demographics and mental and physical health of, and drugs contributing to, 30 consecutive unintentional drug-related deaths recorded by the Cambridgeshire and Peterborough County Council Coroners in 2017. A retrospective observational study was used, and data were collected by manual extraction from coroners’ files.

Results: Social isolation was identified as a recurring theme amongst the decedents, although homelessness was found in very few cases. Pharmacologically, multiple drug toxicity and opioid toxicity were highly prevalent, whilst prescription opioids were implicated in more cases than heroin. Chronic pain was also highly prevalent amongst the decedents, and a history of mental illness was found to occur in the majority of cases.

Discussion: Our findings show that reports from the coronial system provide a rich narrative to understand the causes of drug-related deaths. We have identified that individuals who die from drug-related deaths frequently have multiple adverse physical, mental, and social problems. This implies that any attempt to reduce drug-related deaths requires a multi-faceted and multi-disciplinary approach.

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<![CDATA[Activities of Serum Magnesium and Thyroid Hormones in Pre-, Peri-, and Post-menopausal Women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7ae7a542-0d7e-4f85-b649-c47c7bd27548

Introduction: Females go through a complex hormonal variation once they reach menarche. The menstrual cycle repeats every month regularly and is dependent on the normal functioning of the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovarian hormones. The overall wellness of the females during the menstrual cycle depends greatly on nutritional status. It is common that women develop menstrual cycle-related symptoms and are routinely prone to thyroid dysfunction. The present study is carried out to assess the activities of Mg and thyroid hormones in pre-, peri-, and post-menopausal women.

Methods: A total of 165 women were recruited in the study after satisfying the inclusion criteria. An equal number of age-matched subjects were included as controls. All the subjects included in the study were selected from the patients attending various out-patient departments of the Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, Telangana, India. Blood samples from each subject were collected and analyzed by a semi-automated analyzer for the activities of Mg, and thyroid hormones tetra-iodothyronine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).

Results: There was a statistically significant relationship between the serum Mg activities and the thyroid hormones between the study subjects and the control group. The activities of the serum Mg (1.72±0.33) in relation to the TSH (5.09±7.54) in the cases were found statistically significant (p <0.001) when compared to the serum Mg (1.8±0.20) in relation to the TSH in the control group (2.41±2.05). The activities of Mg were noted to fall in women through the peri (1.70±0.43), and postmenopausal age (1.60±0.34). There was a significant increase in the activities of TSH in women of premenopause (4.27±5.76), perimenopause (5.65±8.53), and postmenopausal age (7.19±11.07). 

Conclusion: From the results of the present study, it can be concluded that the women reaching menopause could suffer from hypomagnesemia and inturn may develop thyroid and other hormonal disorders. 

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<![CDATA[Interventions for Increasing the Quality of Preventive Care at a Free Clinic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd9784a8a-5bab-4b1f-b748-3b9dc8ad4364

A quality improvement committee targeted six clinically meaningful measures in order to determine which interventions improved preventative care in a free clinic as well as to qualify for certification as a Patient-Centered Medical Home. Four quality improvement interventions were designed and implemented. The outcomes of these interventions were compared with the national average performance and the Center for Disease Control's Healthy People 2020 goals. All outcomes measured exceeded the national averages, and five out of six outcomes were above the Healthy People 2020 goals. The approach outlined may be used by other free clinics aiming to provide quality preventive care for their patient population and to help obtain Patient-Centered Medical Home certifications.

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