ResearchPad - event-related-potentials https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The role of frontal and parietal cortex in the performance of gifted and average adolescents in a mental rotation task]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14471 Visual-spatial abilities are usually neglected in academic settings, even though several studies have shown that their predictive power in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics domains exceeds that of math and verbal ability. This neglect means that many spatially talented youths are not identified and nurtured, at a great cost to society. In the present work, we aim to identify behavioral and electrophysiological markers associated with visual spatial-ability in intellectually gifted adolescents (N = 15) compared to age-matched controls (N = 15). The participants performed a classic three-dimensional mental rotation task developed by Shepard and Metzler (1971) [33] while event-related potentials were measured in both frontal and parietal regions of interest. While response time was similar in the two groups, gifted subjects performed the test with greater accuracy. There was no indication of interhemispheric asymmetry of ERPs over parietal regions in both groups, although interhemispheric differences were observed in the frontal lobes. Moreover, intelligence quotient and working memory measures predicted variance in ERP’s amplitude in the right parietal and frontal hemispheres. We conclude that while gifted adolescents do not display a different pattern of electroencephalographic activity over the parietal cortex while performing the mental rotation task, their performance is correlated with the amplitude of ERPs in the frontal cortex during the execution of this task.

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<![CDATA[Cyborg groups enhance face recognition in crowded environments]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c89773bd5eed0c4847d2790

Recognizing a person in a crowded environment is a challenging, yet critical, visual-search task for both humans and machine-vision algorithms. This paper explores the possibility of combining a residual neural network (ResNet), brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) and human participants to create “cyborgs” that improve decision making. Human participants and a ResNet undertook the same face-recognition experiment. BCIs were used to decode the decision confidence of humans from their EEG signals. Different types of cyborg groups were created, including either only humans (with or without the BCI) or groups of humans and the ResNet. Cyborg groups decisions were obtained weighing individual decisions by confidence estimates. Results show that groups of cyborgs are significantly more accurate (up to 35%) than the ResNet, the average participant, and equally-sized groups of humans not assisted by technology. These results suggest that melding humans, BCI, and machine-vision technology could significantly improve decision-making in realistic scenarios.

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<![CDATA[Electrophysiological correlates of concept type shifts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823b9d5eed0c484638ef4

A recent semantic theory of nominal concepts by Löbner [1] posits that–due to their inherent uniqueness and relationality properties–noun concepts can be classified into four concept types (CTs): sortal, individual, relational, functional. For sortal nouns the default determination is indefinite (a stone), for individual nouns it is definite (the sun), for relational and functional nouns it is possessive (his ear, his father). Incongruent determination leads to a concept type shift: his father (functional concept: unique, relational)–a father (sortal concept: non-unique, non-relational). Behavioral studies on CT shifts have demonstrated a CT congruence effect, with congruent determiners triggering faster lexical decision times on the subsequent noun than incongruent ones [2, 3]. The present ERP study investigated electrophysiological correlates of congruent and incongruent determination in German noun phrases, and specifically, whether the CT congruence effect could be indexed by such classic ERP components as N400, LAN or P600. If incongruent determination affects the lexical retrieval or semantic integration of the noun, it should be reflected in the amplitude of the N400 component. If, however, CT congruence is processed by the same neuronal mechanisms that underlie morphosyntactic processing, incongruent determination should trigger LAN or/and P600. These predictions were tested in two ERP studies. In Experiment 1, participants just listened to noun phrases. In Experiment 2, they performed a wellformedness judgment task. The processing of (in)congruent CTs (his sun vs. the sun) was compared to the processing of morphosyntactic and semantic violations in control conditions. Whereas the control conditions elicited classic electrophysiological violation responses (N400, LAN, & P600), CT-incongruences did not. Instead they showed novel concept-type specific response patterns. The absence of the classic ERP components suggests that CT-incongruent determination is not perceived as a violation of the semantic or morphosyntactic structure of the noun phrase.

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<![CDATA[A neural hallmark of auditory implicit learning is altered in older adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b5256d5eed0c4842bc694

Temporal regularities in the environment are often learned implicitly. In an auditory target-detection paradigm using EEG, Jongsma and colleagues (2006) showed that the neural response to these implicit regularities results in a reduction of the P3-N2 complex. Here, we utilized the same paradigm, this time in both young and old participants, to determine if this EEG signature of implicit learning was altered with age. Behaviorally, both groups of participants showed similar benefits for the presence of temporal regularity, with faster and more accurate responses given when the auditory targets were presented in a temporally regular vs. random pattern. In the brain, the younger adults showed the expected decrease in amplitude of this complex for regular compared to irregular trials. Older adults, in contrast, showed no difference in the amplitude of the P3-N2 complex between the irregular and regular condition. These data suggest that, although auditory implicit learning may be behaviorally spared in aging, older adults are not using the same neural substrates as younger adults to achieve this.

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<![CDATA[Attentional modulation of orthographic neighborhood effects during reading: Evidence from event-related brain potentials in a psychological refractory period paradigm]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c644944d5eed0c484c2f97c

It is often assumed that word reading proceeds automatically. Here, we tested this assumption by recording event-related potentials during a psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm, requiring lexical decisions about written words. Specifically, we selected words differing in their orthographic neighborhood size–the number of words that can be obtained from a target by exchanging a single letter–and investigated how influences of this variable depend on the availability of central attention. As expected, when attentional resources for lexical decisions were unconstrained, words with many orthographic neighbors elicited larger N400 amplitudes than those with few neighbors. However, under conditions of high temporal overlap with a high priority primary task, the N400 effect was not statistically different from zero. This finding indicates strong attentional influences on processes sensitive to orthographic neighbors during word reading, providing novel evidence against the full automaticity of processes involved in word reading. Furthermore, in conjunction with the observation of an underadditive interaction between stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) and orthographic neighborhood size in lexical decision performance, commonly taken to indicate automaticity, our results raise issues concerning the standard logic of cognitive slack in the PRP paradigm.

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<![CDATA[Scene complexity modulates degree of feedback activity during object detection in natural scenes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c33c3a1d5eed0c48459e504

Selective brain responses to objects arise within a few hundreds of milliseconds of neural processing, suggesting that visual object recognition is mediated by rapid feed-forward activations. Yet disruption of neural responses in early visual cortex beyond feed-forward processing stages affects object recognition performance. Here, we unite these discrepant findings by reporting that object recognition involves enhanced feedback activity (recurrent processing within early visual cortex) when target objects are embedded in natural scenes that are characterized by high complexity. Human participants performed an animal target detection task on natural scenes with low, medium or high complexity as determined by a computational model of low-level contrast statistics. Three converging lines of evidence indicate that feedback was selectively enhanced for high complexity scenes. First, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity in early visual cortex (V1) was enhanced for target objects in scenes with high, but not low or medium complexity. Second, event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by target objects were selectively enhanced at feedback stages of visual processing (from ~220 ms onwards) for high complexity scenes only. Third, behavioral performance for high complexity scenes deteriorated when participants were pressed for time and thus less able to incorporate the feedback activity. Modeling of the reaction time distributions using drift diffusion revealed that object information accumulated more slowly for high complexity scenes, with evidence accumulation being coupled to trial-to-trial variation in the EEG feedback response. Together, these results suggest that while feed-forward activity may suffice to recognize isolated objects, the brain employs recurrent processing more adaptively in naturalistic settings, using minimal feedback for simple scenes and increasing feedback for complex scenes.

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<![CDATA[A conceptual space for EEG-based brain-computer interfaces]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b798d5eed0c4844905bd

Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have become more and more popular these last years. Researchers use this technology for several types of applications, including attention and workload measures but also for the direct control of objects by the means of BCIs. In this work we present a first, multidimensional feature space for EEG-based BCI applications to help practitioners to characterize, compare and design systems, which use EEG-based BCIs. Our feature space contains 4 axes and 9 sub-axes and consists of 41 options in total as well as their different combinations. We presented the axes of our feature space and we positioned our feature space regarding the existing BCI and HCI taxonomies and we showed how our work integrates the past works, and/or complements them.

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<![CDATA[Mechanistic insight into spontaneous transition from cellular alternans to arrhythmia—A simulation study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ae43ed5eed0c484589394

Cardiac electrical alternans (CEA), manifested as T-wave alternans in ECG, is a clinical biomarker for predicting cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. However, the mechanism underlying the spontaneous transition from CEA to arrhythmias remains incompletely elucidated. In this study, multiscale rabbit ventricular models were used to study the transition and a potential role of INa in perpetuating such a transition. It was shown CEA evolved into either concordant or discordant action potential (AP) conduction alternans in a homogeneous one-dimensional tissue model, depending on tissue AP duration and conduction velocity (CV) restitution properties. Discordant alternans was able to cause conduction failure in the model, which was promoted by impaired sodium channel with either a reduced or increased channel current. In a two-dimensional homogeneous tissue model, a combined effect of rate- and curvature-dependent CV broke-up alternating wavefronts at localised points, facilitating a spontaneous transition from CEA to re-entry. Tissue inhomogeneity or anisotropy further promoted break-up of re-entry, leading to multiple wavelets. Similar observations have also been seen in human atrial cellular and tissue models. In conclusion, our results identify a mechanism by which CEA spontaneously evolves into re-entry without a requirement for premature ventricular complexes or pre-existing tissue heterogeneities, and demonstrated the important pro-arrhythmic role of impaired sodium channel activity. These findings are model-independent and have potential human relevance.

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<![CDATA[Unfolding the Spatial and Temporal Neural Processing of Making Dishonest Choices]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da88ab0ee8fa60b9cdd5

To understand the neural processing that underpins dishonest behavior in an economic exchange game task, this study employed both functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potential (ERP) methodologies to examine the neural conditions of 25 participants while they were making either dishonest or honest choices. It was discovered that dishonest choices, contrary to honest choices, elicited stronger fMRI activations in bilateral striatum and anterior insula. It also induced fluctuations in ERP amplitudes within two time windows, which are 270–30 milliseconds before and 110–290 milliseconds after the response, respectively. Importantly, when making either dishonest or honest choices, human and computer counterparts were associated with distinct fMRI activations in the left insula and different ERP amplitudes at medial and right central sites from 80 milliseconds before to 250 milliseconds after the response. These results support the hypothesis that there would be distinct neural processing during making dishonest decisions, especially when the subject considers the interests of the counterpart. Furthermore, the fMRI and ERP findings, together with ERP source reconstruction, clearly delineate the temporal sequence of the neural processes of a dishonest decision: the striatum is activated before response, then the left insula is involved around the time of response, and finally the thalamus is activated after response.

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<![CDATA[Post-Decision Wagering Affects Metacognitive Awareness of Emotional Stimuli: An Event Related Potential Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f2ab0ee8fa60b6eb74

The present research investigated metacognitive awareness of emotional stimuli and its psychophysiological correlates. We used a backward masking task presenting participants with fearful or neutral faces. We asked participants for face discrimination and then probed their metacognitive awareness with confidence rating (CR) and post-decision wagering (PDW) scales. We also analysed psychophysiological correlates of awareness with event-related potential (ERP) components: P1, N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and P3. We have not observed any differences between PDW and CR conditions in the emotion identification task. However, the "aware" ratings were associated with increased accuracy performance. This effect was more pronounced in PDW, especially for fearful faces, suggesting that emotional stimuli awareness may be enhanced by monetary incentives. EEG analysis showed larger N170, EPN and P3 amplitudes in aware compared to unaware trials. It also appeared that both EPN and P3 ERP components were more pronounced in the PDW condition, especially when emotional faces were presented. Taken together, our ERP findings suggest that metacognitive awareness of emotional stimuli depends on the effectiveness of both early and late visual information processing. Our study also indicates that awareness of emotional stimuli can be enhanced by the motivation induced by wagering.

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<![CDATA[Early Left Parietal Activity Elicited by Direct Gaze: A High-Density EEG Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da5dab0ee8fa60b90484

Gaze is one of the most important cues for human communication and social interaction. In particular, gaze contact is the most primary form of social contact and it is thought to capture attention. A very early-differentiated brain response to direct versus averted gaze has been hypothesized. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to test this hypothesis. Topographical analysis allowed us to uncover a very early topographic modulation (40–80 ms) of event-related responses to faces with direct as compared to averted gaze. This modulation was obtained only in the condition where intact broadband faces–as opposed to high-pass or low-pas filtered faces–were presented. Source estimation indicated that this early modulation involved the posterior parietal region, encompassing the left precuneus and inferior parietal lobule. This supports the idea that it reflected an early orienting response to direct versus averted gaze. Accordingly, in a follow-up behavioural experiment, we found faster response times to the direct gaze than to the averted gaze broadband faces. In addition, classical evoked potential analysis showed that the N170 peak amplitude was larger for averted gaze than for direct gaze. Taken together, these results suggest that direct gaze may be detected at a very early processing stage, involving a parallel route to the ventral occipito-temporal route of face perceptual analysis.

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<![CDATA[Classifying Response Correctness across Different Task Sets: A Machine Learning Approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dabfab0ee8fa60bb047e

Erroneous behavior usually elicits a distinct pattern in neural waveforms. In particular, inspection of the concurrent recorded electroencephalograms (EEG) typically reveals a negative potential at fronto-central electrodes shortly following a response error (Ne or ERN) as well as an error-awareness-related positivity (Pe). Seemingly, the brain signal contains information about the occurrence of an error. Assuming a general error evaluation system, the question arises whether this information can be utilized in order to classify behavioral performance within or even across different cognitive tasks. In the present study, a machine learning approach was employed to investigate the outlined issue. Ne as well as Pe were extracted from the single-trial EEG signals of participants conducting a flanker and a mental rotation task and subjected to a machine learning classification scheme (via a support vector machine, SVM). Overall, individual performance in the flanker task was classified more accurately, with accuracy rates of above 85%. Most importantly, it was even feasible to classify responses across both tasks. In particular, an SVM trained on the flanker task could identify erroneous behavior with almost 70% accuracy in the EEG data recorded during the rotation task, and vice versa. Summed up, we replicate that the response-related EEG signal can be used to identify erroneous behavior within a particular task. Going beyond this, it was possible to classify response types across functionally different tasks. Therefore, the outlined methodological approach appears promising with respect to future applications.

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<![CDATA[Neural Correlates of Attention to Human-Made Sounds: An ERP Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d9ab0ee8fa60b66cc0

Previous neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have suggested that human made sounds are processed differently from non-human made sounds. Multiple groups have suggested that voices might be processed as “special,” much like faces. Although previous literature has explored neural correlates of voice perception under varying task demands, few studies have examined electrophysiological correlates of attention while directly comparing human made and non-human made sounds. In the present study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to compare attention to human versus non-human made sounds in an oddball paradigm. ERP components of interest were the P300, and fronto-temporal positivity to voices (FTVP), which has been reported in previous investigations of voice versus non-voice stimuli. We found that participants who heard human made sounds as “target” or infrequent stimuli had significantly larger FTPV amplitude, shorter FTPV latency, and larger P300 amplitude than those who heard non-human sounds as “target” stimuli. Our results are in concordance with previous findings that human-made and non-human made sounds are processed differently, and expand upon previous literature by demonstrating increased attention to human versus non-human made sounds, even when the non-human made sounds are ones that require immediate attention in daily life (e.g. a car horn). Heightened attention to human-made sounds is important theoretically and has potential for application in tests of social interest in populations with autism.

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<![CDATA[Gamma Oscillations in the Temporal Pole in Response to Eyes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da8cab0ee8fa60b9e3dd

The eyes of an individual act as an indispensable communication medium during human social interactions. Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed that several brain regions are activated in response to eyes and eye gaze direction changes. However, it remains unclear whether the temporal pole is one of these regions. Furthermore, if the temporal pole is activated by these stimuli, the timing and manner in which it is activated also remain unclear. To investigate these issues, we analyzed intracranial electroencephalographic data from the temporal pole that were obtained during the presentation of eyes and mosaics in averted or straight directions and their directional changes. Time–frequency statistical parametric mapping analyses revealed that the bilateral temporal poles exhibited greater gamma-band activation beginning at 215 ms in response to eyes compared with mosaics, irrespective of the direction. Additionally, the right temporal pole showed greater gamma-band activation beginning at 197 ms in response to directional changes of the eyes compared with mosaics. These results suggest that gamma-band oscillations in the temporal pole were involved in the processing of the presence of eyes and changes in eye gaze direction at a relatively late temporal stage compared with the posterior cortices.

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<![CDATA[Does Speaking Two Dialects in Daily Life Affect Executive Functions? An Event-Related Potential Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db25ab0ee8fa60bd028b

Whether using two languages enhances executive functions is a matter of debate. Here, we take a novel perspective to examine the bilingual advantage hypothesis by comparing bi-dialect with mono-dialect speakers’ performance on a non-linguistic task that requires executive control. Two groups of native Chinese speakers, one speaking only the standard Chinese Mandarin and the other also speaking the Southern-Min dialect, which differs from the standard Chinese Mandarin primarily in phonology, performed a classic Flanker task. Behavioural results showed no difference between the two groups, but event-related potentials recorded simultaneously revealed a number of differences, including an earlier P2 effect in the bi-dialect as compared to the mono-dialect group, suggesting that the two groups engage different underlying neural processes. Despite differences in the early ERP component, no between-group differences in the magnitude of the Flanker effects, which is an index of conflict resolution, were observed in the N2 component. Therefore, these findings suggest that speaking two dialects of one language does not enhance executive functions. Implications of the current findings for the bilingual advantage hypothesis are discussed.

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<![CDATA[Infant Cries Rattle Adult Cognition]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9fab0ee8fa60ba501c

The attention-grabbing quality of the infant cry is well recognized, but how the emotional valence of infant vocal signals affects adult cognition and cortical activity has heretofore been unknown. We examined the effects of two contrasting infant vocalizations (cries vs. laughs) on adult performance on a Stroop task using a cross-modal distraction paradigm in which infant distractors were vocal and targets were visual. Infant vocalizations were presented before (Experiment 1) or during each Stroop trial (Experiment 2). To evaluate the influence of infant vocalizations on cognitive control, neural responses to the Stroop task were obtained by measuring electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs) in Experiment 1. Based on the previously demonstrated existence of negative arousal bias, we hypothesized that cry vocalizations would be more distracting and invoke greater conflict processing than laugh vocalizations. Similarly, we expected participants to have greater difficulty shifting attention from the vocal distractors to the target task after hearing cries vs. after hearing laughs. Behavioral results from both experiments showed a cry interference effect, in which task performance was slower with cry than with laugh distractors. Electrophysiology data further revealed that cries more than laughs reduced attention to the task (smaller P200) and increased conflict processing (larger N450), albeit differently for incongruent and congruent trials. Results from a correlation analysis showed that the amplitudes of P200 and N450 were inversely related, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between attention and conflict processing. The findings suggest that cognitive control processes contribute to an attention bias to infant signals, which is modulated in part by the valence of the infant vocalization and the demands of the cognitive task. The findings thus support the notion that infant cries elicit a negative arousal bias that is distracting; they also identify, for the first time, the neural dynamics underlying the unique influence that infant cries and laughs have on cognitive control.

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<![CDATA[Neural Correlates of Task Cost for Stance Control with an Additional Motor Task: Phase-Locked Electroencephalogram Responses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da5eab0ee8fa60b908d0

With appropriate reallocation of central resources, the ability to maintain an erect posture is not necessarily degraded by a concurrent motor task. This study investigated the neural control of a particular postural-suprapostural procedure involving brain mechanisms to solve crosstalk between posture and motor subtasks. Participants completed a single posture task and a dual-task while concurrently conducting force-matching and maintaining a tilted stabilometer stance at a target angle. Stabilometer movements and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The added force-matching task increased the irregularity of postural response rather than the size of postural response prior to force-matching. In addition, the added force-matching task during stabilometer stance led to marked topographic ERP modulation, with greater P2 positivity in the frontal and sensorimotor-parietal areas of the N1-P2 transitional phase and in the sensorimotor-parietal area of the late P2 phase. The time-frequency distribution of the ERP primary principal component revealed that the dual-task condition manifested more pronounced delta (1–4 Hz) and beta (13–35 Hz) synchronizations but suppressed theta activity (4–8 Hz) before force-matching. The dual-task condition also manifested coherent fronto-parietal delta activity in the P2 period. In addition to a decrease in postural regularity, this study reveals spatio-temporal and temporal-spectral reorganizations of ERPs in the fronto-sensorimotor-parietal network due to the added suprapostural motor task. For a particular set of postural-suprapostural task, the behavior and neural data suggest a facilitatory role of autonomous postural response and central resource expansion with increasing interregional interactions for task-shift and planning the motor-suprapostural task.

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<![CDATA[Acute Stress and Perceptual Load Consume the Same Attentional Resources: A Behavioral-ERP Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0eab0ee8fa60bcb0a9

Stress and perceptual load affect selective attention in a paradoxical manner. They can facilitate selectivity or disrupt it. This EEG study was designed to examine the reciprocal relations between stress, load and attention. Two groups of subjects, one that performed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and a control group, were asked to respond to a target letter under low and high perceptual load in the absence or presence of a distractor. In the control group, the distractor increased response times (RTs) for high and low load. In the TSST group, distractor increased RTs under low load only. ERPs showed that distractor’s presentation attenuated early visual P1 component and shortened its latency. In the TSST group, distractor reduced P1 component under high load but did not affect its latency. Source localization demonstrated reduced activation in V1 in response to distractors presence in the P1 time window for the TSST group compared to the control group. A behavioral replication revealed that in the TSST group distractors were less perceived under high load. Taken together, our results show that stress and perceptual load affect selectivity through the early stages of visual processing and might increase selectivity in a manner that would block conscious perception of irrelevant stimuli.

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<![CDATA[Human Brain Reacts to Transcranial Extraocular Light]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da5eab0ee8fa60b90845

Transcranial extraocular light affects the brains of birds and modulates their seasonal changes in physiology and behavior. However, whether the human brain is sensitive to extraocular light is unknown. To test whether extraocular light has any effect on human brain functioning, we measured brain electrophysiology of 18 young healthy subjects using event-related potentials while they performed a visual attention task embedded with emotional distractors. Extraocular light delivered via ear canals abolished normal emotional modulation of attention related brain responses. With no extraocular light delivered, emotional distractors reduced centro-parietal P300 amplitude compared to neutral distractors. This phenomenon disappeared with extraocular light delivery. Extraocular light delivered through the ear canals was shown to penetrate at the base of the scull of a cadaver. Thus, we have shown that extraocular light impacts human brain functioning calling for further research on the mechanisms of action of light on the human brain.

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<![CDATA[Remembered or Forgotten?—An EEG-Based Computational Prediction Approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f2ab0ee8fa60b6ef2e

Prediction of memory performance (remembered or forgotten) has various potential applications not only for knowledge learning but also for disease diagnosis. Recently, subsequent memory effects (SMEs)—the statistical differences in electroencephalography (EEG) signals before or during learning between subsequently remembered and forgotten events—have been found. This finding indicates that EEG signals convey the information relevant to memory performance. In this paper, based on SMEs we propose a computational approach to predict memory performance of an event from EEG signals. We devise a convolutional neural network for EEG, called ConvEEGNN, to predict subsequently remembered and forgotten events from EEG recorded during memory process. With the ConvEEGNN, prediction of memory performance can be achieved by integrating two main stages: feature extraction and classification. To verify the proposed approach, we employ an auditory memory task to collect EEG signals from scalp electrodes. For ConvEEGNN, the average prediction accuracy was 72.07% by using EEG data from pre-stimulus and during-stimulus periods, outperforming other approaches. It was observed that signals from pre-stimulus period and those from during-stimulus period had comparable contributions to memory performance. Furthermore, the connection weights of ConvEEGNN network can reveal prominent channels, which are consistent with the distribution of SME studied previously.

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