ResearchPad - exercise https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Relationship between maximal incremental and high-intensity interval exercise performance in elite athletes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13822 This descriptive study aimed to explore the physiological factors that determine tolerance to exertion during high-intensity interval effort. Forty-seven young women (15–28 years old) were enrolled: 23 athletes from Taiwan national or national reserve teams and 24 moderately active females. Each participant underwent a maximal incremental INC (modified Bruce protocol) cardiopulmonary exercise test on the first day and high-intensity interval testing (HIIT) on the second day, both performed on a treadmill. The HIIT protocol involved alternation between 1-min effort at 120% of the maximal speed, at the same slope reached at the end of the INC, and 1-min rest until volitional exhaustion. Gas exchange, heart rate (HR), and muscle oxygenation at the right vastus lateralis, measured by near-infrared spectroscopy, were continuously recorded. The number of repetitions completed (Rlim) by each participant was considered the HIIT tolerance index. The results showed a large difference in the Rlim (range, 2.6–12.0 repetitions) among the participants. Stepwise linear regression revealed that the variance in the Rlim within the cohort was related to the recovery rates of oxygen consumption (V˙O2), HR at the second minute after INC, and muscle tissue saturation index at exhaustion (R = 0.644). In addition, age was linearly correlated with Rlim (adjusted R = −0.518, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the recovery rates for V˙O2 and HR after the incremental test, and muscle saturation index at exhaustion, were the major physiological factors related to HIIT performance. These findings provide insights into the role of the recovery phase after maximal INC exercise testing. Future research investigating a combination of INC and HIIT testing to determine training-induced performance improvement is warranted.

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<![CDATA[A descriptive cross sectional study comparing barriers and determinants of physical activity of Sri Lankan middle aged and older adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7830 Benefits of physical activities are numerous. Barriers for physical exercise may differ among middle aged and older adults. Therefore, identifying and comparing the barriers for participating in regular physical exercises among middle aged and older adults will be useful in designing age specific physical exercise programmes.MethodsThis descriptive cross sectional study was carried out among 206 Sri Lankan adults in the age range of 40–84 years in the Colombo North region of Sri Lanka using culturally validated questionnaires to determine and compare the barriers and factors associated with regular physical activity participation. Majority were males (56%) and 54% were < 60 years. People in the age range of 40–59 years were considered as middle age and ≥ 60 years as older adults. Bivariate analysis and multivariate analysis was carried out to determine the significant factors that are associated with regular physical activity participation.ResultsLack of free time (52%), feeling too lazy (26%) and bad weather (29%) were the main barriers for the participants. In < 60 years, high level of income (p = 0.008) and in ≥ 60 years, being a male (p = 0.016), having a high level of education (P = 0.002) and a high BMI (p = 0.002) had a significant negative association with the level of physical activities.ConclusionsContrary to findings from surveys in several developed countries, this study showed that having a high level of education and being a male were strongly related with lack of physical activity participation. ]]> <![CDATA[Association between attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation and cardiovascular risk factors at one-year post myocardial infarction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7688 Randomized trials confirm the benefits of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation on cardiovascular risk factors. Whether exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation provides the same favourable effects in real-life cardiac rehabilitation settings, in the modern era of myocardial infarction treatment, is less well known. We examined the association between attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation and improvements in cardiovascular risk factors at one-year post myocardial infarction in patients included in the Swedish heart disease registry, SWEDEHEART.MethodsIn this retrospective registry-based cohort study, we included 19 136 patients post myocardial infarction (75% men, 62.8±8.7 years) who were registered in SWEDEHEART between 2011 and 2013. The association between attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (43% participation rate) and changes in cardiovascular risk profile between baseline and one-year follow-up was assessed using multivariable regression analysis adjusting for age, comorbidities and medication.ResultsAttenders more often reported to have stopped smoking (men 64% vs 50%; women 64% vs 53%, p<0.001 for both, only smokers at baseline considered), be more physically active (men 3.9±2.5 vs 3.4±2.7 days/week; women 3.8±2.6 vs 3.0±2.8 days/week, p<0.001 for both) and achieved a slightly larger reduction in triglycerides (men -0.2±0.8 vs -0.1±0.9 mmol/L, p = 0.001; women -0.1±0.6 vs 0.0±0.8 mmol/L, p = 0.01) at one-year compared to non-attenders. Male attenders gained less weight (+0.0±5.7 vs +0.3±5.7 kg, p = 0.01) while female attenders achieved better lipid control (total cholesterol -1.2±1.4 vs -0.9±1.4 mmol/L, p<0.001; low-density lipoprotein -1.2±1.2 vs -0.9 ±1.2 mmol/L, p<0.001) compared to non-attenders.ConclusionsIn an unselected registry cohort of patients post myocardial infarction, compared to non-attenders those attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation achieved significantly larger improvements in cardiovascular risk factors at one-year after the acute event. ]]> <![CDATA[The relationship of recreational runners’ motivation and resilience levels to the incidence of injury: A mediation model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7663 Running participation has increased significantly in the last decade. Despite its association with different health-related aspects, athletes may experience adverse outcomes, including injuries. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine the relationship between runners’ resilience levels, motivation and incidence of injury, on the one hand; and to analyse the mediation that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has on the association between the number of injuries and psychological resilience levels among amateur athletes. The sample consisted of a total of 1725 runners (age: 40.40 ± 9.39 years), 1261 of whom were male (age: 43.16 ± 9.38), and 465 of whom were female (age: 40.34 ± 9.14). Athletes completed the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-3), the Resilience scale (CD-RISC 10), and an Injury retrospective survey. Three mediation models were constructed, and the results showed a significant indirect association of athletes’ intrinsic motivation and resilience on the number of injuries (β = 0.022, CI = 0.007, 0.0) in mediation model 1, whereas extrinsic motivation was found to have no significant association on those variables (β = -0.062, CI = -0.137, 0.009) in mediation model 2. Model 3 showed significant differences with respect to resilience (p < 0.05) and intrinsic motivation (p < 0.05). Therefore, the mediation of intrinsic motivation on athletes’ resilience levels and incidence of injury was demonstrated, i.e., it was found that intrinsic motivation was associated with a higher incidence of injury, while no such correlation was found for extrinsic motivation. This study shows that the amateur long distance runners with a high level of intrinsic motivation tend to suffer from a greater number of injuries, and at the same time psychological resilience was associated with a lower number of injuries.

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<![CDATA[Family-based habit intervention to promote parent support for child physical activity in Canada: protocol for a randomised trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf8f2cd45-53f8-402f-a5cd-daf81095f95a Regular physical activity (PA) participation has many important physical and psychological health benefits, managing and preventing over 25 chronic conditions. Being more physically active as a child is associated with being more active as an adult, but less than 10% of Canadian children are achieving the recommended PA guidelines of 60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous PA. Parental support is a predictor of child PA, but parent intention to support child PA does not always predict enacted support. Targeting factors that assist in the sustainability of parent support behaviour of child PA may have an impact on child PA. The purpose of this study is to evaluate an intervention designed to promote habit formation of parental support (HABIT, independent variable) on child PA (dependant variable) compared with a planning and education group (PLANNING) and an education only group (EDUCATION).Methods and analysisThe three conditions will be compared using a 6-month longitudinal randomised trial. Eligible families have at least one child aged 6–12 years who is not meeting the 2011 Canadian PA Guidelines. Intervention materials are delivered at baseline, with check-in sessions at 6 weeks and 3 months. Child’s moderate-to-vigorous PA, measured by accelerometry, is assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months as the primary outcome. At baseline and 6 months, children perform fitness testing. Parents and children complete questionnaires at all timepoints. So far, 123 families have been recruited from the Greater Victoria and surrounding area. Recruitment will be continuing through 2020 with a target of 240 families.Ethics and disseminationThis protocol has been approved by the University of Victoria Human Research Ethics Board (Victoria, Canada). Results will be shared at conferences as presentations and as published manuscripts. Study findings will be made available to interested participants.Trial registration numberNCT03145688; Pre-results ]]> <![CDATA[Motivational Interviewing to Increase Physical Activity Behavior in Cancer Patients: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trials]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N664bbc9c-cc4f-4efc-b4b1-c14c7f71be53

Objective: This pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) aimed at evaluating the feasibility and potential efficacy of a motivational interviewing (MI) intervention to increase physical activity (PA) behavior in cancer patients. Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group with standard care plus 12 MI sessions within 12 weeks or a control group with standard care only. The number of recruited participants and the modality of recruitment were recorded to describe the reach of the study. The acceptability of the study was estimated using the attrition rate during the intervention phase. The potential efficacy of the intervention was evaluated by analyzing the PA behavior. Results: Twenty-five participants were recruited within the 16-month recruitment period (1.6 participants per month). Five participants (38.5%) from the experimental group (n = 13) and one participant (8.3%) from the control group (n = 12) dropped out of the study before the end of the intervention phase. No group by time interaction effect for PA behavior was observed at the end of the intervention. Conclusion: Due to the low recruitment rate and compliance, no conclusion can be drawn regarding the efficacy of MI to increase PA behavior in cancer patients. Moreover, the current literature cannot provide any evidence on the effectiveness of MI to increase PA in cancer survivors. Future RCTs should consider that the percentage of uninterested patients to join the study may be as high as 60%. Overrecruitment (30% to 40%) is also recommended to accommodate the elevated attrition rate.

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<![CDATA[Traditional and quantitative analysis of acid‐base and electrolyte imbalances in horses competing in cross‐country competitions at 2‐star to 5‐star level]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb11e5d70-ee76-463f-a2d2-e37f6da13ec8

Abstract

Background

Early recognition and management of acid‐base, fluid, and electrolyte disorders are crucial for the maintenance of health and performance in equine athletes.

Objectives

To analyze changes in acid‐base and electrolyte status associated with exercise during cross‐country competitions at different levels using traditional and quantitative approaches.

Animals

Thirty‐eight eventing horses.

Methods

Prospective observational study. Jugular venous blood samples were collected before and after the cross‐country test of 25 international eventing competitions ranging from 2‐star (formerly 1‐star) to 5‐star (formerly 4‐star) level. Blood gas analysis was performed to determine pH, pCO2, Na+, Cl, and K+ and calculate HCO3 , tCO2 base excess (BEECF), anion gap (AG), strong ion difference calculated from Na+, K+, Cl, and lactate (SID4), strong ion difference calculated from Na+, K+, and Cl (SID3), strong ion gap (SIG), and total nonvolatile weak buffer concentration (Atot). Postexercise acid‐base imbalances, diagnosed on the basis of the traditional approach, and the simplified strong ion model were compared.

Results

Significant decreases in pH, Cl, SID4, pCO2, HCO3 , tCO2, and BEECF as well as increases in K+, SID3, AG, TP, and Atot were observed between pre‐ and postexercise samples. The changes in acid‐base parameters were significantly affected by the competition level. Using the strong ion approach, a higher proportion of horses was diagnosed with postexercise metabolic acidosis.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

Regarding the complex acid‐base changes in horses competing at cross‐country competitions, the quantitative approach provided a more detailed analysis of the different factors contributing to acid‐base balance than did the traditional approach.

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<![CDATA[‘In search of lost time’: Identifying the causative role of cumulative competition load and competition time-loss in professional tennis using a structural nested mean model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4f3da08e-598e-44d5-a4f3-a2c64fcebd1f

Injury prevention is critical to the achievement of peak performance in elite sport. For professional tennis players, the topic of injury prevention has gained even greater importance in recent years as multiple of the best male players have been sidelined owing to injury. Identifying potential causative factors of injury is essential for the development of effective prevention strategies, yet such research is hampered by incomplete data, the complexity of injury etiology, and observational study biases. The present study attempts to address these challenges by focusing on competition load and time-loss to competition—a completely observable risk factor and outcome—and using a structural nested mean model (SNMM) to identify the potential causal role of cumulative competition load on the risk of time-loss. Using inverse probability of treatment weights to balance exposure histories with respect to player ability, past injury, and consecutive competition weeks at each time point; the SNMM analysis of 389 professional male players and 55,773 weeks of competition found that total load significantly increases the risk of time-loss (HR = 1.05 per 1,000 games of additional load 95% CI 1.01-1.10) and this effect becomes magnified with age. Standard regression showed a protective effect of load, highlighting the value of more robust causal methods in the study of dynamic exposures and injury in sport and the need for further applications of these methods for understanding how time-loss and injuries of elite athletes might be prevented in the future.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence of depressive symptoms among Italian medical students: The multicentre cross-sectional “PRIMES” study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N89095419-220d-4d38-944c-d00bb778cf6f

Background

Four percent of the world’s population suffers from depression, which is a major public health issue. Medical students are at risk, as their depressive symptoms (DS) prevalence is reported to be approximately 27% worldwide. Since few data on Italian medical students exist, this study aimed to estimate their DS prevalence and assess risk and protective factors.

Methods

The PRIMES was a multicentre cross-sectional study performed in 12 Italian medical schools. Questionnaires were self-reported and included 30 sociodemographic items and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). The primary outcome was the presence of DS (BDI-II score≥14). The main analyses were chi-squared tests and multivariable logistic regressions with a p-value<0.05 considered significant.

Results

The number of collected questionnaires was 2,513 (117 BDI-II incomplete). Females accounted for 61.3% of the respondents, and the median age was 22 years (IQR = 4). The prevalence of DS was 29.5%. Specifically, 14.0% had mild depression, 11.1% had moderate depression, and 4.5% had severe depression. The main risk factors for DS were age, being female, bisexual/asexual orientation, living with partner/housemates, poor economic status (worsened by living far from home), less than 90 min of weekly exercise, relatives with psychiatric disorders, personal chronic disease, judging medical school choice negatively, unsatisfying friendships with classmates, competitive and hostile climate among classmates, thinking that medical school hinders specific activities and being worried about not measuring up to the profession. Protective factors included family cohesion, hobbies, intellectual curiosity as a career motivation and no worries about the future.

Conclusion

Italian medical students are at high risk of reporting DS, similar to the global population of medical students’. Medical schools must make efforts to implement preventive and treatment interventions by offering counselling and working on modifiable factors, such as lifestyle and learning climate.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of team-sport wheelchair falls during the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympic Games: a video-based cross-sectional observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbe9a95f1-7e71-4291-b688-43612e4252f6

Objectives

To present the fall characteristics of athletes playing wheelchair rugby (WR) and wheelchair basketball (WB) using official videos from the Rio 2016 Paralympic Games and compare the key fall characteristics among the team wheelchair sports event.

Methods

Eighteen WR and 10 WB game videos for men (MWB) and women (WWB), including 8 teams per sport, were obtained from the official International Paralympic Committee of the Rio 2016 Paralympic Games. The videos were analysed to assess the number of falls, playing time of fall, playing phase, contact with other athletes, the direction of the fall and the body part first in contact with the floor during the fall.

Results

In total, 359 falls (96 for WR, 172 for MWB and 91 for WWB) occurred with a mean of 5.3, 17.2 and 9.1 falls per match, respectively (p<0.05). Significant differences among the three sports were detected in the playing time (p=0.011), presence of contact (p=0.037), direction (p<0.001) and body part first in contact with the floor (p<0.001). For WR, the falls were primarily lateral and caused by contact, occurring in the second half of the match. WB falls tended to be in the first half for women and the second half for men. Most falls were contact falls in the forward direction.

Conclusion

By observing the situational details, we described that a number of falls due to contact occurred during these team sports events, especially MWB. In addition, each sport exhibited characteristics attributable to differences in gender, degree of impairment and game rules. The directions of the falls and characteristics of the affected body parts indicate differences in impairments depending on the sport. A fall to the side or back may indicate a risk of injury.

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<![CDATA[Association of Fish Consumption and Mercury Exposure During Pregnancy With Metabolic Health and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Children]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf8a0e36a-e5d1-43ea-b5d0-00842f50ad39

Key Points

Question

Is fish consumption during pregnancy associated with benefits for the metabolic health of children?

Findings

In this cohort study of 805 mothers and their singleton offspring, moderate fish consumption during pregnancy was associated with the downregulation of inflammation and improvements in the metabolic profile of children; high mercury exposure during pregnancy had the opposite associations.

Meaning

The results of this study suggest that fish consumption consistent with current recommendations during pregnancy was associated with improvements in the metabolic health of children.

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<![CDATA[Guidelines about physical activity and exercise to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors: protocol for a systematic review and critical appraisal]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N32ab355f-f047-4944-9a79-808fc3bbfde4

Introduction

Physical activity can prevent a wide range of diseases, including highly prevalent conditions such as heart disease, diabetes and associated cardiometabolic disorders. Numerous guidelines for the prescription of physical activity and exercise to promote general health and prevent disease are released each year, but the quality of these guidelines is currently unknown. This systematic review and critical appraisal of physical activity and exercise guidelines aims to summarise the current status and quality of these guidelines to provide suggestions to improve the development of future guidelines in this area.

Methods and analysis

We will conduct a systematic review of guidelines in Ovid MEDLINE(R) and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, and Daily, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Scopus databases published from database 2000 through 23 October 2019, written in English for the use of physical activity and exercise for the prevention of cardiometabolic disease and related risk factors in otherwise healthy individuals. We will also search the grey literature for additional eligible documents. We will use the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II tool to assess the quality of eligible recommendations from all included guidelines, as well as perform exploratory analyses on guideline development variables.

Ethics and dissemination

As a protocol for the review and critical appraisal of published documents, no potential ethical considerations are discussed. The protocol will guide the development of the review, which will be disseminated to relevant journals for publication.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42019126364

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<![CDATA[Muscle Thickness During Core Stability Exercises in Children and Adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N43f3c39b-d729-424f-ad56-39e56e1e824a

Abstract

Core stability exercises are regular part of exercise programs for asymptomatic individuals across ages. The purpose of this study was to examine deep abdominal and multifidus muscle thickness in children and adults and to determine reliability of the rehabilitative ultrasound (RUSI) imaging. Transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus thickness at rest and during core stability exercise were examined in pre-pubertal children (N = 23), adolescents (N = 20), young adults (N = 21) and middle-aged adults (N = 22). Thirty-nine participants were re-tested one week after to establish reliability. Muscle thickness at rest was lower in children and adolescents compared with young and middle-aged adults (p < 0.008). Young adults displayed the highest relative transversus abdominis thickness upon contraction (p < 0.008). Lumbar multfidus contraction thickness was greater in young-adults than middle-aged adults and pre-pubertal children (p < 0.008), but it was similar between young-adults and adolescents (p > 0.008). Reliability was high for both muscles (ICC3,3 = 0.76 - 0.99). The age-related differences in muscle thickness indicate that core stability exercises may be beneficial for children and middle-aged adults.

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<![CDATA[Long-Term Favorable Effects of Physical Exercise on Burdensome Symptoms in the OptiTrain Breast Cancer Randomized Controlled Trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd593d5b1-80ba-480c-8805-dc27fa924266

Purpose: We evaluate longitudinal changes in symptom clusters and core burdensome symptoms in breast cancer patients who participated in the OptiTrain trial. Methods: 240 women were randomized to 16 weeks of supervised exercise (RT-HIIT or AT-HIIT) or usual care (UC) during adjuvant chemotherapy. Symptom clusters were composed using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS), assessed at baseline, 16 weeks and 12 months later. Three symptom clusters were formed. Results: Three symptom clusters were identified: “emotional,” “treatment-related toxicity,” and “physical,” with core burdensome symptoms present over time. At 16 weeks, the reported burdens of “feeling sad” (RT-HIIT vs UC: effect size [ES] = −0.69; AT-HIIT vs UC: ES = −0.56) and “feeling irritable” (ES = −0.41 RT-HIIT; ES = −0.31 AT-HIIT) were significantly lower in both intervention groups compared with UC. At 12 months, the AT-HIIT group continued to have significantly lower scores for the core burdensome symptoms “feeling sad” (ES = −0.44), “feeling irritable” (ES = −0.44), and “changes in the way food tastes” (ES = −0.53) compared with UC. No between-group differences were found for physical symptoms. Conclusion: We identified 3 symptom clusters in breast cancer patients during and after adjuvant chemotherapy, composed of “emotional,” “treatment-related toxicity,” and “physical” symptoms. After treatment completion up to 12 months post-baseline, patients in the physical exercise groups reported lower symptom burden scores for emotional symptoms, compared with UC. Our findings indicate a preserved and long-term beneficial effect of physical exercise on self-reported emotional well-being in chemotherapy-treated breast cancer patients.

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<![CDATA[The North Texas Concussion Registry (ConTex)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N82ea6df0-c131-4380-b121-e5a98276177a

Purpose

The North Texas Concussion Registry (ConTex) was established in 2015 as a multi-institutional collaboration intended to study risk factors, recovery patterns and clinical outcomes associated with concussion across the lifespan, with a particular emphasis on sport-related concussion.

Participants

Prospective enrolment of individuals who sustained a concussion within the past 6 months who were seen at one of four North Texas ConTex concussion clinics which employ common diagnostic criteria and assessment metrics to evaluate effects of a concussion as well as longitudinal tracking of recovery.

Findings to date

The ConTex database and multidisciplinary oversight team has been established, and over 1700 participants aged 5–88 years have been enrolled. A majority of concussions were sport-related (60%), with a mean age of 17.5 years and similar numbers of males and females. Three-month follow-up compliance has been excellent (86%), with a majority of subjects reporting good recovery by that time. ConTex has provided a rich data source for multiple research projects focused on concussion characteristics, risk factors and outcomes, and led to the development of a statewide youth concussion registry.

Future plans

ConTex data are being analysed to add to the body of knowledge regarding concussion mechanisms, factors related to recovery and improving outcomes for concussion patients. ConTex will serve as a platform for future treatment studies and may serve as a model for other concussion surveillance programmes.

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<![CDATA[Physical activity and health-related quality of life in former elite and recreational cricketers from the UK with upper extremity or lower extremity persistent joint pain: a cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncf0985df-95ac-48e6-a1f1-3437bc582b1a

Objective

To evaluate and compare physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in former elite and recreational cricketers with upper extremity (UE), lower extremity (LE) or no joint pain.

Study design

Cross-sectional cohort.

Setting

Despite the high prevalence of joint pain in former athletes, the impact of UE pain and LE pain on PA and HRQoL and potential differences between former recreational and elite athletes are poorly understood.

Participants

703 former cricketers aged ≥18 years (mean age 58.7, SD 12.9, played an average of 30 (IQR 20–40) seasons, 72% of whom had played at a recreational level) were recruited through the Cricket Health and Wellbeing Study and met eligibility requirements (UE pain, LE pain or no joint pain (defined as pain on most days of the past month)).

Primary and secondary outcomes

The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form collected weekly metabolic equivalents (METS), while the Short-Form 8 collected physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component scores. Kruskal-Wallis tests with Dunn’s post-hoc and multivariable linear regressions were performed.

Results

Weekly METS were similar in former cricketers with UE pain (median (IQR) 2560 (722–4398)), LE pain (2215 (527–3903)) and no pain (2449 (695–4203), p=0.39). MCS were similar between groups (UE pain 56.0 (52.1–60.0); LE pain 55.2 (51.1–59.4); no pain 54.7 (50.7–58.7), p=0.38). PCS were more impaired in former cricketers with UE pain (49.8 (44.9–54.8)) or LE pain (46.7 (41.0–51.9)) compared with no pain (54.2 (51.5–56.9), p<0.0001). Former cricketers with LE pain reported worse PCS than those with UE pain (p=0.04). Similar relationships were observed in former elite and recreational cricketers.

Conclusion

Despite impaired physical components of HRQoL in former cricketers with UE pain or LE pain, pain was not related to PA levels or mental components of HRQoL. Physical components of HRQoL were most impaired in those with LE pain, and findings were similar among former elite and recreational cricketers.

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<![CDATA[Relationship between cricket participation, health and well-being: scoping review protocol]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5945508f-d66b-455a-a510-fb39dc99bff6

Introduction

Cricket is a popular sport played by 2.5 billion people of all ages and abilities. However, cricket participation is decreasing in the UK, despite an increased focus of governments on increasing sport participation to enhance public health. Understanding the health benefits and mitigating the health risks of cricket participation may help cricket organisations promote cricket participation while optimising the long-term health of cricket participants. Currently, there is no literature review on the relationship between cricket participation, health and well-being; thus, this relationship remains unclear. Therefore, the aims of this scoping review were (1) to investigate the relationship between cricket participation, health and well-being and (ii) to identify the research gaps related to cricket, health and well-being.

Methods and analysis

Due to the broad nature of our research question and the large number of health outcomes assessed within the cricket literature and to facilitate identification of research gaps, a scoping review methodology was used. The methodology of this paper was informed by previous scoping review protocols and best practice methodological frameworks. MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane Library, EBSCO, Web of Science and PEDro and grey literature sources (Google Scholar, ClinicalTrials.gov, ISRCTN Registry and ProQuest) will be systematically searched. Studies that assess a construct related to health and/or well-being in current and/or former cricketers from all ages and standards of play will be eligible. Two reviewers will independently screen full texts of identified studies for eligibility and will perform data extraction. Results will be presented in tabular and graphical forms and will be reported descriptively.

Ethics and dissemination

This research is exempt from ethics approval due to the data being available through published and public available resources. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed sports and exercise medicine journal regardless of positive or negative findings. In addition, results will be disseminated through multiple platforms, including conference presentations and social media using multimedia resources (eg, infographics, animations, videos, podcasts and blogs), to engage stakeholder groups, including cricketers, cricket coaches, sporting bodies, sports medicine professionals and policy makers. There findings will inform clinical decision making, policy changes and future research agendas.

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<![CDATA[Exercise and adiposity in overweight and obese children and adolescents: a systematic review with network meta-analysis of randomised trials]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfbe50bfb-a4cf-4eb7-acbd-c8e6226f6554

Objectives

Determine both the effects and hierarchy of effectiveness for exercise interventions (aerobic, strength training or both) on selected measures of adiposity (body mass index (BMI) in kg/m2, fat mass and per cent body fat) in overweight and obese children and adolescents.

Design

Network meta-analysis of randomised exercise intervention trials.

Setting

Any setting where a randomised trial could be conducted.

Participants

Overweight and obese male and/or female children and adolescents 2–18 years of age.

Interventions

Randomised exercise intervention trials>4 weeks, published between 1 January 1973 and 22 August 2018, and which included direct and/or indirect evidence for aerobic, strength training or combined aerobic and strength training.

Primary outcomes

Changes in BMI in kg/m2, fat mass and per cent body fat.

Results

Fifty-seven studies representing 127 groups (73 exercise, 54 control) and 2792 participants (1667 exercise, 1125 control) met the criteria for inclusion. Length of training (X- ± SD) averaged 14.1±6.2 weeks, frequency, 3.3±1.1 days per week and duration 42.0±21.0 min per session. Significant and clinically important reductions in BMI, fat mass and per cent body fat were observed in aerobic versus control comparisons (BMI, mean, 95% CI -1.0, 1.4 to −0.6; fat mass -2.1, –3.3 to −1.0 kg; per cent fat -1.5, –2.2 to −0.9%) and combined aerobic and strength versus control comparisons (BMI -0.7, –1.4 to −0.1; fat mass -2.5, –4.1 to −1.0 kg; per cent fat, -2.2, –3.2 to −1.2%). A significant reduction in per cent fat was also found for strength vs control comparisons (-1.3,–2.5 to −0.1%). Combined aerobic and strength training was ranked first for improving both fat mass (kg) and per cent body fat while aerobic exercise was ranked first for improving BMI.

Conclusions

Aerobic and combined aerobic and strength training are associated with improvements in adiposity outcomes in overweight and obese children and adolescents.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42017073103.

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<![CDATA[Boost your brain, while having a break! The effects of long-term cognitively engaging physical activity breaks on children’s executive functions and academic achievement]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897718d5eed0c4847d2449

Classroom-based physical activity (PA) is gaining attention in terms of its potential to enhance children’s cognitive functions, but it remains unclear as to which specific modality of PA affects cognitive functions most. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of qualitatively different PA breaks on children’s cognitive outcomes. Children (N = 142) aged between 7 and 9 years were allocated to a 20-week classroom-based PA program, with either high physical exertion and high cognitive engagement (combo group), high physical exertion and low cognitive engagement (aerobic group), or low physical exertion and high cognitive engagement (cognition group). Executive functions (updating, inhibition, shifting) and academic achievement (mathematics, spelling, reading) were measured pre- and post-intervention. Results showed that the combo group profited the most displaying enhanced shifting and mathematic performance. The cognition group profited only in terms of enhanced mathematic performance, whereas the aerobic group remained unaffected. These results suggest that the inclusion of cognitively engaging PA breaks seem to be a promising way to enhance school children’s cognitive functions.

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<![CDATA[Exercise Training in Patients With Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer During In-Hospital Chemotherapy Treatment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c973c6dd5eed0c484968731

This study aimed to assess the impact of exercise training in patients with lung cancer on several outcomes compared to a control group. Results suggest that exercise programs in patients with lung cancer are a practical and beneficial intervention for enhancing mobility and physical fitness.

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