ResearchPad - estrogens https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Estrogen receptor β exerts tumor suppressive effects in prostate cancer through repression of androgen receptor activity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14708 Estrogen receptor β (ERβ) was first identified in the rodent prostate and is abundantly expressed in human and rodent prostate epithelium, stroma, immune cells and endothelium of the blood vessels. In the prostates of mice with inactivated ERβ, mutant phenotypes include epithelial hyperplasia and increased expression of androgen receptor (AR)-regulated genes, most of which are also upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa). ERβ is expressed in both basal and luminal cells in the prostate while AR is expressed in luminal but not in the basal cell layer which harbors the prostate stem cells. To investigate the mechanisms of action of ERβ and its potential cross-talk with AR, we used RNA-seq to study the effects of estradiol or the synthetic ligand, LY3201, in AR-positive LNCaP PCa cells which had been engineered to express ERβ. Transcriptomic analysis indicated relatively few changes in gene expression with ERβ overexpression, but robust responses following ligand treatments. There is significant overlap of responsive genes between the two ligands, estradiol and LY3201 as well as ligand-specific alterations. Gene set analysis of down-regulated genes identified an enrichment of androgen-responsive genes, such as FKBP5, CAMKK2, and TBC1D4. Consistently, AR transcript, protein levels, and transcriptional activity were down-regulated following ERβ activation. In agreement with this, we find that the phosphorylation of the CAMKK2 target, AMPK, was repressed by ligand-activated ERβ. These findings suggest that ERβ-mediated signaling pathways are involved in the negative regulation of AR expression and activity, thus supporting a tumor suppressive role for ERβ in PCa.

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<![CDATA[Plasma membrane expression of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER)/G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) is associated with worse outcome in metachronous contralateral breast cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Naf611639-dea0-4cb3-8951-2157f0424339

Background

G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), or G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), is reported to mediate non-genomic estrogen signaling. GPR30 associates with breast cancer (BC) outcome and may contribute to tamoxifen resistance. We investigated the expression and prognostic significance of GPR30 in metachronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC) as a model of tamoxifen resistance.

Methods

Total GPR30 expression (GPR30TOT) and plasma membrane-localized GPR30 expression (GPR30PM) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in primary (BC1; nBC1 = 559) and contralateral BC (BC2; nBC2 = 595), and in lymph node metastases (LGL; nLGL1 = 213; nLGL2 = 196). Death from BC (BCD), including BC death or death after documented distant metastasis, was used as primary end-point.

Results

GPR30PM in BC2 and LGL2 were associated with increased risk of BCD (HRBC2 = 1.7, p = 0.03; HRLGL2 = 2.0; p = 0.02). In BC1 and BC2, GPR30PM associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-negativity (pBC1<0.0001; pBC2<0.0001) and progesterone receptor (PR)-negativity (pBC1 = 0.0007; pBC2<0.0001). The highest GPR30TOT and GPR30PM were observed in triple-negative BC. GPR30PM associated with high Ki67 staining in BC1 (p<0.0001) and BC2 (p<0.0001). GPR30TOT in BC2 did not associate with tamoxifen treatment for BC1. However, BC2 that were diagnosed during tamoxifen treatment were more likely to express GPR30PM than BC2 diagnosed after treatment completion (p = 0.01). Furthermore, a trend was observed that patients with GPR30PM in an ER-positive BC2 had greater benefit from tamoxifen treatment.

Conclusion

PM-localized GPR30 staining is associated with increased risk of BC death when expressed in BC2 and LGL2. Additionally, PM-localized GPR30 correlates with prognostic markers of worse outcome, such as high Ki67 and a triple-negative subtype. Therefore, PM-localized GPR30 may be an interesting new target for therapeutic exploitation. We found no clear evidence that total GPR30 expression is affected by tamoxifen exposure during development of metachronous CBC, or that GPR30 contributes to tamoxifen resistance.

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<![CDATA[A qualitative comparison of how older breast cancer survivors process treatment information regarding endocrine therapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2e5d5eed0c48441ecbb

Background

It remains unclear how information about aromatase inhibitors (AI) impacts women’s decision-making about persistence with endocrine therapy.

Purpose

To describe and compare how women treated for primary early stage breast cancer either persisting or not persisting with an AI received, interpreted, and acted upon AI-related information.

Design

Thematic analysis was used to sort and compare the data into the most salient themes.

Participants

Women (N = 54; 27 persisting, 27 not persisting with an AI) aged 65–93 years took part in qualitative interviews.

Results

Women in both subgroups described information similarly in terms of its value, volume, type, and source. Aspects of AI-related information that either differed between the subgroups or were misunderstood by one or both subgroups included: (1) knowledge of AI or tamoxifen prior to cancer diagnosis, (2) use of online resources, (3) misconceptions about estrogen, hormone replacement therapies and AI-related symptoms, and (4) risk perception and the meaning and use of recurrence statistics such as Oncotype DX.

Conclusions

Persisters and nonpersisters were similar in their desire for more information about potential side effects and symptom management at AI prescription and subsequent appointments. Differences included how information was obtained and interpreted. Interactive discussion questions are shared that can incorporate these findings into clinical settings.

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<![CDATA[Equilin in conjugated equine estrogen increases monocyte-endothelial adhesion via NF-κB signaling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b5254d5eed0c4842bc66d

The adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells, which is mediated by adhesion molecules, plays a crucial role in the onset of atherosclerosis. Conjugated equine estrogen, which is widely used for estrogen-replacement therapy, contains both estrone sulfate and various nonhuman estrogens, including equilin. To investigate the association between various estrogen types and atherosclerosis risk, we examined their effect on adhesion-molecule expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In estrogen-treated HUVECs, the mRNA and protein expression levels of adhesion molecules were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme immunoassay. Additionally, a flow-chamber system was used to assess the effects of estrogens on the adherence of U937 monocytoid cells to HUVECs. Equilin, but not 17β-estradiol (E2) or other types of estrogen, significantly increased the mRNA (P < 0.01) and protein (P < 0.05) expression of the adhesion molecules E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 as compared with levels in controls. Equilin treatment increased the adherence of U937 monocytoid cells to HUVECs relative to the that in the control (P < 0.05), decreased estrogen receptor (ER)β expression, and increased the expression of proteins involved in nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation relative to levels in controls. Furthermore, the accumulation of NF-κB subunit p65 in HUVEC nuclei was promoted by equilin treatment. By contrast, E2 treatment neither increased the number of adhered monocytoid cells to HUVECs nor altered the expression of ERβ or NF-κB-activating proteins. Our findings suggest that in terms of the adhesion of monocytes at the onset of atherosclerosis, E2 may be preferable for estrogen-replacement therapy. Further studies comparing equilin treatment with that of E2 are needed to investigate their differential impacts on atherosclerosis.

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<![CDATA[Biological evaluation of isoflavonoids from Genista halacsyi using estrogen-target cells: Activities of glucosides compared to aglycones]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e4fb8d5eed0c484d7862d

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of estrogen target cells to a series of isoflavone glucosides and aglycones from Genista halacsyi Heldr. The methanolic extract of aerial parts of this plant was processed using fast centrifugal partition chromatography, resulting in isolation of four archetypal isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, isoprunetin, 8-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl-genistein) and ten derivatives thereof. 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-genistein and 7,4΄-di-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-genistein were among the most abundant constituents of the isolate. All fourteen, except genistein, displayed low binding affinity for estrogen receptors (ER). Models of binding to ERα could account for the low binding affinity of monoglucosides. Genistein and its glucosides displayed full efficacy in inducing alkaline phosphatase (AlkP) in Ishikawa cells, proliferation of MCF-7 cells and ER-dependent gene expression in reporter cells at low concentrations (around 0.3 μM). ICI182,780 fully antagonized these effects. The AlkP-inducing efficacy of the fourteen isoflavonoids was more strongly correlated with their transcriptional efficacy through ERα. O-monoglucosides displayed higher area under the dose-response curve (AUC) of AlkP response relative to the AUC of ERα-transcriptional response compared to the respective aglycones. In addition, 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-genistein and 7,4΄-di-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-genistein displayed estradiol-like efficacy in promoting differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells to osteoblasts, while genistein was not convincingly effective in this respect. Moreover, 7,4΄-di-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-genistein suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor mRNA expression in RAW 264.7 cells, while 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-genistein was not convincingly effective and genistein was ineffective. However, genistein and its O-glucosides were ineffective in inhibiting differentiation of RAW 264.7 cells to osteoclasts and in protecting glutamate-challenged HT22 hippocampal neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell death. These findings suggest that 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-genistein and 7,4΄-di-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-genistein display higher estrogen-like and/or anti-inflammatory activity compared to the aglycone. The possibility of using preparations rich in O-β-D-glucopyranosides of genistein to substitute for low-dose estrogen in formulations for menopausal symptoms is discussed.

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<![CDATA[Menopausal hormone therapy and the incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome in postmenopausal women: Findings from the Women’s Health Initiative]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c102901d5eed0c484248c7e

Importance

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common and debilitating condition that commonly affects postmenopausal women.

Objective

To determine the effect of menopausal hormone therapy (HT) in healthy postmenopausal women on CTS risk.

Design

We conducted a secondary analysis of the Women’s Health Initiative’s (WHI) HT trials linked to Medicare claims data. Separate intention-to-treat analyses were performed for the two trials; the conjugated equine estrogens alone (CEE alone) and the trial of CEE plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT number): NCT00000611.

Setting

Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials conducted at 40 US clinical centers.

Participants

The sample size included in the analysis was 16,053 community-dwelling women aged ≥65 years at study entry or those who later aged into Medicare eligibility, and who were enrolled in Medicare (including Part A and/or Part B coverage).

Intervention

Women with hysterectomy were randomized to 0.625 mg/d of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) or placebo (n = 8376). Women without hysterectomy were randomized to estrogen plus progestin (E+P), given as CEE plus 2.5 mg/d of medroxyprogesterone acetate (n = 14203).

Main outcome(s)

The primary outcome was incident CTS and the secondary outcome was therapeutic CTS procedure occurring during the intervention phases of the trials.

Results

A total of 16,053 women were randomized in both trials. During mean follow up of 4.5 ± 2.8 years in the CEE trial (n = 6,833), there were 203 incident CTS cases in the intervention and 262 incident CTS cases in the placebo group (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65–0.94; P = 0.009). The CEE+MPA trial (n = 9,220) followed participants for a mean of 3.7 ± 2.3 years. There were 173 incident CTS cases in the intervention compared to 203 cases in the placebo group (HR, 0.80, 95% CI, 0.65–0.97; P = 0.027).

Conclusions

These findings suggest a protective effect of menopausal HT on the incidence of CTS among postmenopausal women. A potential therapeutic role for other forms of estrogen therapy in the management of CTS warrants future research.

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<![CDATA[Uterine Expression of NDRG4 Is Induced by Estrogen and Up-Regulated during Embryo Implantation Process in Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db48ab0ee8fa60bd94c8

Embryo implantation is an essential step for the establishment of pregnancy and dynamically regulated by estrogen and progesterone. NDRG4 (N-myc down-regulated gene 4) is a tumor suppressor that participates in cell survival, tumor invasion and angiogenesis. The objective of this study was to preliminarily explore the role of NDRG4 in embryo implantation. By immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitive RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), we found that uterine expression of NDRG4 was increased along with puberal development, and its expression in adult females reached the peak at the estrus stage during the estrus cycle. Furthermore, uterine NDRG4 expression was significantly induced by the treatment of estradiol (E2) both in pre-puberty females and ovariectomized adult females. Uterine expression pattern of NDRG4 during the peri-implantation period in mice was determined by IHC, qRT-PCR and Western blot. It was observed that NDRG4 expression was up-regulated during the implantation process, and its expression level at the implantation sites was significantly higher than that at the inter-implantation sites. Meanwhile, an increased expression in NDRG4 was associated with artificial decidualization as well as the activation of delayed implantation. By qRT-PCR and Western blot, we found that the in vitro decidualization of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) was accompanied by up-regulation of NDRG4 expression, whereas knockdown of its expression in these cells by siRNA inhibited the decidualization process. In addition, Western blot analysis showed that NDRG4 protein expression was decreased in human villus tissues of recurrent miscarriage (RM) patients compared to normal pregnant women. Collectively, these data suggested that uterine NDRG4 expression could be induced by estrogen, and NDRG4 might play an important role during early pregnancy.

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<![CDATA[Differential Effects of E2 on MAPK Activity in the Brain and Heart of Aged Female Rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da87ab0ee8fa60b9c8d8

Aging and the coincident loss of circulating estrogens at menopause lead to increased risks for neurological and cardiovascular pathologies. Clinical studies show that estrogen therapy (ET) can be beneficial in mitigating these negative effects, in both the brain and heart, when it is initiated shortly after the perimenopausal transition. However, this same therapy is detrimental when initiated >10 years postmenopause. Importantly, the molecular mechanisms underlying this age-related switch in ET efficacy are unknown. Estrogen receptors (ERs) mediate the neuroprotective and cardioprotective functions of estrogens by modulating gene transcription or, non-genomically, by activating second messenger signaling pathways, such as mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK). These kinases are critical regulators of cell signaling pathways and have widespread downstream effects. Our hypothesis is that age and estrogen deprivation following menopause alters the expression and activation of the MAPK family members p38 and ERK in the brain and heart. To test this hypothesis, we used a surgically induced model of menopause in 18 month old rats through bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) followed by an acute dose of 17β-estradiol (E2) administered at varying time points post-OVX (1 week, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, or 12 weeks). Age and E2 treatment differentially regulated kinase activity in both the brain and heart, and the effects were also brain region specific. MAPK signaling plays an integral role in aging, and the aberrant regulation of those signaling pathways might be involved in age-related disorders. Clinical studies show benefits of ET during early menopause but detrimental effects later, which might be reflective of changes in kinase expression and activation status.

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<![CDATA[Clinical Nomogram for Predicting Survival Outcomes in Early Mucinous Breast Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f5ab0ee8fa60b6fc30

Background

The features related to the prognosis of patients with mucinous breast cancer (MBC) remain controversial. We aimed to explore the prognostic factors of MBC and develop a nomogram for predicting survival outcomes.

Methods

The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was searched to identify 139611 women with resectable breast cancer from 1990 to 2007. Survival curves were generated using Kaplan-Meier methods. The 5-year and 10-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates were calculated using the Life-Table method. Based on Cox models, a nomogram was constructed to predict the probabilities of CSS for an individual patient. The competing risk regression model was used to analyse the specific survival of patients with MBC.

Results

There were 136569 (97.82%) infiltrative ductal cancer (IDC) patients and 3042 (2.18%) MBC patients. Patients with MBC had less lymph node involvement, a higher frequency of well-differentiated lesions, and more estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Patients with MBC had significantly higher 5 and10-year CSS rates (98.23 and 96.03%, respectively) than patients with IDC (91.44 and 85.48%, respectively). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that MBC was an independent factor for better prognosis. As for patients with MBC, the event of death caused by another disease exceeded the event of death caused by breast cancer. A competing risk regression model further showed that lymph node involvement, poorly differentiated grade and advanced T-classification were independent factors of poor prognosis in patients with MBC. The Nomogram can accurately predict CSS with a high C-index (0.816). Risk scores developed from the nomogram can more accurately predict the prognosis of patients with MBC (C-index = 0.789) than the traditional TNM system (C-index = 0.704, P< 0.001).

Conclusions

Patients with MBC have a better prognosis than patients with IDC. Nomograms could help clinicians make more informed decisions in clinical practice. The competing risk regression model, as a more rational model, is recommended for use in the survival analysis of patients with MBC in the future.

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<![CDATA[Mixture Effects of Estrogenic Pesticides at the Human Estrogen Receptor α and β]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db3cab0ee8fa60bd54cb

Consumers of fruits and vegetables are frequently exposed to small amounts of hormonally active pesticides, some of them sharing a common mode of action such as the activation of the human estrogen receptor α (hERα) or β (hERβ). Therefore, it is of particular importance to evaluate risks emanating from chemical mixtures, in which the individual pesticides are present at human-relevant concentrations, below their corresponding maximum residue levels. Binary and ternary iso-effective mixtures of estrogenic pesticides at effect concentrations eliciting a 1 or 10% effect in the presence or absence of 17β-estradiol were tested experimentally at the hERα in the yeast-based estrogen screen (YES) assay as well as in the human U2-OS cell-based ERα chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (ERα CALUX) assay and at the hERβ in the ERβ CALUX assay. The outcome was then compared to predictions calculated by means of concentration addition. In most cases, additive effects were observed with the tested combinations in all three test systems, an observation that supports the need to expand the risk assessment of pesticides and consider cumulative risk assessment. An additional testing of mixture effects at the hERβ showed that most test substances being active at the hERα could also elicit additive effects at the hERβ, but the hERβ was less sensitive. In conclusion, effects of the same ligands at the hERα and the hERβ could influence the estrogenic outcome under physiological conditions.

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<![CDATA[Body Mass Index with Tumor 18F-FDG Uptake Improves Risk Stratification in Patients with Breast Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da55ab0ee8fa60b8eb9f

Purpose

To investigate the combined prognostic impact of body mass index (BMI) and tumor standardized uptake value (SUV) measured on pretreatment 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) in patients with breast cancer.

Methods

We evaluated a cohort of 332 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer (stage I-III) who underwent pretreatment FDG PET/CT followed by curative resection. Patients were categorized as overweight (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2) or normal weight (BMI < 23 kg/m2). Primary tumor maximum SUV was measured by FDG PET/CT. Associations between BMI and tumor SUV with disease recurrence were assessed using Cox regression models.

Results

Median follow-up was 39 months. There were 76 recurrences and 15 cancer-related deaths. Multivariable Cox regression analysis demonstrated that high tumor SUV (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.75; 95% CI, 1.02–3.02; P = 0.044) and overweight (HR = 1.84; 95% CI, 1.17–2.89; P = 0.008) were independent poor prognostic factors. Positive hormone receptor status was an independent predictor of favorable outcome (HR = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.26–0.68; P < 0.001). Overweight patients with high tumor SUV had a two-fold risk of recurrence compared to patients with normal weight or low tumor SUV after adjusting for clinical stage and tumor subtype (HR = 2.06; 95% CI, 1.30–3.27; P = 0.002).

Conclusions

In patients with breast cancer, higher tumor SUV was associated with a more adverse outcome particularly in overweight women. BMI status combined with tumor SUV data allows better risk-stratification of breast cancer, independent of clinical stage and tumor subtype.

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<![CDATA[Cytochrome P450 1A2 Metabolizes 17β-Estradiol to Suppress Hepatocellular Carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da68ab0ee8fa60b92652

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurs more frequently in men than in women. It is commonly agreed that estrogen plays important roles in suppressing HCC development, however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Since estrogen is mainly metabolized in liver and its metabolites affect cell proliferation, we sought to investigate if the liver-specific cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) mediated the inhibitory effect of estrogen on HCC. In this study, the expression of estrogen-metabolizing enzyme CYP1A2 was determined in HCC tissues and cell lines. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed in cells with or without CYP1A2 overexpression. The levels of 17β-estradiol (E2) and its metabolite 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) were determined. A xenograft tumor model in mice was established to confirm the findings. It was found that CYP1A2 expression was greatly repressed in HCC. E2 suppressed HCC cell proliferation and xenograft tumor development by inducing apoptosis. The inhibitory effect was significantly enhanced in cells with CYP1A2 overexpression, which effectively conversed E2 to the cytotoxic 2-ME. E2 in combination with sorafenib showed an additive effect on HCC. The anti-HCC effect of E2 was not associated with estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ as well as tumor suppressor P53 but enhanced by the approved anti-HCC drug sorafenib. In addition, HDAC inhibitors greatly induced CYP1A2 promoter activities in cancer cells, especially liver cancer cells, but not in non-tumorigenic cells. Collectively, CYP1A2 metabolizes E2 to generate the potent anti-tumor agent 2-ME in HCC. The reduction of CYP1A2 significantly disrupts this metabolic pathway, contributing the progression and growth of HCC and the gender disparity of this malignancy.

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<![CDATA[Estradiol and Estrogen Receptor Agonists Oppose Oncogenic Actions of Leptin in HepG2 Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da83ab0ee8fa60b9b5a8

Obesity is a significant risk factor for certain cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Leptin, a hormone secreted by white adipose tissue, precipitates HCC development. Epidemiology data show that men have a much higher incidence of HCC than women, suggesting that estrogens and its receptors may inhibit HCC development and progression. Whether estrogens antagonize oncogenic action of leptin is uncertain. To investigate potential inhibitory effects of estrogens on leptin-induced HCC development, HCC cell line HepG2 cells were treated with leptin in combination with 17 β-estradiol (E2), estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) selective agonist PPT, ER-β selective agonist DPN, or G protein-coupled ER (GPER) selective agonist G-1. Cell number, proliferation, and apoptosis were determined, and leptin- and estrogen-related intracellular signaling pathways were analyzed. HepG2 cells expressed a low level of ER-β mRNA, and leptin treatment increased ER-β expression. E2 suppressed leptin-induced HepG2 cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally E2 reversed leptin-induced STAT3 and leptin-suppressed SOCS3, which was mainly achieved by activation of ER-β. E2 also enhanced ERK via activating ER-α and GPER and activated p38/MAPK via activating ER-β. To conclude, E2 and its receptors antagonize the oncogenic actions of leptin in HepG2 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation and stimulating cell apoptosis, which was associated with reversing leptin-induced changes in SOCS3/STAT3 and increasing p38/MAPK by activating ER-β, and increasing ERK by activating ER-α and GPER. Identifying roles of different estrogen receptors would provide comprehensive understanding of estrogenic mechanisms in HCC development and shed light on potential treatment for HCC patients.

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<![CDATA[Mammary epithelial cell phenotype disruption in vitro and in vivo through ERalpha36 overexpression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc137

Estrogen receptor alpha 36 (ERα36) is a variant of the canonical estrogen receptor alpha (ERα66), widely expressed in hormone sensitive cancer cells and whose high expression level correlates with a poor survival prognosis for breast cancer patients. While ERα36 activity have been related to breast cancer progression or acquired resistance to treatment, expression level and location of ERα36 are poorly documented in the normal mammary gland. Therefore, we explored the consequences of a ERα36 overexpression in vitro in MCF-10A normal mammary epithelial cells and in vivo in a unique model of MMTV-ERα36 transgenic mouse strain wherein ERα36 mRNA was specifically expressed in the mammary gland. By a combination of bioinformatics and computational analyses of microarray data, we identified hierarchical gene networks, downstream of ERα36 and modulated by the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Concomitantly, ERα36 overexpression lowered proliferation rate but enhanced migration potential and resistance to staurosporin-induced apoptosis of the MCF-10A cell line. In vivo, ERα36 expression led to duct epithelium thinning and disruption in adult but not in prepubescent mouse mammary gland. These phenotypes correlated with a loss of E-cadherin expression. Here, we show that an enhanced expression of ERα36 is sufficient, by itself, to disrupt normal breast epithelial phenotype in vivo and in vitro through a dominant-positive effect on nongenomic estrogen signaling pathways. These results also suggest that, in the presence of adult endogenous steroid levels, ERα36 overexpression in vivo contributes to alter mammary gland architecture which may support pre-neoplastic lesion and augment breast cancer risk.

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<![CDATA[Umbilical cord androgens and estrogens in relation to verbal and nonverbal abilities at age 10 in the general population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc4a6

Sex differences in verbal and nonverbal abilities are a contentious area of research. Prenatal steroids have been shown to have masculinizing effects on the brain that may affect the development of nonverbal and verbal abilities in later life. The current study examined a wide range of biologically active sex steroids (both androgens and estrogens) in umbilical cord blood at birth in a large pregnancy cohort in relation to performance on nonverbal (Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices) and verbal (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-3 and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III) measures at age 10 years. Overall, Androgen and Estrogen composites in cord blood were not found to be predictive of performance on verbal and nonverbal measures at age 10. These data suggest that late gestation sex steroids do not exert a major effect on nonverbal and verbal abilities in middle childhood.

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<![CDATA[Estrogen Enhances the Expression of the Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Elongase Elovl2 via ERα in Breast Cancer Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadaab0ee8fa60bb965c

Endocrine therapy is the first-line targeted adjuvant therapy for hormone-sensitive breast cancer. In view of the potential anticancer property of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) together with chemotherapy in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) positive mammary tumors, we have explored the regulation by estradiol of the fatty acid desaturation and elongation enzymes involved in DHA synthesis in the human breast cancer cell line MCF7, which expresses ERα but not ERβ. We demonstrate a robust up-regulation in the expression of the fatty acid elongases Elovl2 and Elovl5 upon estradiol stimulation in MCF7 cells, which was sustained for more than 24 hours. Exposure with the ER inhibitor tamoxifen abolished specifically the Elovl2 but not the Elovl5 expression. Similarly, knock-down of ERα eliminated almost fully the Elovl2 but not the Elovl5 expression. Furthermore, ERα binds to one specific ERE within the Elovl2 enhancer in a ligand dependent manner. The involvement of ERα in the control of especially Elovl2, which plays a crucial role in DHA synthesis, may have potential implications in the treatment of breast cancer.

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<![CDATA[Estradiol Receptors Regulate Differential Connexin 43 Expression in F98 and C6 Glioma Cell Lines]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa6ab0ee8fa60ba7a0b

Introduction

Glioma is the most common malignant primary brain tumour with male preponderance and poor prognosis. Glioma cells express variable amounts of connexin 43 (Cx43) and estrogen receptors (ERs). Both, Cx43 and ERs, play important roles in cell proliferation and migration. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 17-ß estradiol (E2) on Cx43 expression in two glioma cell lines with variable native expression of Cx43.

Materials and Methods

F98 and C6 rat glioma cells were cultured for 24 h in the presence of 10 nM or 100 nM E2, and the E2-antagonist, Fulvestrant. An MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell viability. ERα, ERβ and Cx43 protein expressions were analysed by western blotting and Cx43 mRNA expression was analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. To quantify cell migration, an exclusive zone migration assay was used. Functional coupling of cells via gap junctions was examined using whole-cell patch-clamp technique.

Results

E2 reduced Cx43 expression in C6 cells, but increased Cx43 expression in F98 cultures. These effects were mediated via ERs. Moreover, E2 promoted C6 cell migration, but it did not affect F98 cell migration. The expression level of ERα was found to be high in C6, but low in F98 cells. ERβ was exclusively expressed in C6 cells. In addition, E2 treatment induced a significant decrease of ERβ in C6 cultures, while it decreased ERα expression in F98 glioma cells.

Discussion

These findings show that E2 differentially modulates Cx43 expression in F98 and C6 glioma cells, likely due to the differential expression of ERs in each of these cell lines. Our findings point to the molecular mechanisms that might contribute to the gender-specific differences in the malignancy of glioma and could have implications for therapeutic strategies against glioma.

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<![CDATA[Association between serum prolactin levels and insulin resistance in non-diabetic men]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc581

Prolactin (PRL) has roles in various physiological functions. Although experimental studies showed that PRL has both beneficial and adverse effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus, clinical findings in subjects with hyperprolactinemia indicate adverse effects on glucose metabolism. However, effects of PRL within the physiological range in human are controversial. A population-based study of 370 Japanese men enrolled in the 2014 Iwaki study (aged 52.0 ± 14.8 years). In this cross-sectional study, associations between serum PRL levels and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) indices representing glucose metabolism in a physiological setting were examined using multivariable regression analysis. Although univariate linear regression analyses showed significant associations between serum PRL levels and HOMA indices, adjustment with multiple factors made the association with HOMA-ß (insulin secretion) insignificant, while those with HOMA-R (insulin resistance) remained significant (ß = 0.084, p = 0.035). Non-linear regression analyses showed a regression curve with a peak at serum PRL level, 12.4 ng/mL and a positive association of serum PRL level with HOMA-R below the peak (ß = 0.119, p = 0.004). Higher serum PRL levels within the physiological range seem to be associated with insulin resistance in men.

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<![CDATA[Association between lifetime exposure to passive smoking and risk of breast cancer subtypes defined by hormone receptor status among non-smoking Caucasian women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc201

Tobacco smoking is inconsistently associated with breast cancer. Although some studies suggest that breast cancer risk is related to passive smoking, little is known about the association with breast cancer by tumor hormone receptor status. We aimed to explore the association between lifetime passive smoking and risk of breast cancer subtypes defined by estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status among non-smoking Caucasian women. A hospital-based case-control study was performed in 585 cases and 1170 controls aged 28–90 years. Information on lifetime passive smoking and other factors was collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression was used for analyses restricted to the 449 cases and 930 controls who had never smoked actively. All statistical tests were two-sided. Adjusted odds ratio of breast cancer was 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72–1.41) in women who experienced exposure to passive smoking at work, 1.88 (95% CI: 1.38–2.55) in women who had exposure at home, and 2.80 (95% CI: 1.84–4.25) in women who were exposed at home and at work, all compared with never exposed regularly. Increased risk was associated with longer exposure: women exposed ≤ 20 years and > 20 years had 1.27 (95% CI: 0.97–1.66) and 2.64 (95% CI: 1.87–3.74) times higher risk of breast cancer compared with never exposed (Ptrend < 0.001). The association of passive smoking with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer did not differ from that with hormone receptor-negative breast cancer (Pheterogeneity > 0.05). There was evidence of interaction between passive smoking intensity and menopausal status in both overall group (P = 0.02) and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer group (P < 0.05). In Caucasian women, lifetime exposure to passive smoking is associated with the risk of breast cancer independent of tumor hormone receptor status with the strongest association in postmenopausal women.

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<![CDATA[Development of topical ophthalmic In Situ gel-forming estradiol delivery system intended for the prevention of age-related cataracts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdba61

The goal of this study was to develop and characterize an ion-activated in situ gel-forming estradiol (E2) solution eye drops intended for the prevention of age-related cataracts. Accordingly, in situ gelling eye drops were made using gellan gum as an ion-activated gel-forming polymer, polysorbate-80 as drug solubilizing agent, mannitol as tonicity agent, and combination of potassium sorbate and edetate disodium dihydrate (EDTA) as preservatives. The formulations were tested for the following characteristics: pH, clarity, osmolality, antimicrobial efficacy, rheological behavior, and in vitro drug release. Stability of the formulation was also monitored for 6 months at multiple storage conditions per ICH Q1A (R2) guidelines. The solution eye drops resulted in an in-situ phase change to gel-state when mixed with simulated tear fluid (STF). The gel structure formation was confirmed by viscoelastic measurements. Drug release from the gel followed non-fickian mechanism with 80% of drug released in 8 hr. The formulations were found to be clear, isotonic with suitable pH and viscoelastic behavior and stable at accelerated and long-term storage conditions for 6 months. In vitro results suggest that the developed formulation is suitable for further investigation in animal models to elucidate the ability of estrogen to prevent and delay cataracts.

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