ResearchPad - epigenetics https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Plasma microRNA expression levels in HIV-1-positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14667 MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) may serve as therapeutic agents or targets in diseases in which the expression of proteins plays an important role. The aim of the present study was to compare the expression levels of specific miRNAs, as well as their correlation with markers of response to antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection with and without resistance to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods: miRNA assays were performed on plasma samples obtained from 20 HIV-1-positive patients. A total of ten patients were divided into two groups: HAART-responsive and HAART-resistant (n=5 per group). Commercial arrays were subsequently used to identify 84 miRNAs. A total of three differentially expressed miRNAs were selected and analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Five other patients were subsequently added to each group for a new relative expression analysis. The absolute expression level of the two miRNAs was obtained and compared using the Student’s t test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify patients with antiretroviral therapy (ART) resistance.

Results: The array analysis revealed that miR-15b-5p, miR-16-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-26a-5p, miR-126-3p and miR-150-5p were down-regulated in patients with HAART-resistance comparing with HAART-responsive. The expression levels of miR-16-5p, miR-26a-5p and miR-150-5p were confirmed using qPCR. The area under the ROC curve was 1.0 for the three miRNAs.

Conclusions: The lower expression levels of miR-16-5p and miR-26a-5p in patients with HAART-resistance suggested that these may serve as potential biomarkers for the identification of HAART-responsive patients.

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<![CDATA[Revisiting promyelocytic leukemia protein targeting by human cytomegalovirus immediate-early protein 1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14655 Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies are liquid droplet-like structures organized by the eponymous PML proteins in the nuclei of our cells. PML bodies have been implicated in the antiviral host cell response to infection. Consequently, viruses have evolved mechanisms that target the proteins composing PML bodies. Immediate-early protein 1 (IE1) is considered the principal antagonist of PML bodies produced by the human cytomegalovirus, one of eight human herpesviruses. Previous work suggested that the interaction between IE1 and PML and the consequent disruption of PML bodies serves a critical role in viral replication by counteracting the cellular antiviral response. However, this picture has emerged largely from studying mutant IE1 proteins known or predicted to be unstable. We systematically screened for stable IE1 variants and identified a mutant protein selectively defective for PML interaction. Unexpectedly, the IE1 mutant supported viral replication almost as efficiently as the wild-type protein. Moreover, lower instead of higher (as expected) levels of antiviral gene expression were observed with the mutant compared to the wild-type. These results suggest that disruption of PML bodies is linked to the induction rather than inhibition of antiviral gene expression. Our findings challenge current views regarding the role of PML bodies in viral infection.

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<![CDATA[A new neuropeptide insect parathyroid hormone iPTH in the red flour beetle <i>Tribolium castaneum</i>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14647 Vertebrate parathyroid hormone (PTH) and its receptors have been extensively studied with respect to their function in bone remodeling and calcium metabolism. Insect parathyroid hormone receptors (iPTHRs) have been previously described as counterparts of vertebrate PTHRs, however, they are still orphan receptors for which the authentic ligands and biological functions remain unknown. We describe an insect form of parathyroid hormone (iPTH) by analyzing its interactions with iPTHRs. Identification of this new insect peptidergic system proved that the PTH system is an ancestral signaling system dating back to the evolutionary time before the divergence of protostomes and deuterostomes. We also investigated the functions of the iPTH system in a model beetle Tribolium castaneum by using RNA interference. RNA interference of iPTHR resulted in defects in wing exoskeleton maturation and fecundity. Based on the differential gene expression patterns and the phenotype induced by RNAi, we propose that the iPTH system is likely involved in the regulation of exoskeletal cuticle formation and fecundity in insects.

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<![CDATA[Cell signaling and cytomegalovirus reactivation: what do Src family kinases have to do with it?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9180 Primary infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is usually asymptomatic and leads to the establishment of lifelong latent infection. A major site of latency are the CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells. Importantly, normal cellular differentiation of CD34+ cells to a macrophage or dendritic cell phenotype is concomitant with viral reactivation. Molecular studies of HCMV latency have shown that the latent viral genome is associated with histone proteins and that specific post-translational modifications of these histones correlates with the transcriptional activity of the genome arguing that expression of key viral genes that dictate latency and reactivation are subject to the rules of the histone code hypothesis postulated for the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. Finally, many studies now point to a key role for multiple signaling pathways to provide the cue for HCMV reactivation. The challenge now is to understand the complex interplay between cell identity, transcriptional regulation and cell signaling that occurs to promote reactivation and, additionally, how HCMV may further manipulate these events to support reactivation. Understanding how HCMV utilizes these pathways to drive HCMV reactivation will provide new insight into the mechanisms that govern viral and host gene expression and, potentially, illuminate new, host-directed, therapeutic opportunities to support our attempts to control this important medical pathogen of immune-compromised individuals.

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<![CDATA[ <i>ONECUT2</i> upregulation is associated with CpG hypomethylation at promoter‐proximal DNA in gastric cancer and triggers <i>ACSL5</i> ]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7045 What's new?

DNA hypomethylation can promote cancer development through activation of genes with oncogenic potential. Here, the authors found that CpGs in the promoter‐proximal DNA of ONECUT2 were hypomethylated in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancers, and that hypomethylation was associated with ONECUT2 upregulation. Functional analysis demonstrated that ONECUT2 has oncogenic potential and could activate ACSL5, which is also expressed in intestinal metaplasia, suggesting that ONECUT2 and ACSL5 may cooperate to promote intestinal differentiation or development of gastric cancer. Taken together, the findings suggest that ONECUT2 and its downstream target ACSL5 could be used to develop early detection biomarkers and prevent gastric carcinogenesis.

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<![CDATA[DIRS retrotransposons amplify via linear, single-stranded cDNA intermediates]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N30100509-7403-4d6b-ab57-9d48ac1b834d The Dictyostelium Intermediate Repeat Sequence 1 (DIRS-1) is the name-giving member of the DIRS order of tyrosine recombinase retrotransposons. In Dictyostelium discoideum, DIRS-1 is highly amplified and enriched in heterochromatic centromers of the D. discoideum genome. We show here that DIRS-1 it tightly controlled by the D. discoideum RNA interference machinery and is only mobilized in mutants lacking either the RNA dependent RNA polymerase RrpC or the Argonaute protein AgnA. DIRS retrotransposons contain an internal complementary region (ICR) that is thought to be required to reconstitute a full-length element from incomplete RNA transcripts. Using different versions of D. discoideum DIRS-1 equipped with retrotransposition marker genes, we show experimentally that the ICR is in fact essential to complete retrotransposition. We further show that DIRS-1 produces a mixture of single-stranded, mostly linear extrachromosomal cDNA intermediates. If this cDNA is isolated and transformed into D. discoideum cells, it can be used by DIRS-1 proteins to complete productive retrotransposition. This work provides the first experimental evidence to propose a general retrotransposition mechanism of the class of DIRS like tyrosine recombinase retrotransposons.

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<![CDATA[The embryonic linker histone dBigH1 alters the functional state of active chromatin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N388d0fd7-b8dc-4cb7-a70d-240928a40596 Linker histones H1 are principal chromatin components, whose contribution to the epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure and function is not fully understood. In metazoa, specific linker histones are expressed in the germline, with female-specific H1s being normally retained in the early-embryo. Embryonic H1s are present while the zygotic genome is transcriptionally silent and they are replaced by somatic variants upon activation, suggesting a contribution to transcriptional silencing. Here we directly address this question by ectopically expressing dBigH1 in Drosophila S2 cells, which lack dBigH1. We show that dBigH1 binds across chromatin, replaces somatic dH1 and reduces nucleosome repeat length (NRL). Concomitantly, dBigH1 expression down-regulates gene expression by impairing RNApol II binding and histone acetylation. These effects depend on the acidic N-terminal ED-domain of dBigH1 since a truncated form lacking this domain binds across chromatin and replaces dH1 like full-length dBigH1, but it does not affect NRL either transcription. In vitro reconstitution experiments using Drosophila preblastodermic embryo extracts corroborate these results. Altogether these results suggest that the negatively charged N-terminal tail of dBigH1 alters the functional state of active chromatin compromising transcription.

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<![CDATA[A multi-layered structure of the interphase chromocenter revealed by proximity-based biotinylation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N382b99e6-f1ce-4953-9869-866ded198e81 During interphase centromeres often coalesce into a small number of chromocenters, which can be visualized as distinct, DAPI dense nuclear domains. Intact chromocenters play a major role in maintaining genome stability as they stabilize the transcriptionally silent state of repetitive DNA while ensuring centromere function. Despite its biological importance, relatively little is known about the molecular composition of the chromocenter or the processes that mediate chromocenter formation and maintenance. To provide a deeper molecular insight into the composition of the chromocenter and to demonstrate the usefulness of proximity-based biotinylation as a tool to investigate those questions, we performed super resolution microscopy and proximity-based biotinylation experiments of three distinct proteins associated with the chromocenter in Drosophila. Our work revealed an intricate internal architecture of the chromocenter suggesting a complex multilayered structure of this intranuclear domain.

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<![CDATA[A novel transcriptional cascade is involved in Fzr-mediated endoreplication]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5393560d-c6db-42ef-8f22-d24e3b895dbd Endoreplication, known as endocycle, is a variant of the cell cycle that differs from mitosis and occurs in specific tissues of different organisms. Endoreplicating cells generally undergo multiple rounds of genome replication without chromosome segregation. Previous studies demonstrated that Drosophila fizzy-related protein (Fzr) and its mammalian homolog Cdh1 function as key regulators of endoreplication entrance by activating the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome to initiate the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of cell cycle factors such as Cyclin B (CycB). However, the molecular mechanism underlying Fzr-mediated endoreplication is not completely understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the transcription factor Myc acts downstream of Fzr during endoreplication in Drosophila salivary gland. Mechanistically, Fzr interacts with chromatin-associated histone H2B to enhance H2B ubiquitination in the Myc promoter and promotes Myc transcription. In addition to negatively regulating CycB transcription, the Fzr-ubiquitinated H2B (H2Bub)-Myc signaling cascade also positively regulates the transcription of the MCM6 gene that is involved in DNA replication by directly binding to specific motifs within their promoters. We further found that the Fzr-H2Bub-Myc signaling cascade regulating endoreplication progression is conserved between insects and mammalian cells. Altogether, our work uncovers a novel transcriptional cascade that is involved in Fzr-mediated endoreplication.

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<![CDATA[Locally acting transcription factors regulate p53-dependent <i>cis-</i>regulatory element activity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N516c8c43-e5e2-472a-aff9-4910d6eb5f06 The master tumor suppressor p53 controls transcription of a wide-ranging gene network involved in apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, DNA damage repair, and senescence. Recent studies revealed pervasive binding of p53 to cis-regulatory elements (CREs), which are non-coding segments of DNA that spatially and temporally control transcription through the combinatorial binding of local transcription factors. Although the role of p53 as a strong trans-activator of gene expression is well known, the co-regulatory factors and local sequences acting at p53-bound CREs are comparatively understudied. We designed and executed a massively parallel reporter assay (MPRA) to investigate the effect of transcription factor binding motifs and local sequence context on p53-bound CRE activity. Our data indicate that p53-bound CREs are both positively and negatively affected by alterations in local sequence context and changes to co-regulatory TF motifs. Our data suggest p53 has the flexibility to cooperate with a variety of transcription factors in order to regulate CRE activity. By utilizing different sets of co-factors across CREs, we hypothesize that global p53 activity is guarded against loss of any one regulatory partner, allowing for dynamic and redundant control of p53-mediated transcription.

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<![CDATA[Host factors that promote retrotransposon integration are similar in distantly related eukaryotes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ab4e87b463d7e0cbd0422e6

Retroviruses and Long Terminal Repeat (LTR)-retrotransposons have distinct patterns of integration sites. The oncogenic potential of retrovirus-based vectors used in gene therapy is dependent on the selection of integration sites associated with promoters. The LTR-retrotransposon Tf1 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe is studied as a model for oncogenic retroviruses because it integrates into the promoters of stress response genes. Although integrases (INs) encoded by retroviruses and LTR-retrotransposons are responsible for catalyzing the insertion of cDNA into the host genome, it is thought that distinct host factors are required for the efficiency and specificity of integration. We tested this hypothesis with a genome-wide screen of host factors that promote Tf1 integration. By combining an assay for transposition with a genetic assay that measures cDNA recombination we could identify factors that contribute differentially to integration. We utilized this assay to test a collection of 3,004 S. pombe strains with single gene deletions. Using these screens and immunoblot measures of Tf1 proteins, we identified a total of 61 genes that promote integration. The candidate integration factors participate in a range of processes including nuclear transport, transcription, mRNA processing, vesicle transport, chromatin structure and DNA repair. Two candidates, Rhp18 and the NineTeen complex were tested in two-hybrid assays and were found to interact with Tf1 IN. Surprisingly, a number of pathways we identified were found previously to promote integration of the LTR-retrotransposons Ty1 and Ty3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, indicating the contribution of host factors to integration are common in distantly related organisms. The DNA repair factors are of particular interest because they may identify the pathways that repair the single stranded gaps flanking the sites of strand transfer following integration of LTR retroelements.

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<![CDATA[Mapping the coevolution, leadership and financing of research on viral vectors, RNAi, CRISPR/Cas9 and other genomic editing technologies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5b989351-f842-4a35-9237-928ff4c9c806

Genomic editing technologies are developing rapidly, promising significant developments for biomedicine, agriculture and other fields. In the present investigation, we analyzed and compared the process of innovation for six genomic technologies: viral vectors, RNAi, TALENs, meganucleases, ZFNs and CRISPR/Cas including the profile of the main research institutions and their funders, to understand how innovation evolved and what institutions influenced research trajectories. A Web of Science search of papers on viral vectors RNAi, CRISPR/Cas, TALENs, ZFNs and meganucleases was used to build a citation network of 16,746 papers. An analysis of network clustering combined with text mining was performed. For viral vectors, a long-term process of incremental innovation was identified, which was largely publicly funded in the United States and the European Union. The trajectory of RNAi research included clusters related to the study of RNAi as a biological phenomenon and its use in functional genomics, biomedicine and pest control. A British philanthropic organization and a US pharmaceutical company played a key role in the development of basic RNAi research and clinical application respectively, in addition to government and academic institutions. In the case of CRISPR/Cas research, basic science discoveries led to the technical improvements, and these two in turn provided the information required for the development of biomedical, agricultural, livestock and industrial applications. The trajectory of CRISPR/Cas research exhibits a geopolitical division of the investigation efforts between the US, as the main producer and funder of basic research and technical improvements, and Chinese research institutions increasingly leading applied research. Our results reflect a change in the model for financing science, with reduced public financing for basic science and applied research on publicly funded technological developments in the US, and the emergence of China as a scientific superpower, with implications for the development of applications of genomic technologies.

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<![CDATA[CDK-Mediator and FBXL19 prime developmental genes for activation by promoting atypical regulatory interactions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N11ca1284-a0f4-4beb-a795-57f169ac3685

Abstract

Appropriate developmental gene regulation relies on the capacity of gene promoters to integrate inputs from distal regulatory elements, yet how this is achieved remains poorly understood. In embryonic stem cells (ESCs), a subset of silent developmental gene promoters are primed for activation by FBXL19, a CpG island binding protein, through its capacity to recruit CDK-Mediator. How mechanistically these proteins function together to prime genes for activation during differentiation is unknown. Here we discover that in mouse ESCs FBXL19 and CDK-Mediator support long-range interactions between silent gene promoters that rely on FBXL19 for their induction during differentiation and gene regulatory elements. During gene induction, these distal regulatory elements behave in an atypical manner, in that the majority do not acquire histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation and no longer interact with their target gene promoter following gene activation. Despite these atypical features, we demonstrate by targeted deletions that these distal elements are required for appropriate gene induction during differentiation. Together these discoveries demonstrate that CpG-island associated gene promoters can prime genes for activation by communicating with atypical distal gene regulatory elements to achieve appropriate gene expression.

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<![CDATA[HDAC8 cooperates with SMAD3/4 complex to suppress SIRT7 and promote cell survival and migration]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc01d7b81-adab-49fa-b94d-35802c971e97

Abstract

NAD+-dependent SIRT7 deacylase plays essential roles in ribosome biogenesis, stress response, genome integrity, metabolism and aging, while how it is transcriptionally regulated is still largely unclear. TGF-β signaling is highly conserved in multicellular organisms, regulating cell growth, cancer stemness, migration and invasion. Here, we demonstrate that histone deacetylase HDAC8 forms complex with SMAD3/4 heterotrimer and occupies SIRT7 promoter, wherein it deacetylates H4 and thus suppresses SIRT7 transcription. Treatment with HDAC8 inhibitor compromises TGF-β signaling via SIRT7-SMAD4 axis and consequently, inhibits lung metastasis and improves chemotherapy efficacy in breast cancer. Our data establish a regulatory feedback loop of TGF-β signaling, wherein HDAC8 as a novel cofactor of SMAD3/4 complex, transcriptionally suppresses SIRT7 via local chromatin remodeling and thus further activates TGF-β signaling. Targeting HDAC8 exhibits therapeutic potential for TGF-β signaling related diseases.

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<![CDATA[Dynamic changes in cis-regulatory occupancy by Six1 and its cooperative interactions with distinct cofactors drive lineage-specific gene expression programs during progressive differentiation of the auditory sensory epithelium]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf8600942-3ae7-4902-8013-329fe2e04afc

Abstract

The transcription factor Six1 is essential for induction of sensory cell fate and formation of auditory sensory epithelium, but how it activates gene expression programs to generate distinct cell-types remains unknown. Here, we perform genome-wide characterization of Six1 binding at different stages of auditory sensory epithelium development and find that Six1-binding to cis-regulatory elements changes dramatically at cell-state transitions. Intriguingly, Six1 pre-occupies enhancers of cell-type-specific regulators and effectors before their expression. We demonstrate in-vivo cell-type-specific activity of Six1-bound novel enhancers of Pbx1, Fgf8, Dusp6, Vangl2, the hair-cell master regulator Atoh1 and a cascade of Atoh1’s downstream factors, including Pou4f3 and Gfi1. A subset of Six1-bound sites carry consensus-sequences for its downstream factors, including Atoh1, Gfi1, Pou4f3, Gata3 and Pbx1, all of which physically interact with Six1. Motif analysis identifies RFX/X-box as one of the most significantly enriched motifs in Six1-bound sites, and we demonstrate that Six1-RFX proteins cooperatively regulate gene expression through binding to SIX:RFX-motifs. Six1 targets a wide range of hair-bundle regulators and late Six1 deletion disrupts hair-bundle polarity. This study provides a mechanistic understanding of how Six1 cooperates with distinct cofactors in feedforward loops to control lineage-specific gene expression programs during progressive differentiation of the auditory sensory epithelium.

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<![CDATA[WDR5 is a conserved regulator of protein synthesis gene expression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne30cf564-9d30-4323-b37a-b6d2f383205b

Abstract

WDR5 is a highly-conserved nuclear protein that performs multiple scaffolding functions in the context of chromatin. WDR5 is also a promising target for pharmacological inhibition in cancer, with small molecule inhibitors of an arginine-binding pocket of WDR5 (the ‘WIN’ site) showing efficacy against a range of cancer cell lines in vitro. Efforts to understand WDR5, or establish the mechanism of action of WIN site inhibitors, however, are stymied by its many functions in the nucleus, and a lack of knowledge of the conserved gene networks—if any—that are under its control. Here, we have performed comparative genomic analyses to identify the conserved sites of WDR5 binding to chromatin, and the conserved genes regulated by WDR5, across a diverse panel of cancer cell lines. We show that a specific cohort of protein synthesis genes (PSGs) are invariantly bound by WDR5, demonstrate that the WIN site anchors WDR5 to chromatin at these sites, and establish that PSGs are bona fide, acute, and persistent targets of WIN site blockade. Together, these data reveal that WDR5 plays a predominant transcriptional role in biomass accumulation and provide further evidence that WIN site inhibitors act to repress gene networks linked to protein synthesis homeostasis.

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<![CDATA[PRMT5-mediated histone arginine methylation antagonizes transcriptional repression by polycomb complex PRC2]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N13fb5240-f83f-48b9-97ab-12cf40c6cf71

Abstract

Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) catalyzes the symmetric di-methylation of arginine residues in histones H3 and H4, marks that are generally associated with transcriptional repression. However, we found that PRMT5 inhibition or depletion led to more genes being downregulated than upregulated, indicating that PRMT5 can also act as a transcriptional activator. Indeed, the global level of histone H3K27me3 increases in PRMT5 deficient cells. Although PRMT5 does not directly affect PRC2 enzymatic activity, methylation of histone H3 by PRMT5 abrogates its subsequent methylation by PRC2. Treating AML cells with an EZH2 inhibitor partially restored the expression of approximately 50% of the genes that are initially downregulated by PRMT5 inhibition, suggesting that the increased H3K27me3 could directly or indirectly contribute to the transcription repression of these genes. Indeed, ChIP-sequencing analysis confirmed an increase in the H3K27me3 level at the promoter region of a quarter of these genes in PRMT5-inhibited cells. Interestingly, the anti-proliferative effect of PRMT5 inhibition was also partially rescued by treatment with an EZH2 inhibitor in several leukemia cell lines. Thus, PRMT5-mediated crosstalk between histone marks contributes to its functional effects.

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<![CDATA[A crucial RNA-binding lysine residue in the Nab3 RRM domain undergoes SET1 and SET3-responsive methylation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nba1ee733-7864-4683-b6ce-42ce86dac1fa

Abstract

The Nrd1–Nab3–Sen1 (NNS) complex integrates molecular cues to direct termination of noncoding transcription in budding yeast. NNS is positively regulated by histone methylation as well as through Nrd1 binding to the initiating form of RNA PolII. These cues collaborate with Nrd1 and Nab3 binding to target RNA sequences in nascent transcripts through their RRM RNA recognition motifs. In this study, we identify nine lysine residues distributed amongst Nrd1, Nab3 and Sen1 that are methylated, suggesting novel molecular inputs for NNS regulation. We identify mono-methylation of one these residues (Nab3-K363me1) as being partly dependent on the H3K4 methyltransferase, Set1, a known regulator of NNS function. Moreover, the accumulation of Nab3-K363me1 is essentially abolished in strains lacking SET3, a SET domain containing protein that is positively regulated by H3K4 methylation. Nab3-K363 resides within its RRM and physically contacts target RNA. Mutation of Nab3-K363 to arginine (Nab3-K363R) decreases RNA binding of the Nab3 RRM in vitro and causes transcription termination defects and slow growth. These findings identify SET3 as a potential contextual regulator of Nab3 function through its role in methylation of Nab3-K363. Consistent with this hypothesis, we report that SET3 exhibits genetic activation of NAB3 that is observed in a sensitized context.

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<![CDATA[Quantification of multicellular colonization in tumor metastasis using exome‐sequencing data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N229b15d0-e860-4e5b-9883-031a99778141

Metastasis is a major cause of cancer‐related mortality, and it is essential to understand how metastasis occurs in order to overcome it. One relevant question is the origin of a metastatic tumor cell population. Although the hypothesis of a single‐cell origin for metastasis from a primary tumor has long been prevalent, several recent studies using mouse models have supported a multicellular origin of metastasis. Human bulk whole‐exome sequencing (WES) studies also have demonstrated a multiple “clonal” origin of metastasis, with different mutational compositions. Specifically, there has not yet been strong research to determine how many founder cells colonize a metastatic tumor. To address this question, under the metastatic model of “single bottleneck followed by rapid growth,” we developed a method to quantify the “founder cell population size” in a metastasis using paired WES data from primary and metachronous metastatic tumors. Simulation studies demonstrated the proposed method gives unbiased results with sufficient accuracy in the range of realistic settings. Applying the proposed method to real WES data from four colorectal cancer patients, all samples supported a multicellular origin of metastasis and the founder size was quantified, ranging from 3 to 17 cells. Such a wide‐range of founder sizes estimated by the proposed method suggests that there are large variations in genetic similarity between primary and metastatic tumors in the same subjects, which may explain the observed (dis)similarity of drug responses between tumors.

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<![CDATA[Native elongation transcript sequencing reveals temperature dependent dynamics of nascent RNAPII transcription in Arabidopsis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N58b15aaa-ff1f-492a-b8ab-bf9a1399ecac

Abstract

Temperature profoundly affects the kinetics of biochemical reactions, yet how large molecular complexes such as the transcription machinery accommodate changing temperatures to maintain cellular function is poorly understood. Here, we developed plant native elongating transcripts sequencing (plaNET-seq) to profile genome-wide nascent RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription during the cold-response of Arabidopsis thaliana with single-nucleotide resolution. Combined with temporal resolution, these data revealed transient genome-wide reprogramming of nascent RNAPII transcription during cold, including characteristics of RNAPII elongation and thousands of non-coding transcripts connected to gene expression. Our results suggest a role for promoter–proximal RNAPII stalling in predisposing genes for transcriptional activation during plant–environment interactions. At gene 3′-ends, cold initially facilitated transcriptional termination by limiting the distance of read-through transcription. Within gene bodies, cold reduced the kinetics of co-transcriptional splicing leading to increased intragenic stalling. Our data resolved multiple distinct mechanisms by which temperature transiently altered the dynamics of nascent RNAPII transcription and associated RNA processing, illustrating potential biotechnological solutions and future focus areas to promote food security in the context of a changing climate.

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