ResearchPad - exocrine-glands https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Analytical performance of thrombospondin-1 and cathepsin D immunoassays part of a novel CE-IVD marked test as an aid in the diagnosis of prostate cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15745 The Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) test suffers from low specificity for the diagnosis of Prostate Cancer (PCa). We originally discovered two cancer-related proteins thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) and cathepsin D (CTSD) using a mass-spectrometry-based proteomics approach. The two serum proteins were shown to improve the diagnosis of high-grade PCa. Thus, we developed quantitative ELISAs for the determination of their concentration in human serum. Here we report their analytical performance in terms of limit of detection, specificity, precision, linearity and interferences, which were determined based on CLSI guidelines. Further, we investigated the influence of pre-analytical factors on concentration measurements. For this, blood from 4–6 donors was collected in different tubes and stored at room temperature for different times prior to centrifugation at different centrifugal forces and temperatures. Stability of THBS1 and CTSD under different storage temperatures was also evaluated. Our results show that the assays are specific, linear and sensitive enough to allow measurement of clinical samples. Precision in terms of repeatability and total within-laboratory coefficient of variation (CV) are 5.5% and 8.1% for THBS1 and 4.3% and 7.2% for CTSD, respectively. Relative laboratory-to-laboratory differences were -6.3% for THBS1 and -3% for CTSD. Both THBS1 and CTSD were stable in serum samples, with 80–120% recoveries of concentrations across donors, sample preparation and storage. In conclusion, the ELISAs as part of the novel commercial in vitro diagnostic test Proclarix are suitable for the use in clinical practice. THBS1 and CTSD can be accurately measured for their intended use independent of the lot and laboratory when conditions consistent with routine practice for PSA sampling and storage are used.

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<![CDATA[Pathological and genetic aspects of spontaneous mammary gland tumor in <i>Tupaia belangeri</i> (tree shrew)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15738 Mammary gland cancer is the most common cancer occurring in women globally. Incidences of this cancer in Japan are on the increase. Annually, more than 70,000 new cases are recorded in Japan and about 1.7 million in the world. Many cases are still difficult to cure completely, and animal models are required for the characterization of the biology, therapeutic strategy, and preventive measures for spontaneous mammary tumor. The mouse model used currently has some limitations owing to structural differences between mouse and human mammary glands. Tupaia belangeri (tree shrew), which belongs to the Tupaiidae family, shows relatively high genetic homology and structural similarity to human mammary glands. Here, we characterized the spontaneous mammary tumors in 61 female tree shrews of different ages. The incidence rate was 24.6% (15/61), and the rate of simultaneous or metachronous multiplex tumors was 60% (9/15). From the incidence pattern, some cases seemed to be of familial mammary gland tumor, as the offspring of female tree shrews No. 3 and 9 and male tree shrew No. 11 showed a high incidence rate, of 73.3% (11/15). Average incidence age for tumor development was 2 years and 3 months, and the earliest was 10 months. Histochemical analysis indicated that spontaneous mammary gland tumors in the tree shrew show the features of intraductal papillary adenomas (22 cases), except 2 tubulopapillary carcinoma cases (No. 75 and 131). All the cases were positive for the progesterone receptor, whereas 91.3% were positive for the estrogen receptor, and 4.3% were HER-2 positive. We have also confirmed the expression of nectin-4 in some mammary tumor cells. Additionally, we subjected tree shrews to cytodiagnosis or X-ray CT. Thus, the findings of this study highlight the potential of the tree shrew as a valuable new animal model for mammary gland tumor study.

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<![CDATA[Estrogen receptor β exerts tumor suppressive effects in prostate cancer through repression of androgen receptor activity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14708 Estrogen receptor β (ERβ) was first identified in the rodent prostate and is abundantly expressed in human and rodent prostate epithelium, stroma, immune cells and endothelium of the blood vessels. In the prostates of mice with inactivated ERβ, mutant phenotypes include epithelial hyperplasia and increased expression of androgen receptor (AR)-regulated genes, most of which are also upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa). ERβ is expressed in both basal and luminal cells in the prostate while AR is expressed in luminal but not in the basal cell layer which harbors the prostate stem cells. To investigate the mechanisms of action of ERβ and its potential cross-talk with AR, we used RNA-seq to study the effects of estradiol or the synthetic ligand, LY3201, in AR-positive LNCaP PCa cells which had been engineered to express ERβ. Transcriptomic analysis indicated relatively few changes in gene expression with ERβ overexpression, but robust responses following ligand treatments. There is significant overlap of responsive genes between the two ligands, estradiol and LY3201 as well as ligand-specific alterations. Gene set analysis of down-regulated genes identified an enrichment of androgen-responsive genes, such as FKBP5, CAMKK2, and TBC1D4. Consistently, AR transcript, protein levels, and transcriptional activity were down-regulated following ERβ activation. In agreement with this, we find that the phosphorylation of the CAMKK2 target, AMPK, was repressed by ligand-activated ERβ. These findings suggest that ERβ-mediated signaling pathways are involved in the negative regulation of AR expression and activity, thus supporting a tumor suppressive role for ERβ in PCa.

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<![CDATA[Genetic association and transcriptome integration identify contributing genes and tissues at cystic fibrosis modifier loci]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c7ee7c7d5eed0c4848f4db2

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) exhibits morbidity in several organs, including progressive lung disease in all patients and intestinal obstruction at birth (meconium ileus) in ~15%. Individuals with the same causal CFTR mutations show variable disease presentation which is partly attributed to modifier genes. With >6,500 participants from the International CF Gene Modifier Consortium, genome-wide association investigation identified a new modifier locus for meconium ileus encompassing ATP12A on chromosome 13 (min p = 3.83x10-10); replicated loci encompassing SLC6A14 on chromosome X and SLC26A9 on chromosome 1, (min p<2.2x10-16, 2.81x10−11, respectively); and replicated a suggestive locus on chromosome 7 near PRSS1 (min p = 2.55x10-7). PRSS1 is exclusively expressed in the exocrine pancreas and was previously associated with non-CF pancreatitis with functional characterization demonstrating impact on PRSS1 gene expression. We thus asked whether the other meconium ileus modifier loci impact gene expression and in which organ. We developed and applied a colocalization framework called the Simple Sum (SS) that integrates regulatory and genetic association information, and also contrasts colocalization evidence across tissues or genes. The associated modifier loci colocalized with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for ATP12A (p = 3.35x10-8), SLC6A14 (p = 1.12x10-10) and SLC26A9 (p = 4.48x10-5) in the pancreas, even though meconium ileus manifests in the intestine. The meconium ileus susceptibility locus on chromosome X appeared shifted in location from a previously identified locus for CF lung disease severity. Using the SS we integrated the lung disease association locus with eQTLs from nasal epithelia of 63 CF participants and demonstrated evidence of colocalization with airway-specific regulation of SLC6A14 (p = 2.3x10-4). Cystic Fibrosis is realizing the promise of personalized medicine, and identification of the contributing organ and understanding of tissue specificity for a gene modifier is essential for the next phase of personalizing therapeutic strategies.

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<![CDATA[Real-time adaptive planning method for radiotherapy treatment delivery for prostate cancer patients, based on a library of plans accounting for possible anatomy configuration changes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c818e8ad5eed0c484cc24c8

Background and purpose

In prostate cancer treatment with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), prostate motion and internal changes in tissue distribution can lead to a decrease in plan quality. In most currently used planning methods, the uncertainties due to prostate motion are compensated by irradiating a larger treatment volume. However, this could cause underdosage of the treatment volume and overdosage of the organs at risk (OARs). To reduce this problem, in this proof of principle study we developed and evaluated a novel adaptive planning method. The strategy proposed corrects the dose delivered by each beam according to the actual position of the target in order to produce a final dose distribution dosimetrically as similar as possible to the prescribed one.

Material and methods

Our adaptive planning method was tested on a phantom case and on a clinical case. For the first, a pilot study was performed on an in-silico pelvic phantom. A “library” of intensity modulated RT (IMRT) plans corresponding to possible positions of the prostate during a treatment fraction was generated at planning stage. Then a 3D random walk model was used to simulate possible displacements of the prostate during the treatment fraction. At treatment stage, at the end of each beam, based on the current position of the target, the beam from the library of plans, which could reproduce the best approximation of the prescribed dose distribution, was selected and delivered. In the clinical case, the same approach was used on two prostate cancer patients: for the first a tissue deformation was simulated in-silico and for the second a cone beam CT (CBCT) taken during the treatment was used to simulate an intra-fraction change. Then, dosimetric comparisons with the standard treatment plan and, for the second patient, also with an isocenter shift correction, were performed.

Results

For the phantom case, the plan generated using the adaptive planning method was able to meet all the dosimetric requirements and to correct for a misdosage of 13% of the dose prescription on the prostate. For the first clinical case, the standard planning method caused underdosage of the seminal vesicles, respectively by 5% and 4% of the prescribed dose, when the position changes for the target were correctly taken into account. The proposed adaptive planning method corrected any possible missed target coverage, reducing at the same time the dose on the OARs. For the second clinical case, both with the standard planning strategy and with the isocenter shift correction target coverage was significantly worsened (in particular uniformity) and some organs exceeded some toxicity objectives. While with our approach, the most uniform coverage for the target was produced and systematically the lowest toxicity values for the organs at risk were achieved.

Conclusions

In our proof of principle study, the adaptive planning method performed better than the standard planning and the isocenter shift methods for prostate EBRT. It improved the coverage of the treatment volumes and lowered the dose to the OARs. This planning method is particularly promising for hypofractionated IMRT treatments in which a higher precision and control on dose deposition are needed. Further studies will be performed to test more extensively the proposed adaptive planning method and to evaluate it at a full clinical level.

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<![CDATA[Experimental Zika virus infection of Jamaican fruit bats (Artibeus jamaicensis) and possible entry of virus into brain via activated microglial cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e905d5eed0c48496f66d

The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the New World has led to more than 200,000 human infections. Perinatal infection can cause severe neurological complications, including fetal and neonatal microcephaly, and in adults there is an association with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). ZIKV is transmitted to humans by Aedes sp. mosquitoes, yet little is known about its enzootic cycle in which transmission is thought to occur between arboreal Aedes sp. mosquitos and non-human primates. In the 1950s and ‘60s, several bat species were shown to be naturally and experimentally susceptible to ZIKV with acute viremia and seroconversion, and some developed neurological disease with viral antigen detected in the brain. Because of ZIKV emergence in the Americas, we sought to determine susceptibility of Jamaican fruit bats (Artibeus jamaicensis), one of the most common bats in the New World. Bats were inoculated with ZIKV PRVABC59 but did not show signs of disease. Bats held to 28 days post-inoculation (PI) had detectable antibody by ELISA and viral RNA was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, saliva and urine in some of the bats. Immunoreactivity using polyclonal anti-ZIKV antibody was detected in testes, brain, lung and salivary glands plus scrotal skin. Tropism for mononuclear cells, including macrophages/microglia and fibroblasts, was seen in the aforementioned organs in addition to testicular Leydig cells. The virus likely localized to the brain via infection of Iba1+ macrophage/microglial cells. Jamaican fruit bats, therefore, may be a useful animal model for the study of ZIKV infection. This work also raises the possibility that bats may have a role in Zika virus ecology in endemic regions, and that ZIKV may pose a wildlife disease threat to bat populations.

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<![CDATA[Structured reporting of prostate magnetic resonance imaging has the potential to improve interdisciplinary communication]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75abfdd5eed0c484d07f7d

Background

Effective interdisciplinary communication of imaging findings is vital for patient care, as referring physicians depend on the contained information for the decision-making and subsequent treatment. Traditional radiology reports contain non-structured free text and potentially tangled information in narrative language, which can hamper the information transfer and diminish the clarity of the report. Therefore, this study investigates whether newly developed structured reports (SRs) of prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can improve interdisciplinary communication, as compared to non-structured reports (NSRs).

Methods

50 NSRs and 50 SRs describing a single prostatic lesion were presented to four urologists with expert level experience in prostate cancer surgery or targeted MRI TRUS fusion biopsy. They were subsequently asked to plot the tumor location in a 2-dimensional prostate diagram and to answer a questionnaire focusing on information on clinically relevant key features as well as the perceived structure of the report. A validated scoring system that distinguishes between “major” and “minor” mistakes was used to evaluate the accuracy of the plotting of the tumor position in the prostate diagram.

Results

The mean total score for accuracy for SRs was significantly higher than for NSRs (28.46 [range 13.33–30.0] vs. 21.75 [range 0.0–30.0], p < 0.01). The overall rates of major mistakes (54% vs. 10%) and minor mistakes (74% vs. 22%) were significantly higher (p < 0.01) for NSRs than for SRs. The rate of radiologist re-consultations was significantly lower (p < 0.01) for SRs than for NSRs (19% vs. 85%). Furthermore, SRs were rated as significantly superior to NSRs in regard to determining the clinical tumor stage (p < 0.01), the quality of the summary (4.4 vs. 2.5; p < 0.01), and overall satisfaction with the report (4.5 vs. 2.3; p < 0.01), and as more valuable for further clinical decision-making and surgical planning (p < 0.01).

Conclusions

Structured reporting of prostate MRI has the potential to improve interdisciplinary communication. Through SRs, expert urologists were able to more accurately assess the exact location of single prostate cancer lesions, which can facilitate surgical planning. Furthermore, structured reporting of prostate MRI leads to a higher satisfaction level of the referring physician.

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<![CDATA[Histogram analysis of prostate cancer on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: A preliminary study emphasizing on zonal difference]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75d9d5eed0c4843d02ed

Background

This study evaluated the performance of histogram analysis in the time course of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for differentiating cancerous tissues from benign tissues in the prostate.

Methods

We retrospectively analyzed the histograms of DCE-MRI of 30 patients. Histograms within regions of interest(ROI) in the peripheral zone (PZ) and transitional zone (TZ) were separately analyzed. The maximum difference wash-in slope (MWS) and delay phase slope (DPS) were defined for each voxel. Differences in histogram parameters, namely the mean, standard deviation (SD), the coefficient of variation (CV), kurtosis, skewness, interquartile range (IQR), percentile (P10, P25, P75, P90, and P90P10), Range, and modified full width at half-maximum (mFWHM) between cancerous and benign tissues were assessed.

Results

In the TZ, CV for ROIs of 7.5 and 10mm was the only significantly different parameter of the MWS (P = 0.034 and P = 0.004, respectively), whereas many parameters of the DPS (mean, skewness, P10, P25, P50, P75 and P90) differed significantly (P = <0.001–0.016 and area under the curve [AUC] = 0.73–0.822). In the PZ, all parameters of the MWS exhibited significant differences, except kurtosis and skewness in the ROI of 7.5mm(P = <0.001–0.017 and AUC = 0.865–0.898). SD, IQR, mFWHM, P90P10 and Range were also significant differences in the DPS (P = 0.001–0.035).

Conclusion

The histogram analysis of DCE-MRI is a potentially useful approach for differentiating prostate cancer from normal tissues. Different histogram parameters of the MWS and DPS should be applied in the TZ and PZ.

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<![CDATA[Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels mediate salivary gland function and blood feeding in the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c65dccbd5eed0c484dec23d

Background

Tick feeding causes extreme morbidity and mortality to humans through transmission of pathogens and causes severe economic losses to the agricultural industry by reducing livestock yield. Salivary gland secretions are essential for tick feeding and thus, reducing or preventing saliva secretions into the vertebrate host is likely to reduce feeding and hinder pathogen life cycles. Unfortunately, the membrane physiology of tick salivary glands is underexplored and this gap in knowledge limits the development of novel therapeutics for inducing cessation of tick feeding.

Methodology

We studied the influence of inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channel subtypes to the functional capacity of the isolated tick salivary gland through the use of a modified Ramsay assay. The secreted saliva was subsequently used for quantification of the elemental composition of the secreted saliva after the glands were exposed to K+ channel modulators as a measure of osmoregulatory capacity. Lastly, changes to blood feeding behavior and mortality were measured with the use of a membrane feeding system.

Principal findings

In this study, we characterized the fundamental role of Kir channel subtypes in tick salivary gland function and provide evidence that pharmacological inhibition of these ion channels reduces the secretory activity of the Amblyomma americanum salivary gland. The reduced secretory capacity of the salivary gland was directly correlated with a dramatic reduction of blood ingestion during feeding. Further, exposure to small-molecule modulators of Kir channel subtypes induced mortality to ticks that is likely resultant from an altered osmoregulatory capacity.

Conclusions

Our data contribute to understanding of tick salivary gland function and could guide future campaigns aiming to develop chemical or reverse vaccinology technologies to reduce the worldwide burden of tick feeding and tick-vectored pathogens.

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<![CDATA[Consistency of compact and extended models of glucose-insulin homeostasis: The role of variable pancreatic reserve]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c7067acd5eed0c4847c74a3

Published compact and extended models of the glucose-insulin physiologic control system are compared, in order to understand why a specific functional form of the compact model proved to be necessary for a satisfactory representation of acute perturbation experiments such as the Intra Venous Glucose Tolerance Test (IVGTT). A spectrum of IVGTT’s of virtual subjects ranging from normal to IFG to IGT to frank T2DM were simulated using an extended model incorporating the population-of-controllers paradigm originally hypothesized by Grodsky, and proven to be able to capture a wide array of experimental results from heterogeneous perturbation procedures. The simulated IVGTT’s were then fitted with the Single-Delay Model (SDM), a compact model with only six free parameters, previously shown to be very effective in delivering precise estimates of insulin sensitivity and secretion during an IVGTT. Comparison of the generating, extended-model parameter values with the obtained compact model estimates shows that the functional form of the nonlinear insulin-secretion term, empirically found to be necessary for the compact model to satisfactorily fit clinical observations, captures the pancreatic reserve level of the simulated virtual patients. This result supports the validity of the compact model as a meaningful analysis tool for the clinical assessment of insulin sensitivity.

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<![CDATA[Differentiation of hypovascular pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma using contrast-enhanced computed tomography]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df32fd5eed0c484580e48

Hypovascular pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (hypo-PNETs) are often misdiagnosed as pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, the treatment options and prognosis of PNETs and PDAC are substantially different. This retrospective study differentiated hypo-PNETs from PDAC using contrast-enhanced CT (CE-CT). Clinical data and CE-CT findings, including tumor location, size, boundary, pancreatic duct dilatation, local invasion or metastases, tumor contrast enhancement, and tumor-to-pancreas enhancement ratio, were compared between 39 PDACs and 18 hypo-PNETs. At CT imaging, hypo-PNETs showed a higher frequency of a well-defined margin and lower frequencies of pancreatic duct dilatation and local invasion or metastasis when compared with PDAC (p < 0.05 for all). The mean attenuation of hypo-PNETs at the arterial and portal venous phase was significantly higher than that of PDAC (p < 0.001, p = 0.003, respectively). Similar results were observed in tumor-to-pancreas enhancement ratio. Tumor attenuation and tumor-to-pancreas enhancement ratio at the arterial phase showed the largest area under the curve (AUC) of 0.888 and 0.812 with 83.3–88.9% of sensitivity and 61.6–77.0% of specificity. Pancreatic duct dilatation, local invasion or metastasis, and tumor attenuation at the portal venous phase also showed acceptable AUC (0.703–0.748). Thus CE-CT features, especially the enhancement degree at the arterial phases, may be useful for differentiating hypo-PNETs from PDAC using CE-CT.

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<![CDATA[Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer with seminal vesicle involvement (T3b): A multicentric retrospective analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c79b004d5eed0c4841e3c37

Objectives

No study has reported clinical results of external-beam radiotherapy specifically for T3b prostate cancer. The possibility of escalating the dose to the involved seminal vesicles (ISV) while respecting the dose constraints in the organs at risk is thus so far not clearly demonstrated. The objective of the study was to analyze the dose distribution and the clinical outcome in a large series of patients who received IMRT for T3b prostate cancer.

Materials and methods

This retrospective analysis included all patients who received IMRT and androgen deprivation therapy for T3b prostate cancer, between 2008 and 2017, in six French institutions, with available MRI images and dosimetric data.

Results

A total of 276 T3b patients were included. The median follow-up was 26 months. The median (range) prescribed doses (Gy) to the prostate and to the ISV were 77 (70–80) and 76 (46–80), respectively. The dose constraint recommendations were exceeded in less than 12% of patients for the rectum and the bladder. The 5-year risks of biochemical and clinical recurrences and cancer-specific death were 24.8%, 21.7%, and 10.3%, respectively. The 5-year risks of local, pelvic lymph node, and metastatic recurrences were 6.4%, 11.3%, and 15%, respectively. The number of involved lymph nodes (≤ 2 or ≥ 3) on MRI was the only significant prognostic factor in clinical recurrence (HR 9.86) and death (HR 2.78). Grade ≥ 2 acute and 5-year late toxicity rates were 13.2% and 12% for digestive toxicity, and 34% and 31.5% for urinary toxicity, respectively. The dose to the pelvic lymph node and the age were predictive of late digestive toxicity.

Conclusion

IMRT for T3b prostate cancer allows delivery of a curative dose in the ISV, with a moderate digestive toxicity but a higher urinary toxicity. Lymph node involvement increases the risk of recurrence and death.

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<![CDATA[Different operators and histologic techniques in the assessment of germinal center-like structures in primary Sjögren’s syndrome minor salivary glands]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c644913d5eed0c484c2f56d

Objective

A standardization of minor salivary gland (MSG) histopathology in primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) has been recently proposed. Although there is strong agreement that germinal center (GC)-like structures should be routinely identified, due to their prognostic value, a consensus regarding the best protocol is still lacking. Aim of this study was to compare the performance of different histological techniques and operators to identify GC-like structures in pSS MSGs. MSG biopsies from 50 pSS patients were studied.

Methods

Three blinded operators (one pathologist and two rheumatologists with different years of experience in pSS MSG assessment) assessed 50 MSGs of which one slide was stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and consecutive slides were processed to investigate CD3/CD20, CD21 and Bcl-6 expression.

Results

By assessing 225 foci, the best agreement was between H&E-stained sections evaluated by the rheumatologist with more years of experience in pSS MSG assessment and CD3/CD20 segregation. In the foci with CD21 positivity, the agreement further increased. Bcl-6- foci could display a GC, detected with other staining, but not vice versa.

Conclusion

GC assessment on H&E-stained sections should be performed with caution, being operator-dependent. The combination of H&E with CD3/CD20 and CD21 staining should be recommended as it is reliable, feasible, able to overcome the bias of operator experience and easily transferrable into routine practice.

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<![CDATA[The usefulness of wire-guided endoscopic snare papillectomy for tumors of the major duodenal papilla]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5217dfd5eed0c484794a8a

Objectives

Although endoscopic papillectomy is useful for treating papillary tumors, it is associated with a high rate of complications including pancreatitis; therefore, safer treatment options are needed. We examined the utility of wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy by comparing the pancreatic duct stenting and pancreatitis rates before and after wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy was introduced at our institution.

Methods

We retrospectively examined the data from 16 consecutive patients who underwent conventional endoscopic papillectomy between November 1995 and July 2005 and the data from 33 patients in whom wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy was first attempted at our institution between August 2005 and April 2017. We compared the pancreatic duct stenting and pancreatitis rates between the two groups.

Results

Of the 33 patients in whom wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy was first attempted, the procedure was completed in 21. Pancreatic duct stenting was possible in 30 of the 33 patients in whom wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy was attempted (91%), and this rate was significantly higher than that before the introduction of wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy (68.8%). The incidence of pancreatitis before the introduction of wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy was 12.5%, but after August 2005, the incidence was reduced by half to 6.1%, which includes those patients in whom wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy could not be completed.

Conclusions

Although wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy cannot be completed in some patients, we believe that this method shows some potential for reducing the total incidence of post-endoscopic papillectomy pancreatitis owing to more successful pancreatic duct stenting.

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<![CDATA[Deletion of the p16INK4a tumor suppressor and expression of the androgen receptor induce sarcomatoid carcinomas with signet ring cells in the mouse prostate]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c536a9fd5eed0c484a476f6

The tumor suppressor p16Ink4a, encoded by the INK4a gene, is an inhibitor of cyclin D-dependent kinases 4 and 6, CDK4 and CDK6. This inhibition prevents the phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), resulting in cellular senescence through inhibition of E2F-mediated transcription of S phase genes required for cell proliferation. The p16Ink4a plays an important role in tumor suppression, whereby its deletion, mutation, or epigenetic silencing is a frequently observed genetic alteration in prostate cancer. To assess its roles and related molecular mechanisms in prostate cancer initiation and progression, we generated a mouse model with conditional deletion of p16Ink4a in prostatic luminal epithelium. The mice underwent oncogenic transformation and developed prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) from eight months of age, but failed to develop prostatic tumors. Given the prevalence of aberrant androgen signaling pathways in prostate cancer initiation and progression, we then generated R26hARL/wt:p16L/L: PB-Cre4 compound mice, in which conditional expression of the human AR transgene and deletion of p16Ink4a co-occur in prostatic luminal epithelial cells. While R26hARL/wt:PB-Cre4 mice showed no visible pathological changes, R26hARL/wt:p16L/L: PB-Cre4 compound mice displayed an early onset of high-grade PIN (HGPIN), prostatic carcinoma, and metastatic lesions. Strikingly, we observed tumors resembling human sarcomatoid carcinoma with intermixed focal regions of signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) in the prostates of the compound mice. Further characterization of these tumors showed they were of luminal epithelial cell origin, and featured characteristics of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) with enhanced proliferative and invasive capabilities. Our results not only implicate a biological role for AR expression and p16Ink4a deletion in the pathogenesis of prostatic SRCC, but also provide a new and unique genetically engineered mouse (GEM) model for investigating the molecular mechanisms for SRCC development.

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<![CDATA[Behavior and exocrine glands in the myrmecophilous beetle Dinarda dentata (Gravenhorst, 1806) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c4243a0d5eed0c4845e08c0

The nests of advanced eusocial ant species can be considered ecological islands with a diversity of ecological niches inhabited by not only the ants and their brood, but also a multitude of other organisms adapted to particular niches. In the current paper, we describe the myrmecophilous behavior and the exocrine glands that enable the staphylinid beetle Dinarda dentata to live closely with its host ants Formica sanguinea. We confirm previous anecdotal descriptions of the beetle’s ability to snatch regurgitated food from ants that arrive with a full crop in the peripheral nest chambers, and describe how the beetle is able to appease its host ants and dull initial aggression in the ants.

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<![CDATA[The investigation of transcriptional repression mediated by ZEB2 in canine invasive micropapillary carcinoma in mammary gland]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478cacd5eed0c484bd3d4d

The E-cadherin loss has frequently been associated with transcriptional repression mediated by transcription factors, such as the Zinc Finger E-Box Binding Homeobox-2 (ZEB2). Invasive micropapillary carcinomas (IMPCs) of the breast are aggressive neoplasms frequently related to lymph node metastasis and poor overall survival. In the canine mammary gland, IMPCs has just been reported and, based on its behavioral similarity with the human IMPCs, appears to be a good spontaneous model to this human entity. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between E-cadherin and ZEB2 in a spontaneous canine model of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the mammary gland. The correlation among gene expression (ZEB2 and CDH1) and clinicopathological findings was also explored. Nineteen cases of IMPC of the canine mammary gland were obtained, protein and mRNA expression were investigated through immunohistochemistry and RNA In Situ Hybridization, respectively. To better understand the relationship between E-cadherin and ZEB2, immunofluorescence was performed in canine IMPCs. Immunohistochemically, most of IMPCs showed 1+ (14/19, 73.7%) for E-cadherin; and positivity for ZEB2 was diagnosed in 47.4% of the IMPCs. Regarding the RNA In Situ Hybridization (ISH), most of IMPCs showed 4+ and 0+ for E-cadherin (CDH1) and ZEB2 respectively. Through immunofluorescence, the first and second more frequent combinatorial group were E-cadherin+ZEB2- and E-cadherin+ZEB2+; neoplastic cells showing concomitantly weak expression for E-cadherin and positivity for ZEB2 were frequently observed. A negative correlation was observed between E-cadherin and progesterone receptor expression in IMPCs. Based on these results, canine mammary IMPCs show E-cadherin lost and, at times reveals nuclear positivity for the transcription factor ZEB2 that seems to exert transcriptional repression of the CDH1.

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<![CDATA[Impact of intramammary inoculation of inactivated Lactobacillus rhamnosus and antibiotics on the milk microbiota of water buffalo with subclinical mastitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d014ad5eed0c484039f42

Water buffalo mastitis represents a major issue in terms of animal health, cost of therapy, premature culling and decreased milk yeld. The emergence of antibiotic resistance has led to investigate strategies to avoid or reduce antibiotics’ based therapies, in particular during subclinical mastitis. The use of Generally Regarded As Safe bacteria (GRAS) such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus to restore the unbalance in mammary gland microbiota could provide potential corrective measures. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in milk microbiota after the intramammary treatment with inactivated cultures of Lactobacillus rhamnosus of mammary gland quarters naturally affected by subclinical mastitis as compared to antibiotic therapy.A number of 43 quarters affected by subclinical mastitis with no signs of clinical inflammation and aerobic culture positive for pathogens were included in the study. The experimental design was as follows: 11 quarters were treated with antibiotics, 15 with inactivated cultures of Lactobacillus rhmnosus and 17 with PBS as negative control, by means of intrammary injection. Samples were collected at eight time points, pre- (T-29, T-21, T-15, T-7, T0 days) and post- treatment (T1, T2, and T6 days). Microbiological culture and Somatic Cell Count (SCC) were perfomed on all the samples, and microbiota was determined on milk samples collected at T0 and T6 by amplifying the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene by PCR and sequencing using next generation sequencing technique. Treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus elicited a strong chemotactic response, as determined by a significant increase of leukocytes in milk, but did not change the microbiological culture results of the treated quarters. For what concerns the analysis of the microbiota, the treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus induced the modification in relative abundance of some genera such as Pseudomonas and 5-7N15. As expected, antibiotic treatment caused major changes in microbiota structure with an increase of Methylobacterium relative abundance. No changes were detected after PBS treatment. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrated that the in vivo intrammmary treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus has a transient pro-inflammatory activity by increasing SCC and is capable to modify the microbiota of milk after six days from inoculation, albeit slightly, even when the bacterial cultures were heat inactivated. Further studies are necessary to assess the potential use of this GRAS as supportive therapy against mastitis.

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<![CDATA[Roles of GP33, a guinea pig cytomegalovirus-encoded G protein-coupled receptor homolog, in cellular signaling, viral growth and inflammation in vitro and in vivo]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c25453fd5eed0c48442c35a

Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) encode cellular homologs to evade host immune functions. In this study, we analyzed the roles of GP33, a guinea pig CMV (GPCMV)-encoded G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) homolog, in cellular signaling, viral growth and pathogenesis. The cDNA structure of GP33 was determined by RACE. The effects of GP33 on some signaling pathways were analyzed in transient transfection assays. The redET two-step recombination system for a BAC containing the GPCMV genome was used to construct a mutant GPCMV containing an early stop codon in the GP33 gene (Δ33) and a rescued GPCMV (r33). We found the following: 1) GP33 activated the CRE- and NFAT-, but not the NFκB-mediated signaling pathway. 2) GP33 was dispensable for infection in tissue cultures and in normal animals. 3) In pregnant animals, viral loads of r33 in the livers, lungs, spleens, and placentas at 6 days post-infection were higher than those of Δ33, although the viruses were cleared by 3 weeks post-infection. 4) The presence of GP33 was associated with frequent lesions, including alveolar hemorrhage in the lungs, and inflammation in the lungs, livers, and spleens of the dams. Our findings suggest that GP33 has critical roles in the pathogenesis of GPCMV during pregnancy. We hypothesize that GP33-mediated signaling activates cytokine secretion from the infected cells, which results in inflammation in some of the maternal organs and the placentas. Alternatively, GP33 may facilitate transient inflammation that is induced by the chemokine network specific to the pregnancy.

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<![CDATA[Therapeutic potential of thymoquinone liposomes against the systemic infection of Candida albicans in diabetic mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2e7fa1d5eed0c48451a3f0

The present study was aimed to develop a liposomal formulation of thymoquinone (Lip-TQ) to treat Candida albicans infection in diabetic mice. Streptozotocin (STZ) was injected to induce hyperglycemia and on day 3 post STZ administration, mice were intravenously infected with C. albicans. Various doses (2, 5 and 10 mg/kg) of Free or Lip-TQ were administered in C. albicans infected diabetic mice. The effect of Lip-TQ was also determined on the organ indices, liver and kidney function parameters. Lip-TQ at a dose of 10 mg/kg significantly reduced the level of the blood glucose and alleviated the systemic C. albicans infection in diabetic mice. C. albicans infected diabetic mice treated with Lip-TQ at a dose of 10 mg/kg showed the survival rate of 70% as compared to that of 20% in the group treated with free TQ. The treatment with Lip-TQ resulted in the recovery of the organ indices, liver inflammation, kidney functioning and pancreas regeneration in diabetic mice. Moreover, TQ formulations also showed the direct therapeutic effect against candidiasis in the untreated or metformin-treated diabetic mice. Therefore, the findings of the present study support the use of Lip-TQ in the treatment of candidiasis in the diabetic patients.

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