ResearchPad - essay https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[COVID-19 and healthcare lessons already learned]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12381 <![CDATA[Public health law and science in the community mitigation strategy for Covid-19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12360 <![CDATA[When the wrong people are immune]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12308 <![CDATA[Considerations in mandating a new Covid-19 vaccine in the USA for children and adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12303 <![CDATA[Why we (probably) must deliberately infect]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12275 <![CDATA[How the COVID-19 response is altering the legal and regulatory landscape on abortion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndf236c51-4774-4dc3-a7de-b8fa6efd6bdb <![CDATA[Self-Portrait with the Spanish Flu]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2b5bd7a1-30c5-4427-a15c-11066ffae8aa ]]> <![CDATA[Groin abnormalities: ultrasonographic and clinical findings]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N36766596-4c24-404c-bacc-e3a3dc91ab35

Groin lesions can be classified as neoplastic or non-neoplastic. Neoplastic lesions include lipoma, epidermoid cyst, angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumor, liposarcoma, and synovial sarcoma, as well as metastases from lymphoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, and carcinomas of the lung, breast, urinary bladder, ovary, vulva, and colon. Non-neoplastic lesions include hernias, round ligament varices, endometriosis, Kimura disease, Castleman disease, hematoma, and inflammation. Because the clinical implications and therapeutic strategies for groin lesions vary depending on the cause, the ability to noninvasively differentiate among etiologies is very important. Although there is substantial overlap in ultrasonographic findings across various groin lesions, some ultrasonographic features, along with clinical characteristics, may suggest a specific diagnosis. Familiarity with the ultrasonographic and clinical features of various groin lesions facilitates accurate diagnosis and treatment.

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<![CDATA[Role of ultrasound in the evaluation of first-trimester pregnancies in the acute setting]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N71aa9663-a76d-4508-9cae-f04ad2e5ca7c

In patients presenting for an evaluation of pregnancy in the first trimester, transvaginal ultrasound is the modality of choice for establishing the presence of an intrauterine pregnancy; evaluating pregnancy viability, gestational age, and multiplicity; detecting pregnancy-related complications; and diagnosing ectopic pregnancy. In this pictorial review article, the sonographic appearance of a normal intrauterine gestation and the most common complications of pregnancy in the first trimester in the acute setting are discussed.

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<![CDATA[The High Obesity Program: A Collaboration Between Public Health and Cooperative Extension Services to Address Obesity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7bded6a6-20f4-4a1c-8332-7a5592016bcf ]]> <![CDATA[Bilateral Ocular Injury From Lightning Strike]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na5e0c620-cec5-47ec-b778-375eca336ac5 ]]> <![CDATA[On the ethics of algorithmic decision-making in healthcare]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2a323be8-14c8-4718-81e9-7c18e4ef7517

In recent years, a plethora of high-profile scientific publications has been reporting about machine learning algorithms outperforming clinicians in medical diagnosis or treatment recommendations. This has spiked interest in deploying relevant algorithms with the aim of enhancing decision-making in healthcare. In this paper, we argue that instead of straightforwardly enhancing the decision-making capabilities of clinicians and healthcare institutions, deploying machines learning algorithms entails trade-offs at the epistemic and the normative level. Whereas involving machine learning might improve the accuracy of medical diagnosis, it comes at the expense of opacity when trying to assess the reliability of given diagnosis. Drawing on literature in social epistemology and moral responsibility, we argue that the uncertainty in question potentially undermines the epistemic authority of clinicians. Furthermore, we elucidate potential pitfalls of involving machine learning in healthcare with respect to paternalism, moral responsibility and fairness. At last, we discuss how the deployment of machine learning algorithms might shift the evidentiary norms of medical diagnosis. In this regard, we hope to lay the grounds for further ethical reflection of the opportunities and pitfalls of machine learning for enhancing decision-making in healthcare.

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<![CDATA[Peritoneal Carcinomatosis and Its Mimics: Review of CT Findings for Differential Diagnosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N195d199c-da30-4a8d-a1ac-6f9861ba2580

Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) indicates the metastasis of a malignant neoplasm to the peritoneal surface. PC can be incidentally detected before discovery of the primary malignancy during an imaging study. There are other conditions that can mimic PC, such as pseudomyxoma peritonei, peritoneal lymphomatosis, peritoneal malignant mesothelioma, leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata, and tuberculous peritonitis. These diseases may appear similar on computed tomography (CT), but there are some clues for the differential diagnosis. This article will describe the CT findings of PC and its mimics for the differential diagnosis.

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<![CDATA[Commonly used estimates of the genetic contribution to disease are subject to the same fallacies as bad luck estimates]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N59a17e8a-01c3-4d0d-be95-671615683560

The scientific debate following the initial formulation of the “bad luck” hypothesis in cancer development highlighted how measures based on analysis of variance are inappropriately used for risk communication. The notion of “explained” variance is not only used to quantify randomness, but also to quantify genetic and environmental contribution to disease in heritability coefficients. In this paper, we demonstrate why such quantifications are generally as problematic as bad luck estimates. We stress the differences in calculation and interpretation between the heritability coefficient and the population attributable fraction, the estimated fraction of all disease events that would not occur if an intervention could successfully prevent the excess genetic risk. We recommend using the population attributable fraction when communicating results regarding the genetic contribution to disease, as this measure is both more relevant from a public health perspective and easier to understand.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (10.1007/s10654-019-00573-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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<![CDATA[A moral panic over cats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2c73f91c-a7e2-449f-8064-0cdc172033c4

Abstract

Some conservationists believe that free‐ranging cats pose an enormous risk to biodiversity and public health and therefore should be eliminated from the landscape by any means necessary. They further claim that those who question the science or ethics behind their arguments are science deniers (merchants of doubt) seeking to mislead the public. As much as we share a commitment to conservation of biodiversity and wild nature, we believe these ideas are wrong and fuel an unwarranted moral panic over cats. Those who question the ecological or epidemiological status of cats are not science deniers, and it is a false analogy to compare them with corporate and right‐wing special interests that perpetrate disinformation campaigns over issues, such as smoking and climate change. There are good conservation and public‐health reasons and evidence to be skeptical that free‐ranging cats constitute a disaster for biodiversity and human health in all circumstances. Further, there are significant and largely unaddressed ethical and policy issues (e.g., the ethics and efficacy of lethal management) relative to how people ought to value and coexist with cats and native wildlife. Society is better served by a collaborative approach to produce better scientific and ethical knowledge about free‐ranging cats.

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<![CDATA[Communication as a powerful tool in the treatment of war veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N01accde5-29cf-4ac4-9287-f0ebffa52d23 ]]> <![CDATA[Toward confirmation of the safety and efficacy of methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta in anemia treatment in patients on hemodialysis: a Macedonian experience]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6e23754c-c976-4ba5-88b4-d0c77200a992 ]]> <![CDATA[Etiology of primary spontaneous pneumothorax]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9d24e6d5eed0c4840a662c

ABSTRACT

With the advent of HRCT, primary spontaneous pneumothorax has come to be better understood and managed, because its etiology can now be identified in most cases. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax is mainly caused by the rupture of a small subpleural emphysematous vesicle (designated a bleb) or of a subpleural paraseptal emphysematous lesion (designated a bulla). The aim of this pictorial essay was to improve the understanding of primary spontaneous pneumothorax and to propose a description of the major anatomical lesions found during surgery.

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<![CDATA[The Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana and the path to universal health coverage in India: Overcoming the challenges of stewardship and governance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8acc3bd5eed0c48498f23f

In an Essay, Blake Angell and colleagues discuss ambitious reforms planned to expand coverage of the health system in India.

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<![CDATA[Extremely Steep Keratoconic Cornea without Corneal Hydrops; How Far Can Corneal Thinning Progress?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8bfbf4d5eed0c484b24d23 ]]>