ResearchPad - extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The perceived impact of isoniazid resistance on outcome of first-line rifampicin-throughout regimens is largely due to missed rifampicin resistance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15716 Meta-analyses on impact of isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis informed the World Health Organization recommendation of a levofloxacin-strengthened rifampicin-based regimen.We estimated the effect of initial rifampicin resistance (Rr) and/or isoniazid resistance (Hr) on treatment failure or relapse. We also determined the frequency of missed initial and acquired Rr to estimate the impact of true Hr.MethodsRetrospective analysis of 7291 treatment episodes with known initial isoniazid and rifampicin status obtained from individual patient databases maintained by the Damien Foundation Bangladesh over 20 years. Drug susceptibility test results were confirmed by the programme’s designated supra-national tuberculosis laboratory. To detect missed Rr among isolates routinely classified as Hr, rpoB gene sequencing was done randomly and on a sample selected for suspected missed Rr.ResultsInitial Hr caused a large recurrence excess after the 8-month regimen for new cases (rifampicin for two months), but had little impact on rifampicin-throughout regimens: (6 months, new cases; 3.8%; OR 0.8, 95%CI:0.3,2.8; 8 months, retreatment cases: 7.3%, OR 1.8; 95%CI:1.3,2.6). Rr was missed in 7.6% of randomly selected "Hr" strains. Acquired Rr was frequent among recurrences on rifampicin-throughout regimens, particularly after the retreatment regimen (31.9%). It was higher in mono-Hr (29.3%; aOR 3.5, 95%CI:1.5,8.5) and poly-Hr (53.3%; aOR 10.2, 95%CI 4.4,23.7) than in susceptible tuberculosis, but virtually absent after the 8-month new case regimen. Comparing Bangladesh (low Rr prevalence) with a high Rr prevalence setting,true Hr corrected for missed Rr caused only 2–3 treatment failures per 1000 TB cases (of whom 27% were retreatments) in both.ConclusionsOur analysis reveals a non-negligible extent of misclassifying as isoniazid resistance of what is actually missed multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Recommending for such cases a “strengthened” regimen containing a fluoroquinolone provokes a direct route to extensive resistance while offering little benefit against the minor role of true Hr tuberculosis in rifampicin-throughout first-line regimen. ]]> <![CDATA[High prevalence of phenotypic pyrazinamide resistance and its association with <i>pncA</i> gene mutations in <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> isolates from Uganda]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14718 Susceptibility testing for pyrazinamide (PZA), a cornerstone anti-TB drug is not commonly done in Uganda because it is expensive and characterized with technical difficulties thus resistance to this drug is less studied. Resistance is commonly associated with mutations in the pncA gene and its promoter region. However, these mutations vary geographically and those conferring phenotypic resistance are unknown in Uganda. This study determined the prevalence of PZA resistance and its association with pncA mutations.Materials and methodsUsing a cross-sectional design, archived isolates collected during the Uganda national drug resistance survey between 2008–2011 were sub-cultured. PZA resistance was tested by BACTEC Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 system. Sequence reads were downloaded from the NCBI Library and bioinformatics pipelines were used to screen for PZA resistance–conferring mutations.ResultsThe prevalence of phenotypic PZA resistance was found to be 21%. The sensitivity and specificity of pncA sequencing were 24% (95% CI, 9.36–45.13%) and 100% (73.54% - 100.0%) respectively. We identified four mutations associated with PZA phenotypic resistance in Uganda; K96R, T142R, R154G and V180F.ConclusionThere is a high prevalence of phenotypic PZA resistance among TB patients in Uganda. The low sensitivity of pncA gene sequencing confirms the already documented discordances suggesting other mechanisms of PZA resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ]]> <![CDATA[Evaluation of Xpert MTB-RIF guided diagnosis and treatment of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis in Indonesia: A retrospective cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c818e93d5eed0c484cc25d9

Background

Rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) is largely underdetected in Indonesia. Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) has recently been introduced, prioritizing patients at risk of RR-TB, followed by phenotypic drug-susceptibility (DST) if rifampicin resistance is detected.

Objective

This study investigated Xpert-based management of presumptive RR-TB cases under routine practice in West Java, Indonesia.

Methods

We examined all records of patients tested with Xpert in the referral hospital for West Java in 2015–2016. We measured loss across a limited cascade of care, time to Xpert diagnosis and the commencement of initial second-line treatment, and identified factors associated with diagnostic and treatment delay. Additionally, we analyzed the appropriateness of treatment according to DST results.

Results

Of 3415 patients with presumptive RR-TB, 3215 (94%) were tested by Xpert, of whom 339 (10.5%) were diagnosed as RR-TB. 288 (85%) of 339 RR-TB patients started initial second-line TB treatment, with 48 (14%) patients being lost between diagnosis and pre-treatment assessment. Second-line treatment was commenced at a median of 41 days (IQR 29–70) after RR-TB diagnosis. Delays in both diagnosis and treatment initiation were observed in 104 (52%) of 201 RR-TB patients with identifiable referral date. Rural residence was associated with delay to diagnosis (adjusted OR 2.7; 95%CI 1.5–5.2) and treatment initiation (adjusted OR 2.0; 1.2–3.4). Of 162 patients with available DST result, 107 (66%) had multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and 32 (20%) had either pre-extensively drug resistant (pre-XDR) or extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). We estimated that with the current algorithm 41% of pre-XDR or XDR-TB patients are diagnosed, and 33% of them started on an appropriate treatment regimen.

Conclusions

Many patients with Xpert-diagnosed RR-TB either do not start MDR-TB treatment or encountered diagnostic and treatment delays under programmatic conditions in Indonesia, and most pre-XDR and XDR-TB cases remain undiagnosed. Further expansion and ongoing quality improvement of RR-TB services are urgently needed.

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<![CDATA[Surveillance of tuberculosis (TB) cases attributable to relapse or reinfection in London, 2002-2015]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c70675ad5eed0c4847c6ed3

Recurrence of TB in an individual can occur due to relapse of the same strain or reinfection by a different strain. The contribution of reinfection and relapse to TB incidence, and the factors associated with each are unknown. We aimed to quantify and describe cases attributable to relapse or reinfection, and identify associated risk factors in order to reduce recurrence. We categorised recurrent TB cases from notifications in London (2002–2015) as relapse or reinfection using molecular (MIRU VNTR strain type) and epidemiological information (hierarchical approach using time since notification, site of disease and method of case finding). Factors associated with each outcome were determined using logistic regression in Stata Version 13.1 (2009–2015 only). Of 43,465 TB cases, 1.4% (618) were classified as relapse and 3.8% (1,637) as reinfection. The proportion with relapse decreased from 2002 (2.3%) to 2015 (1.3%), while the proportion of reinfection remained around 4%. Relapse was more common among recent migrants (<1 year, odds ratio (OR) = 1.99, p = 0.005), those with a social risk factor (OR = 1.51, p = 0.033) and those with central nervous system, spinal, miliary or disseminated TB (OR = 1.75, p = 0.001). Reinfection was more common among long term migrants (>11 years, OR = 1.67, p = <0.001), those with a social risk factor (OR = 1.96, p = <0.001) and within specific areas in London. Patients with social risk factors were at increased risk of both relapse and reinfection. Characterising those with relapsed disease highlights patients at risk and factors associated with reinfection suggest groups where transmission is occurring. This will inform TB control programs to target appropriate treatment and interventions in order to reduce the risk of recurrence.

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<![CDATA[Application of provincial data in mathematical modelling to inform sub-national tuberculosis program decision-making in South Africa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c64486bd5eed0c484c2e66e

South Africa has the highest tuberculosis (TB) disease incidence rate in the world, and TB is the leading infectious cause of death. Decisions on, and funding for, TB prevention and care policies are decentralised to the provincial governments and therefore, tools to inform policy need to operate at this level. We describe the use of a mathematical model planning tool at provincial level in a high HIV and TB burden country, to estimate the impact on TB burden of achieving the 90-(90)-90 targets of the Stop TB Partnership Global Plan to End TB. “TIME Impact” is a freely available, user-friendly TB modelling tool. In collaboration with provincial TB programme staff, and the South African National TB Programme, models for three (of nine) provinces were calibrated to TB notifications, incidence, and screening data. Reported levels of TB programme activities were used as baseline inputs into the models, which were used to estimate the impact of scale-up of interventions focusing on screening, linkage to care and treatment success. All baseline models predicted a trend of decreasing TB incidence and mortality, consistent with recent data from South Africa. The projected impacts of the interventions differed by province and were greatly influenced by assumed current coverage levels. The absence of provincial TB burden estimates and uncertainty in current activity coverage levels were key data gaps. A user-friendly modelling tool allows TB burden and intervention impact projection at the sub-national level. Key sub-national data gaps should be addressed to improve the quality of sub-national model predictions.

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<![CDATA[The impact of improved detection and treatment of isoniazid resistant tuberculosis on prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis: A modelling study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5369f3d5eed0c484a46b1f

Introduction

Isoniazid-resistant, rifampin susceptible tuberculosis (INHR-TB) is the most common form of drug resistant TB globally. Treatment of INHR-TB with standard first-line therapy is associated with high rates of multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB). We modelled the potential impact of INHR-TB detection and appropriate treatment on MDR-TB prevalence.

Methods

A decision analysis model was developed to compare three different strategies for the detection of TB (AFB smear, Xpert MTB/RIF, and Line-Probe Assays (LPA)), combined with appropriate treatment. The population evaluated were patients with a globally representative prevalence of newly diagnosed, drug-susceptible (88.6%), isoniazid-resistant (7.3%), and multidrug resistant (4.1%) pulmonary TB. Our primary outcome was the proportion of patients with MDR-TB after initial attempt at diagnosis and treatment within a 2-year period. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of i) individuals with detected TB who acquired MDR-TB ii) individuals who died after initial attempt at diagnosis and treatment.

Results

After initial attempt at diagnosis and treatment, LPA combined with appropriate INHR-TB therapy resulted in a lower proportion of prevalent MDR-TB (1.61%; 95% Uncertainty Range (UR: 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles generated from 10 000 Monte Carlo simulation trials) 1.61–1.65), when compared to Xpert (1.84%; 95% UR 1.82–1.85) and AFB smear (3.21%; 95% UR 3.19–3.26). LPA also resulted in fewer cases of acquired MDR-TB in those with detected TB (0.35%; 95% UR 0.34–0.35), when compared to Xpert (0.67%; 95% UR 0.65–0.67) and AFB smear (0.68%; 95% UR 0.67–0.69). The majority of acquired MDR-TB arose from the treatment of INHR-TB in all strategies. Xpert-based strategies resulted in a lower proportion of death (2.89%; 95% UR 2.87–2.90) compared to LPA (2.93%; 95% UR 2.91–2.94) and AFB smear (3.21%; 95% UR 3.19–3.23).

Conclusion

Accurate diagnosis and tailored treatment of INHR-TB with LPA led to an almost 50% relative decrease in acquired MDR-TB when compared with an Xpert MTB/RIF strategy. Continued reliance on diagnostic and treatment protocols that ignore INHR-TB will likely result in further generation of MDR-TB.

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<![CDATA[Programmatic Management of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: An Updated Research Agenda]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab1ab0ee8fa60bab512

Introduction

There are numerous challenges in delivering appropriate treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and the evidence base to guide those practices remains limited. We present the third updated Research Agenda for the programmatic management of drug-resistant TB (PMDT), assembled through a literature review and survey.

Methods

Publications citing the 2008 research agenda and normative documents were reviewed for evidence gaps. Gaps were formulated into questions and grouped as in the 2008 research agenda: Laboratory Support, Treatment Strategy, Programmatically Relevant Research, Epidemiology, and Management of Contacts. A survey was distributed through snowball sampling to identify research priorities. Respondent priority rankings were scored and summarized by mean. Sensitivity analyses explored weighting and handling of missing rankings.

Results

Thirty normative documents and publications were reviewed for stated research needs; these were collapsed into 56 research questions across 5 categories. Of more than 500 survey recipients, 133 ranked priorities within at least one category. Priorities within categories included new diagnostics and their effect on improving treatment outcomes, improved diagnosis of paucibacillary and extra pulmonary TB, and development of shorter, effective regimens. Interruption of nosocomial transmission and treatment for latent TB infection in contacts of known MDR−TB patients were also top priorities in their respective categories. Results were internally consistent and robust.

Discussion

Priorities retained from the 2008 research agenda include shorter MDR-TB regimens and averting transmission. Limitations of recent advances were implied in the continued quest for: shorter regimens containing new drugs, rapid diagnostics that improve treatment outcomes, and improved methods of estimating burden without representative data.

Conclusion

There is continuity around the priorities for research in PMDT. Coordinated efforts to address questions regarding shorter treatment regimens, knowledge of disease burden without representative data, and treatment for LTBI in contacts of known DR-TB patients are essential to stem the epidemic of TB, including DR-TB.

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<![CDATA[Bacterial Loads Measured by the Xpert MTB/RIF Assay as Markers of Culture Conversion and Bacteriological Cure in Pulmonary TB]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da06ab0ee8fa60b75ff4

Introduction

Biomarkers are needed to monitor tuberculosis (TB) treatment and predict treatment outcomes. We evaluated the Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay as a biomarker for TB treatment during and at the end of the 24 weeks therapy.

Methods

Sputum from 108 HIV-negative, culture-positive pulmonary TB patients was analyzed using Xpert at time points before and during anti-TB therapy. Results were compared against culture. Direct Xpert cycle-threshold (Ct), a change in the Ct (delta Ct), or a novel “percent closing of baseline Ct deficit” (percent closing) were evaluated as classifiers of same-day and end-of-treatment culture and therapeutic outcomes.

Results

Xpert was positive in 29/95 (30.5%) of subjects at week 24; and positive one year after treatment in 8/64 (12.5%) successfully-treated patients who remained free of tuberculosis. We identified a relationship between initial bacterial load measured by baseline Xpert Ct and time to culture conversion (hazard ratio 1.06, p = 0.0023), and to the likelihood of being among the 8 treatment failures at week 24 (AUC = 72.8%). Xpert Ct was even more strongly associated with culture conversion on the day the test was performed with AUCs 96.7%, 99.2%, 86.0% and 90.2%, at Day 7, Week 4, 8 and 24, respectively. Compared to baseline Ct measures alone, a combined measure of baseline Ct plus either Delta Ct or percent closing improved the classification of treatment failure status to a 75% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity.

Conclusions

Genome loads measured by Xpert provide a potentially-useful biomarker for classifying same day culture status and predicting response to therapy.

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<![CDATA[Alarming Levels of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Patients in Metropolitan Mumbai, India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da43ab0ee8fa60b8abe1

Background

Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a looming threat to tuberculosis control in India. However, no countrywide prevalence data are available. The burden of DR-TB in HIV-co-infected patients is likewise unknown. Undiagnosed and untreated DR-TB among HIV-infected patients is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. We aimed to assess the prevalence of DR-TB (defined as resistance to any anti-TB drug) in patients attending public antiretroviral treatment (ART) centers in greater metropolitan Mumbai, India.

Methods

A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults and children ART-center attendees. Smear microscopy, culture and drug-susceptibility-testing (DST) against all first and second-line TB-drugs using phenotypic liquid culture (MGIT) were conducted on all presumptive tuberculosis patients. Analyses were performed to determine DR-TB prevalence and resistance patterns separately for new and previously treated, culture-positive TB-cases.

Results

Between March 2013 and January 2014, ART-center attendees were screened during 14135 visits, of whom 1724 had presumptive TB. Of 1724 attendees, 72 (4%) were smear-positive and 202 (12%) had a positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Overall DR-TB was diagnosed in 68 (34%, 95% CI: 27%–40%) TB-patients. The proportions of DR-TB were 25% (29/114) and 44% (39/88) among new and previously treated cases respectively. The patterns of DR-TB were: 21% mono-resistant, 12% poly-resistant, 38% multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB), 21% pre-extensively-drug-resistant (MDR-TB plus resistance to either a fluoroquinolone or second-line injectable), 6% extensively drug-resistant (XDR-TB) and 2% extremely drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB plus resistance to any group-IV/V drug). Only previous history of TB was significantly associated with the diagnosis of DR-TB in multivariate models.

Conclusion

The burden of DR-TB among HIV-infected patients attending public ART-centers in Mumbai was alarmingly high, likely representing ongoing transmission in the community and health facilities. These data highlight the need to promptly diagnose drug-resistance among all HIV-infected patients by systematically offering access to first and second-line DST to all patients with ‘presumptive TB’ rather than ‘presumptive DR-TB’ and tailor the treatment regimen based on the resistance patterns.

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<![CDATA[Treatment of Active Tuberculosis in Chicago, 2008-2011: The Role of Public Health Departments]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0eab0ee8fa60b78985

Objective

Evaluate differences in TB outcomes among different provider types in Chicago, IL.

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed all TB cases reported to the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) from 2008 through 2011. Provider type was stratified into three groups: public, public-private, and private providers. Multivariate regression was used to evaluate treatment duration and time to sputum culture conversion. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess treatment completion.

Results

Of 703 cases, 203 (28.9%), 314 (44.7%), and 186 (26.5%) were treated by public, public-private and private providers, respectively. Adjusted regression showed private provider patients had a 48-day (95% CI 22.0–74.3) increase in treatment duration and a 30-day (95% C.I. 9.5–51.1) increase in time to sputum culture conversion. Cox model showed increased risk of remaining on treatment was associated with extra-pulmonary TB (aHR 0.78, 95% C.I. 0.62–0.98), being foreign-born (aHR 0.74, 95% C.I. 0.58–0.95), and any drug resistance (aHR 0.59, 95% C.I. 0.46–0.76). There were no differences in outcomes between public and public-private providers.

Conclusion

Patients treated solely in the private sector had prolonged time to sputum culture conversion and treatment duration which lead to increased cost for treatment, prolonged infectiousness, potential for transmission, and the possibility for increased medication side effects.

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<![CDATA[Psychological and Educational Intervention to Improve Tuberculosis Treatment Adherence in Ethiopia Based on Health Belief Model: A Cluster Randomized Control Trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da51ab0ee8fa60b8dddb

Background

Treatment non-adherence results in treatment failure, prolonged transmission of disease and emergence of drug resistance. Although the problem widely investigated, there remains an information gap on the effectiveness of different methods to improve treatment adherence and the predictors of non-adherence in resource limited countries based on theoretical models. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of psychological counseling and educational intervention on tuberculosis (TB) treatment adherence based on Health Belief Model (HBM).

Methodology

A cluster randomized control trial was conducted in Addis Ababa from May to December, 2014. Patients were enrolled into study consecutively from 30 randomly selected Health Centers (HCs) (14 HCs intervention and 16 HCs control groups). A total of 698 TB patients, who were on treatment for one month to two months were enrolled. A structured questionnaire was administered to both groups of patients at baseline and endpoint of study. Control participants received routine directly-observed anti-TB therapy and the intervention group additionally received combined psychological counseling and adherence education. Treatment non-adherence level was the main outcome of the study, and multilevel logistic regression was employed to assess the impact of intervention on treatment adherence.

Results

At enrollment, the level of non-adherence among intervention (19.4%) and control (19.6%) groups was almost the same. However, after intervention, non-adherence level decreased among intervention group from 19.4 (at baseline) to 9.5% (at endpoint), while it increased among control group from 19.4% (baseline) to 25.4% (endpoint). Psychological counseling and educational interventions resulted in significant difference with regard to non-adherence level between intervention and control groups (Adjusted OR = 0.31, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (0.18–0.53), p < 0.001)).

Conclusion

Psychological counseling and educational interventions, which were guided by HBM, significantly decreased treatment non-adherence level among intervention group. Provision of psychological counseling and health education to TB patients who are on regular treatment is recommended. This could be best achieved if these interventions are guided by behavioral theories and incorporated into the routine TB treatment strategy.

Trial Registration

Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201506001175423

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<![CDATA[MDR-TB treatment as prevention: The projected population-level impact of expanded treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbe9d

Background

In 2013, approximately 480,000 people developed active multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), while only 97,000 started MDR-TB treatment. We sought to estimate the impact of improving access to MDR-TB diagnosis and treatment, under multiple diagnostic algorithm and treatment regimen scenarios, on ten-year projections of MDR-TB incidence and mortality.

Methods

We constructed a dynamic transmission model of an MDR-TB epidemic in an illustrative East/Southeast Asian setting. Using approximate Bayesian computation, we investigated a wide array of potential epidemic trajectories consistent with current notification data and known TB epidemiology.

Results

Despite an overall projected decline in TB incidence, data-consistent simulations suggested that MDR-TB incidence is likely to rise between 2015 and 2025 under continued 2013 treatment practices, although with considerable uncertainty (median 17% increase, 95% Uncertainty Range [UR] -38% to +137%). But if, by 2017, all identified active TB patients with previously-treated TB could be tested for drug susceptibility, and 85% of those with MDR-TB could initiate MDR-appropriate treatment, then MDR-TB incidence in 2025 could be reduced by 26% (95% UR 4–52%) relative to projections under continued current practice. Also expanding this drug-susceptibility testing and appropriate MDR-TB treatment to treatment-naïve as well as previously-treated TB cases, by 2020, could reduce MDR-TB incidence in 2025 by 29% (95% UR 6–55%) compared to continued current practice. If this diagnosis and treatment of all MDR-TB in known active TB cases by 2020 could be implemented via a novel second-line regimen with similar effectiveness and tolerability as current first-line therapy, a 54% (95% UR 20–74%) reduction in MDR-TB incidence compared to current-practice projections could be achieved by 2025.

Conclusions

Expansion of diagnosis and treatment of MDR-TB, even using current sub-optimal second-line regimens, is expected to significantly decrease MDR-TB incidence at the population level. Focusing MDR diagnostic efforts on previously-treated cases is an efficient first-step approach.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of Genotype MTBDRsl Assay to Detect Drug Resistance Associated with Fluoroquinolones, Aminoglycosides and Ethambutol on Clinical Sediments]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da07ab0ee8fa60b76114

Background

The emergence of resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a major setback to the global control of the disease as the treatment of such resistance is complex and expensive. Use of direct detection of mutations by molecular methods could facilitate rapid diagnosis of resistance to offset diagnostic delays. We evaluated the performance of the Genotype MTBDRsl (Hain Life Sciences) for the detection of second line resistant TB directly from stored smear positive sputum sediments.

Methodology/Principal Findings

The assay showed a diverse range of sensitivity and specificity, 91.26% [95% CI, 84–96] and 95.5% [95% CI, 87–99] for FQ (PPV ∼97% & NPV ∼ 87.67%), 56.19% [95%CI, 46–66] and 81% [95%CI, 66–91] for EMB (PPV ∼ 88.06% & NPV ∼ 43.21%) and 100% for SLD. Diagnostic accuracy for FQ, SLD and EMB was 94%, 100% and 63.51%, respectively. 1.17% (2/170) were heteroresistance strains, where the heteroresistance was linked to rrs gene. A varying rate of validity was observed 100% (170/170) for FQ, 94.11% (160/170) for EMB, 88.23% (150/170) for SLD.

Conclusions/Significance

Genotype MTBDRsl is simple, rapid, economical assay that can be used to detect commonly known resistance associated with Fluoroquinolone, second line injectable drugs and ethambutol. The assay detects the targeted resistance in less time as compared to phenotypic DST. But due to low NPV to FQ (88%) and EMB (43.21%), the assay results must be interpreted in coordination with the phenotypic DST.

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<![CDATA[“My Favourite Day Is Sunday”: Community Perceptions of (Drug-Resistant) Tuberculosis and Ambulatory Tuberculosis Care in Kara Suu District, Osh Province, Kyrgyzstan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9edab0ee8fa60b6d1d5

Objectives

Kyrgyzstan is one of the 27 high multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) burden countries listed by the WHO. In 2012, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) started a drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) project in Kara Suu District. A qualitative study was undertaken to understand the perception of TB and DR-TB in order to improve the effectiveness and acceptance of the MSF intervention and to support advocacy strategies for an ambulatory model of care.

Methods

This paper reports findings from 63 interviews with patients, caregivers, health care providers and members of communities. Data was analysed using a qualitative content analysis. Validation was ensured by triangulation and a ‘thick’ description of the research context, and by presenting deviant cases.

Results

Findings show that the general population interprets TB as the ‘lungs having a cold’ or as a ‘family disease’ rather than as an infectious illness. From their perspective, individuals facing poor living conditions are more likely to get TB than wealthier people. Vulnerable groups such as drug and alcohol users, homeless persons, ethnic minorities and young women face barriers in accessing health care. As also reported in other publications, TB is highly stigmatised and possible side effects of the long treatment course are seen as unbearable; therefore, people only turn to public health care quite late. Most patients prefer ambulatory treatment because of the much needed emotional support from their social environment, which positively impacts treatment concordance. Health care providers favour inpatient treatment only for a better monitoring of side effects. Health staff increasingly acknowledges the central role they play in supporting DR-TB patients, and the importance of assuming a more empathic attitude.

Conclusions

Health promotion activities should aim at improving knowledge on TB and DR-TB, reducing stigma, and fostering the inclusion of vulnerable populations. Health seeking delays and adherence problems will be countered by further implementation of shortened treatment regimens. An ambulatory model of care is proposed when convenient for the patient; hospitalisation is favoured only when seen as more appropriate for the respective individual.

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<![CDATA[Clonal Population of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains Reside within Multiple Lung Cavities]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9feab0ee8fa60b73169

Background

Unsuccessful treatment outcomes among patients with multi-/extensively- drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) have hampered efforts involved in eradicating this disease. In order to better understand the etiology of this disease, we aimed to determine whether single or multiple strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are localized within lung cavities of patients suffering from chronic progressive TB.

Methodology/Findings

Multiple cavity isolates from lung of 5 patients who had undergone pulmonary resection surgery were analyzed on the basis of their drug susceptibility profile, and genotyped by spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR. The patients past history including treatment was studied. Three of the 5 patients had extensive drug resistant TB. Heteroresistance was also reported within different cavity isolates of the lung. Both genotyping methods reported the presence of clonal population of MTB strain within different cavities of the each patient, even those reporting heteroresistance. Four of the 5 patients were infected with a population of the Beijing genotype. Post-surgery they were prescribed a drug regimen consisting of cycloserine, a fluoroquinolone and an injectable drug. A 6 month post-surgery follow-up reported only 2 patients with positive clinical outcome, showing sputum conversion.

Conclusion

Identical spoligotype patterns and MIRU-VNTR profiles between multiple cavities of each patient, characterize the presence of clonal population of MTB strains (and absence of multiple MTB infection).

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<![CDATA[Tuberculosis Disease during Pregnancy and Treatment Outcomes in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Women at a Referral Hospital in Cape Town]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db11ab0ee8fa60bcc3f2

Background

Tuberculosis during pregnancy and treatment outcomes are poorly defined in high prevalence tuberculosis and HIV settings.

Methods

A prospective cohort study of pregnant and postpartum women identified to be routinely on antituberculosis treatment was conducted at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, from January 2011 through December 2011. Maternal tuberculosis disease spectrum and tuberculosis-exposed newborns were characterized by maternal HIV status. Maternal tuberculosis treatment outcomes were documented and a multivariable regression model identified predictors of unfavourable tuberculosis treatment outcomes. Infant outcomes were also described.

Results

Seventy-four women with tuberculosis, 53 (72%) HIV-infected, were consecutively enrolled; 35 (47%) were diagnosed at delivery or postpartum and 22 (30%) of women reported previous antituberculosis treatment. HIV-infected women were 5.67 times more likely to have extrapulmonary tuberculosis (95% CI 1.18–27.25, p = 0.03). All 5 maternal deaths were amongst HIV-infected women. Birth outcomes were available for 75 newborns (2 sets of twins, missing data for 1 stillbirth). Of the 75 newborns, 49 (65%) were premature and 44 (59%) were low birth weight (LBW; <2500 grams). All 6 infants who died and the 4 stillbirths were born to HIV-infected women. Unfavourable tuberculosis treatment outcomes were documented in 33/74 (45%) women. Unfavourable maternal tuberculosis outcome was associated with delivery of LBW infants (OR 3.83; 95% CI 1.40–10.53, p = 0.009).

Conclusions

A large number of pregnant women with tuberculosis presented at a provincial referral hospital. All maternal and infant deaths occurred in HIV-infected women and their newborns. Maternal tuberculosis treatment outcomes were poor.

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<![CDATA[Combined Species Identification, Genotyping, and Drug Resistance Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cultures by MLPA on a Bead-Based Array]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9ddab0ee8fa60b68788

The population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is typically clonal therefore genotypic lineages can be unequivocally identified by characteristic markers such as mutations or genomic deletions. In addition, drug resistance is mainly mediated by mutations. These issues make multiplexed detection of selected mutations potentially a very powerful tool to characterise Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We used Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) to screen for dispersed mutations, which can be successfully applied to Mycobacterium tuberculosis as was previously shown. Here we selected 47 discriminative and informative markers and designed MLPA probes accordingly to allow analysis with a liquid bead array and robust reader (Luminex MAGPIX technology). To validate the bead-based MLPA, we screened a panel of 88 selected strains, previously characterised by other methods with the developed multiplex assay using automated positive and negative calling. In total 3059 characteristics were screened and 3034 (99.2%) were consistent with previous molecular characterizations, of which 2056 (67.2%) were directly supported by other molecular methods, and 978 (32.0%) were consistent with but not directly supported by previous molecular characterizations. Results directly conflicting or inconsistent with previous methods, were obtained for 25 (0.8%) of the characteristics tested. Here we report the validation of the bead-based MLPA and demonstrate its potential to simultaneously identify a range of drug resistance markers, discriminate the species within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, determine the genetic lineage and detect and identify the clinically most relevant non-tuberculous mycobacterial species. The detection of multiple genetic markers in clinically derived Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains with a multiplex assay could reduce the number of TB-dedicated screening methods needed for full characterization. Additionally, as a proportion of the markers screened are specific to certain Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages each profile can be checked for internal consistency. Strain characterization can allow selection of appropriate treatment and thereby improve treatment outcome and patient management.

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<![CDATA[Adverse Events among HIV/MDR-TB Co-Infected Patients Receiving Antiretroviral and Second Line Anti-TB Treatment in Mumbai, India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da86ab0ee8fa60b9c5cf

Background

Significant adverse events (AE) have been reported in patients receiving medications for multidrug- and extensively-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB & XDR-TB). However, there is little prospective data on AE in MDR- or XDR-TB/HIV co-infected patients on antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) in programmatic settings.

Methods

Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is supporting a community-based treatment program for drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in a slum setting in Mumbai, India since 2007. Patients are being treated for both diseases and the management of AE is done on an outpatient basis whenever possible. Prospective data were analysed to determine the occurrence and nature of AE.

Results

Between May 2007 and September 2011, 67 HIV/MDR-TB co-infected patients were being treated with anti-TB treatment and ART; 43.3% were female, median age was 35.5 years (Interquartile Range: 30.5–42) and the median duration of anti-TB treatment was 10 months (range 0.5–30). Overall, AE were common in this cohort: 71%, 63% and 40% of patients experienced one or more mild, moderate or severe AE, respectively. However, they were rarely life-threatening or debilitating. AE occurring most frequently included gastrointestinal symptoms (45% of patients), peripheral neuropathy (38%), hypothyroidism (32%), psychiatric symptoms (29%) and hypokalaemia (23%). Eleven patients were hospitalized for AE and one or more suspect drugs had to be permanently discontinued in 27 (40%). No AE led to indefinite suspension of an entire MDR-TB or ART regimen.

Conclusions

AE occurred frequently in this Mumbai HIV/MDR-TB cohort but not more frequently than in non-HIV patients on similar anti-TB treatment. Most AE can be successfully managed on an outpatient basis through a community-based treatment program, even in a resource-limited setting. Concerns about severe AE in the management of co-infected patients are justified, however, they should not cause delays in the urgently needed rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy and second-line anti-TB treatment.

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<![CDATA[Predictors of Multidrug- and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in a High HIV Prevalence Community]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da34ab0ee8fa60b85c5f

Background

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) have emerged in high-HIV-prevalence settings, which generally lack laboratory infrastructure for diagnosing TB drug resistance. Even where available, inherent delays with current drug-susceptibility testing (DST) methods result in clinical deterioration and ongoing transmission of MDR and XDR-TB. Identifying clinical predictors of drug resistance may aid in risk stratification for earlier treatment and infection control.

Methods

We performed a retrospective case-control study of patients with MDR (cases), XDR (cases) and drug-susceptible (controls) TB in a high-HIV-prevalence setting in South Africa to identify clinical and demographic risk factors for drug-resistant TB. Controls were selected in a 1∶1∶1 ratio and were not matched. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and performed multivariate logistic regression to identify independent predictors.

Results

We enrolled 116, 123 and 139 patients with drug-susceptible, MDR, and XDR-TB. More than 85% in all three patient groups were HIV-infected. In multivariate analysis, MDR and XDR-TB were each strongly associated with history of TB treatment failure (adjusted OR 51.7 [CI 6.6-403.7] and 51.5 [CI 6.4–414.0], respectively) and hospitalization more than 14 days (aOR 3.8 [CI 1.1–13.3] and 6.1 [CI 1.8–21.0], respectively). Prior default from TB treatment was not a risk factor for MDR or XDR-TB. HIV was a risk factor for XDR (aOR 8.2, CI 1.3–52.6), but not MDR-TB. Comparing XDR with MDR-TB patients, the only significant risk factor for XDR-TB was HIV infection (aOR 5.3, CI 1.0–27.6).

Discussion

In this high-HIV-prevalence and drug-resistant TB setting, a history of prolonged hospitalization and previous TB treatment failure were strong risk factors for both MDR and XDR-TB. Given high mortality observed among patients with HIV and drug-resistant TB co-infection, previously treated and hospitalized patients should be considered for empiric second-line TB therapy while awaiting confirmatory DST results in settings with a high-burden of MDR/XDR-TB.

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<![CDATA[The Global Fund in China: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis nationwide programmatic scale-up and challenges to transition to full country ownership]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be114d

China has the world’s second largest burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB; resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin), with an estimated 57,000 cases (range, 48,000–67,000) among notified pulmonary TB patients in 2015. During October 1, 2006–June 30, 2014, China expanded MDR-TB care through a partnership with the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (Global Fund). We analyzed data on site expansion, patient enrolment, treatment outcomes, cost per patient, and overall programme expenditure. China expanded MDR-TB diagnostic and treatment services from 2 prefectures in 2006 to 92 prefectures, covering 921 of the country’s 3,000 counties by June 2014. A total of 130,910 patients were tested for MDR-TB, resulting in 13,744 laboratory-confirmed cases, and 9,183 patients started on MDR-TB treatment. Treatment success was 48.4% (2011 cohort). The partnership between China and the Global Fund resulted in enormous gains. However, changes to health system TB delivery and financing coincided with the completion of the Global Fund Programme, and could potentially impact TB and MDR-TB control. Transition to full country financial ownership is proving difficult, with a decline in enrollment and insufficient financial coverage. Given needed improvement to the current treatment success rates, these factors jeopardise investments made for MDR-TB control and care. China now has a chance to cement its status in TB control by strengthening future financing and ensuring ongoing commitment to quality service delivery.

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