ResearchPad - factor-analysis https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The impact of knowledge transfer performance on the artificial intelligence industry innovation network: An empirical study of Chinese firms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15759 As a core driving force of the most recent round of industrial transformation, artificial intelligence has triggered significant changes in the world economic structure, profoundly changed our life and way of thinking, and achieved an overall leap in social productivity. This paper aims to examine the effect of knowledge transfer performance on the artificial intelligence industry innovation network and the path artificial intelligence enterprises can take to promote sustainable development through knowledge transfer in the above context. First, we construct a theoretical hypothesis and conceptual model of the innovation network knowledge transfer mechanism within the artificial intelligence industry. Then, we collect data from questionnaires distributed to Chinese artificial intelligence enterprises that participate in the innovation network. Moreover, we empirically analyze the impact of innovation network characteristics, organizational distance, knowledge transfer characteristics, and knowledge receiver characteristics on knowledge transfer performance and verify the hypotheses proposed in the conceptual model. The results indicate that innovation network centrality and organizational culture distance have a significant effect on knowledge transfer performance, with influencing factors including network scale, implicit knowledge transfer, receiver’s willingness to receive, and receiver’s capacity to absorb knowledge. For sustainable knowledge transfer performance on promoting Chinese artificial intelligence enterprises innovation, this paper finally delivers valuable insights and suggestions.

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<![CDATA[Differences in study workload stress and its associated factors between transfer students and freshmen entrants in an Asian higher education context]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14715 Unlike the studies of freshmen entrants, the learning experiences of community college transfer (CCT) students in the receiving university is a topic that has only started to gain attention in recent decades. Little is known about the differences between CCT and freshmen entrants with regard to their study workload stress and its relationship with their perceptions of the teaching and learning environment, approaches to learning, self-efficacy and generic skills. The purpose of our study was to address this gap. This was a cross-sectional survey study conducted from April 2018 to November 2018 in a university in Hong Kong. The HowULearn questionnaire was adapted to local usage and validated for data collection. In total, 841 CCT students and 978 freshmen entrants completed the survey. The respondents were aged between 19 and 52 years (mean = 21.6, SD = 1.92), and 66.0% were women. The HowULearn questionnaire was determined by factor analyses to have eight factors. The reliabilities of the eight factors were found to be acceptable (Cronbach alphas = 0.709–0.918). The CCT students scored significantly higher than the freshmen entrants for perceived study workload stress and surface approaches to learning, but lower on teaching for understanding & encouraging learning, peer support, and self-efficacy beliefs. The surface approach to learning, deep & organized studying, alignment & constructive feedback, and generic skills were found to be predictors of study workload stress in both groups of students, and in the overall student data. This study has shown that CCT students and freshmen entrants differed with regard to their study workload stress and learning experiences. Our findings provide a message, both for educators in higher education and policy makers in the government—there is not a one-size-fits-all approach to different student populations when it comes to enhancing their learning experiences.

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<![CDATA[The Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ)—Validation of its use in a Danish-speaking population of new mothers stimulated with oxytocin during labour]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14579 When determining optimal treatment regimens, patient reported outcomes including satisfaction are increasingly appreciated. It is well established that the birth experience may affect the postnatal attachment to the newborn and the management of subsequent pregnancies and deliveries. As we have no robust validated Danish tool to evaluate the childbirth experience exists, we aimed to perform a transcultural adaptation of the Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) to a Danish context.MethodsIn accordance with the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN), we translated the Swedish-CEQ to Danish. The Danish-CEQ was tested for content validity among 10 new mothers. In a population of women who have had their labour induced, we then assessed the electronic questionnaire for validity and reliability using factor analytical design, hypothesis testing, and internal consistency. Based on these data, we determined criterion and construct responsiveness in addition to floor and ceiling effects.ResultsThe content validation resulted in minor adjustments in two items. This improved the comprehensibility. The electronic questionnaire was completed by 377 of 495 women (76.2%). The original Swedish-CEQ was four-dimensional, however an exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-dimensional structure in our Danish population (Own capacity, Participation, and Professional support). Parous women, women who delivered vaginally, and women with a labour duration <12 hours had a higher score in each domain. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) ranged between 0.75 and 0.89 and the ICC between 0.68–0.93. We found ceiling effects of 57.6% in the domain Professional support and of 25.5% in the domain Participation.ConclusionThis study offers transcultural adaptation of the Swedish-CEQ to a Danish context. The 3-dimensional Danish-CEQ demonstrates construct validity and reliability. Our results revealed significant ceiling effect especially in the domain Professional support, which needs to be acknowledged when considering implementing the Danish-CEQ into trials and clinical practice. ]]> <![CDATA[Operational method of reliability and content-validity analysis: Taking “trait-symptoms” screening of individuals at high-risk for OCD as an example]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13806 A well-designed self-reported scale is highly applicable to current clinical and research practices. However, the problems with the scale method, such as quantitative analysis of content validity and test-retest reliability analysis of state-like variables are yet to be resolved. The main purpose of this paper is to propose an operational method for solving these problems. Additionally, it aims to enhance understanding of the research paradigm for the scale method (excluding criterion-related validity). This paper used a study that involved screening of high-risk groups for OCD (Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder), conducted 5 rounds of tests, and developed scales, reliability, and validity analysis (using sample sizes of 496, 610, 600, 600 and 990). The operational method we propose is practical, feasible, and can be used to develop and validate a scale.

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<![CDATA[Psychometric characteristics and factorial structures of the Defensive Pessimism Questionnaire—Spanish Version (DPQ-SV)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb6dcc03f-c5ae-4fce-8b03-b30a02ab227b

The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the Defensive Pessimism Questionnaire. A sample of undergraduate students (N = 539) was measured on defensive pessimism using the Defensive Pessimism Questionnaire (DPQ), optimism and pessimism using the Life Orientation Test (LOT), positive and negative affect using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and anxiety using the trait subscale of the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory. A Spanish version of the DPQ (DPQ-SV) is presented. Exploratory and Robust Confirmatory Factor Analysis had a bi-dimensional structure (Reflectivity and Negative Expectation). Omega coefficient showed a high internal consistency and the temporal stability was high in each dimension. Both DPQ-SV subscales (Negative Expectation and Reflectivity) showed adequate convergence with LOT-optimism and LOT-pessimism. Reflectivity showed adequate criterion validity with trait-anxiety and negative affect, but inadequate criterion validity with positive affect. Negative Expectation showed excellent criterion validity with trait-anxiety and negative affect and good criterion validity with positive affect. Finally, mediation analysis showed that Negative Expectation had a significant indirect mediating effect between trait-anxiety and negative affect. Reflectivity had a significant indirect mediating effect between trait-anxiety and negative and positive affect. Analysis of the psychometric properties of the DPQ-SV subscale scores showed that it is a two factor adequate measurement tool for its use in this type of samples.

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<![CDATA[Investigating pathways linking women’s status and empowerment to skilled attendance at birth in Tanzania: A structural equation modeling approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9cbd5eed0c48452a1e8

Maternal and newborn mortality remain unacceptably high in sub-Saharan Africa where use of a skilled birth attendant (SBA) at delivery has remained low. Despite the recognized importance of women’s empowerment as a key determinant of maternal and newborn health, evidence from sub-Saharan Africa is more limited. Using data from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (n = 4,340), this study employs a robust method–structural equation modeling (SEM)–to investigate the complex and multidimensional pathways through which women’s empowerment affects SBA use. The results show that women’s education and household decision-making are positively associated with SBA use. However, not all empowerment dimensions have similar effects. Attitudes towards sex negotiation and violence as well as early marriage are not significant factors in Tanzania. Mediation analysis also confirms the indirect effect of education on SBA use only through household decision-making. The findings underscore the utility of structural equation modeling when examining complex and multidimensional constructs, such as empowerment, and demonstrate potential causal inference to better inform policy and programmatic recommendations.

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<![CDATA[The impact of bilingualism on executive functions and working memory in young adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9a6d5eed0c484529f7c

A bilingual advantage in a form of a better performance of bilinguals in tasks tapping into executive function abilities has been reported repeatedly in the literature. However, recent research defends that this advantage does not stem from bilingualism, but from uncontrolled factors or imperfectly matched samples. In this study we explored the potential impact of bilingualism on executive functioning abilities by testing large groups of young adult bilinguals and monolinguals in the tasks that were most extensively used when the advantages were reported. Importantly, the recently identified factors that could be disrupting the between groups comparisons were controlled for, and both groups were matched. We found no differences between groups in their performance. Additional bootstrapping analyses indicated that, when the bilingual advantage appeared, it very often co-occurred with unmatched socio-demographic factors. The evidence presented here indicates that the bilingual advantage might indeed be caused by spurious uncontrolled factors rather than bilingualism per se. Secondly, bilingualism has been argued to potentially affect working memory also. Therefore, we tested the same participants in both a forward and a backward version of a visual and an auditory working memory task. We found no differences between groups in either of the forward versions of the tasks, but bilinguals systematically outperformed monolinguals in the backward conditions. The results are analysed and interpreted taking into consideration different perspectives in the domain-specificity of the executive functions and working memory.

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<![CDATA[How do artistic creative activities regulate our emotions? Validation of the Emotion Regulation Strategies for Artistic Creative Activities Scale (ERS-ACA)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633959d5eed0c484ae6515

There is a rich literature exploring emotional responses to engaging in artistic creative activities such as making music, writing, dancing and crafts. However, it remains unclear how such activities affect our emotions; specifically which mental processes (‘strategies’) are used to regulate our emotional responses. This paper therefore describes the design and validation of a novel instrument measuring types of emotional regulation strategies (ERSs) used when engaging in artistic creative activities: the Emotion Regulation Strategies for Artistic Creative Activities Scale (ERS-ACA). Using data from an initial pilot study (n = 740 adults, 80.4% female, median age 25–34) and a follow-up large internet sample (n = 47,924, 56.7% female, average age 47.3 ± 14.6 years), we followed a theory-driven iterative factor analysis process. Our analyses converged on a final 18-item scale comprising an overall ‘general’ factor of ERSs alongside three subscales: a 7-item factor comprising ‘avoidance strategies’ (such as distraction, suppression and detachment), a 6-item factor comprising ‘approach strategies’ (such as acceptance, reappraisal and problem solving), and a 5-item factor comprising ‘self-development strategies’ (such as enhanced self-identify, improved self-esteem and increased agency). All factors showed strong internal reliability (Cronbach’s alpha: General Factor = 0.93, Factor 1 = 0.9, Factor 2 = 0.88, Factor 3 = 0.88). We confirmed strong convergent and divergent validity, construct validity, consistency of internal reliability and test-retest reliability of the scale in a third study (n = 165, 82.2% female, average age 46.3 ± 12.2 years). In conclusion, artistic creative activities appear to affect our emotions via a number of ERSs that can be broadly classified into three categories: avoidance, approach and self-development. The ERS-ACA scale presented and validated here should support further research into the use of ERSs when engaging in artistic creative activities and enhance our understanding about how these activities affect mental health.

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<![CDATA[Correlated impulses: Using Facebook interests to improve predictions of crime rates in urban areas]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e910d5eed0c48496f765

Much research has examined how crime rates vary across urban neighborhoods, focusing particularly on community-level demographic and social characteristics. A parallel line of work has treated crime at the individual level as an expression of certain behavioral patterns (e.g., impulsivity). Little work has considered, however, whether the prevalence of such behavioral patterns in a neighborhood might be predictive of local crime, in large part because such measures are hard to come by and often subjective. The Facebook Advertising API offers a special opportunity to examine this question as it provides an extensive list of “interests” that can be tabulated at various geographic scales. Here we conduct an analysis of the association between the prevalence of interests among the Facebook population of a ZIP code and the local rate of assaults, burglaries, and robberies across 9 highly populated cities in the US. We fit various regression models to predict crime rates as a function of the Facebook and census demographic variables. In general, models using the variables for the interests of the whole adult population on Facebook perform better than those using data on specific demographic groups (such as Males 18-34). In terms of predictive performance, models combining Facebook data with demographic data generally have lower error rates than models using only demographic data. We find that interests associated with media consumption and mating competition are predictive of crime rates above and beyond demographic factors. We discuss how this might integrate with existing criminological theory.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of self-deception: Factorial structure, reliability and validity of the SDQ-12 (self-deception questionnaire)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b527cd5eed0c4842bc983

We all need to resort to deception, either with ourselves (denial, self-deception, mystification) or with others (with modalities, such as impression management, social desirability), to a greater or lesser extent. Lies, in their broader meaning, are interpreted as something rather adaptive, useful, and necessary in our socioaffective world. In particular, self-deception is a highly interesting psychological concept in the clinical population, namely, in drug dependents, as it serves as a mechanism for maintaining addiction. The objective of this study was to create and explore the validity and psychometric properties of a short self-deception scale (SDQ-12), derived from the IAM-40 and emphasizing the manipulation and mystification dimensions. Participants in this study included a group of drug dependents (alcoholics and drug abusers) under treatment (n = 417) as well as a group of adults from the general population (n = 124) (total N = 541), selected using simple random sampling. Across the sample, 63% of individuals were male, with a mean age of 38.65 years (S.D. = 10.61). Empirical exploration of the SDQ-12 items using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the instrument has a clear structure matching the theoretically relevant proposed dimensions of mystification and manipulation. Internal consistency was verified (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient = .85), and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the two-dimensional model provided an appropriate fit to the data. In addition, manipulation was greater in young male individuals, with significant differences found in mystification and manipulation between the general population and alcoholics and drug abusers. Our study supports the clinical and research importance of the SDQ-12 scale, due not only to its diagnostic efficacy but also to its novel nature, its importance, and its relevance. It could be particularly useful for evaluating the substantial components of self-deception in the addict population, thus guiding therapists in their diagnostic and interventional role.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of the psychometric properties of Hindi-translated Scale for Measuring Maternal Satisfaction among postnatal women in Chhattisgarh, India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59fecfd5eed0c484135604

Satisfaction with childbirth services is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, providing relevant insights into women's opinion on quality of services received. Research studies report a dearth of standardised scales that quantify this phenomenon; and none have been tested in India to the best of authors' knowledge. The current study was undertaken to evaluate psychometric properties of Hindi version of the Turkish Scale for Measuring Maternal Satisfaction: Normal and Caesarean Births versions in order to fill this gap. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in selected public health facilities in Chhattisgarh, India. Healthy women (n = 1004) who gave birth to a single, live neonate, vaginally or via Caesarean section participated. Psychometric assessment was carried out in four steps: 1) scales translated from Turkish to Hindi; 2) Content Validity Index scores calculated for Hindi scales; 3) data collection; 4) statistical analyses for Hindi scales (Normal and Caesarean Birth).

A 10-factor model with 36 items emerged for both scales. The Hindi- translated Normal Birth and Caesarean Birth scales had good internal reliability (Cronbach’s α coefficients of 0.85 and 0.80, respectively).

The Hindi Scales for Measuring Maternal Satisfaction (Normal and Caesarean Birth) are valid and reliable tools for utilization in Indian health facilities. Their multi-dimensional nature presents an opportunity for the care providers and health administrators to incorporate women's opinions in intervention to improve quality of childbirth services. Having an international tool validated within India also provides a platform for comparing cross-country findings.

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<![CDATA[Disgust assessment: Factorial structure and psychometric properties of the French version of the Disgust Propension and Sensibility Scale Revised-12]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d629d5eed0c4840317c3

The present study examined the internal and external validity of the French version of the 12-item Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale-Revised (DPSS-12) in a nonclinical sample from the general population. Two hundred and eighty-two participants completed the DPSSf-12 questionnaire as well as the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), Anxiety Trait (STAI B), Obsessional Belief Questionnaire 44 items (OBQ 44), Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R) and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported a 2-factor structure after two sensitivity items were removed. The 10-item scale showed good internal consistency, construct validity and test-retest reliability. These adequate psychometric properties make the DPSSf-10 appropriate for use by researchers and practitioners.

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<![CDATA[Development and validation of two questionnaires: Dental home care and dental health in Swedish dogs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c644887d5eed0c484c2e86e

Background

Dental disease is one of the most common health problems in dogs. However, no studies have investigated the attitudes, opinions and practices of dog owners, veterinarians and veterinary nurses regarding dental health and preventative dental home care in dogs. The objective of this study was therefore to develop and validate questionnaires for this purpose, in accordance with survey methodology guidelines.

Methods

Questionnaire items were determined based on the authors’ academic knowledge and clinical experience, and modified throughout the validation process. Several measures were taken to reduce sampling, coverage, measurement and non-response errors. Content validity was assessed by Subject-Matter Experts (SME) and cognitive interviews were conducted in accordance with the “think-aloud protocol”. Non-response analysis was performed using several methods.

Results

Constructs were identified using exploratory factor analysis and two predefined constructs from the dog owner questionnaire were confirmed “Dog owners’ attitudes towards brushing their dog’s teeth” (Cronbach’s α = 0.86) and “Dog owners’ assessment of their dog’s dental health” (α = 0.76). Additionally, exploratory factor analysis identified three potential constructs. In the veterinary health practitioner questionnaire, two constructs were identified: “Veterinary health practitioners’ attitudes towards dental chews and dental feed” (α = 0.78) and “Veterinary health practitioners’ attitudes and opinions on dental problems and dental cleaning” (α = 0.73). Non-response analysis showed a higher proportion of women in the sample of dog owners and veterinarians compared to the target populations. Veterinarians in the sample were also younger. In contrast, gender and age distributions in veterinary nurses did not differ between sample and target.

Conclusion

The validation presented in this work showed that the developed questionnaires could be used as accurate and reliable tools for measuring attitudes and practices regarding dental home care in dogs among Swedish dog owners, veterinarians and veterinary nurses.

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<![CDATA[Quickscan assesses risk factors of long-term sickness absence: A cross-sectional (factorial) construct validation study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c424397d5eed0c4845e0728

Objectives

The number of sick-listed employees has increased dramatically worldwide. Therefore, many countries aim to stimulate early and sustainable return to work opportunities to obtain better health outcomes and lower costs for disability pensions. To effectively orientate resources to patients with a high risk of not resuming work spontaneously, it is necessary to screen patients early in their sickness absence process. In this study, we validate “Quickscan”, a new instrument to assess return-to-work needs and to predict risks of long-term sick leave.

Methods

As part of the Quickscan validation process, we tested and compared the reliability and construct validity of the questionnaire in two different populations. First, we conducted a cross-sectional study in which the screening instrument was sent to sick-listed individuals in healthcare insurance. In a second cross-sectional study, sick-listed workers who consulted the occupational health physician for return-to-work assessment were asked to fill out the questionnaire. We compared both samples for descriptive statistics: frequencies, means and standard deviations. Reliability of the scales was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to evaluate the construct (factorial) validity of the studied scales using software package AMOS 24.

Results

The screening tool was shown to be an instrument with reliable scales (except for the perfectionism and health perception patient scale) in both populations. The construct validity was satisfactory: we found that the hypothesized measurement models with the theoretical factors fitted the data well in both populations. In the first sample, the model improved for scales concerning stressful life events and showed worse fit for person-related factors. Work-related factors and functioning factors both showed similar fit indices across samples. We found small differences in descriptive statistics, which we could explain by the differences in characteristics of both populations.

Conclusions

We can conclude that the instrument has considerable potential to function as a screening tool for disability management and follow-up of sick-leave, provided that some adaptations and validation tests are executed.

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<![CDATA[Using a coupled dynamic factor – random forest analysis (DFRFA) to reveal drivers of spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the semi-arid regions of southern Africa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1d5b5ed5eed0c4846eb79c

Understanding the drivers of large-scale vegetation change is critical to managing landscapes and key to predicting how projected climate and land use changes will affect regional vegetation patterns. This study aimed to improve our understanding of the role, magnitude, and spatial distribution of the key environmental and socioeconomic factors driving vegetation change in a southern African savanna. This research was conducted across the Kwando, Okavango and Zambezi catchments of southern Africa (Angola, Namibia, Botswana and Zambia) and explored vegetation cover change across the region from 2001–2010. A novel coupled analysis was applied to model the dynamic biophysical factors then to determine the discrete / social drivers of spatial heterogeneity on vegetation. Previous research applied Dynamic Factor Analysis (DFA), a multivariate times series dimension reduction technique, to ten years of monthly remotely sensed vegetation data (MODIS-derived normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI), and a suite of time-series (monthly) environmental covariates: precipitation, mean, minimum and maximum air temperature, soil moisture, relative humidity, fire and potential evapotranspiration. This initial research was performed at a regional scale to develop meso-scale models explaining mean regional NDVI patterns. The regional DFA predictions were compared to the fine-scale MODIS time series using Kendall’s Tau and Sen’s Slope to identify pixels where the DFA model we had developed, under or over predicted NDVI. Once identified, a Random Forest (RF) analysis using a series of static social and physical variables was applied to explain these remaining areas of under- and over- prediction to fully explore the drivers of heterogeneity in this savanna system. The RF analysis revealed the importance of protected areas, elevation, soil type, locations of higher population, roads, and settlements, in explaining fine scale differences in vegetation biomass. While the previously applied DFA generated a model of environmental variables driving NDVI, the RF work developed here highlighted human influences dominating that signal. The combined DFRFA model approach explains almost 90% of the variance in NDVI across this landscape from 2001–2010. Our methodology presents a unique coupling of dynamic and static factor analyses, yielding novel insights into savanna heterogeneity, and providing a tool of great potential for researchers and managers alike.

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<![CDATA[The National Institutes of Health measure of Healing Experience of All Life Stressors (NIH-HEALS): Factor analysis and validation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1ab827d5eed0c484026e6a

Two hundred patients with severe and/or life-threatening disease were recruited form the NIH Clinical Center and participated in the validation of the NIH-HEALS, which included exploratory factor analysis, principal component analysis, reliability, convergent validity, and divergent validity analyses. Item-reducing principal components analysis and internal consistency and split-half reliability demonstrated excellent internal consistency and split-half reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.89, split-half reliability = 0.95). Exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure, namely Connection (including religious, spiritual, and interpersonal), Reflection & Introspection, and Trust & Acceptance. Seven items were not retained. Convergent and divergent validity of 35-item NIH-HEALS against other validated measures of healing and spirituality provided strong evidence for its validity. As predicted, the Healed factor of the Self-Integration Scale (SIS), and Meaning, Peace, and Faith factors of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being-12 Scale (FACIT-SP12) were all positively and significantly correlated with the NIH-HEALS and its three factors. Divergent validity was also confirmed by the significant negative correlation between the NIH-HEALS and the Codependent factor on the SIS. Confirmatory Factor Analyses revealed good model fit by GFI (0.96), adjusted GFI (0.95), SRMR (0.077), and RMSEA (0.065), supporting the use of the NIH-HEALS with 35 items.

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<![CDATA[Beyond confidence: Development of a measure assessing the 5C psychological antecedents of vaccination]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141e98d5eed0c484d27564

Background

Monitoring the reasons why a considerable number of people do not receive recommended vaccinations allows identification of important trends over time, and designing and evaluating strategies to address vaccine hesitancy and increase vaccine uptake. Existing validated measures assessing vaccine hesitancy focus primarily on confidence in vaccines and the system that delivers them. However, empirical and theoretical work has stated that complacency (not perceiving diseases as high risk), constraints (structural and psychological barriers), calculation (engagement in extensive information searching), and aspects pertaining to collective responsibility (willingness to protect others) also play a role in explaining vaccination behavior. The objective was therefore to develop a validated measure of these 5C psychological antecedents of vaccination.

Methods and findings

Three cross-sectional studies were conducted. Study 1 uses factor analysis to develop an initial scale and assesses the sub-scales’ convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validity (N = 1,445, two German convenience-samples). In Study 2, a sample representative regarding age and gender for the German population (N = 1,003) completed the measure for vaccination in general and for specific vaccinations to assess the potential need for a vaccine-specific wording of items. Study 3 compared the novel scale’s performance with six existing measures of vaccine hesitancy (N = 350, US convenience-sample). As an outcome, a long (15-item) and short (5-item) 5C scale were developed as reliable and valid indicators of confidence, complacency, constraints, calculation, and collective responsibility. The 5C sub-scales correlated with relevant psychological concepts, such as attitude (confidence), perceived personal health status and invulnerability (complacency), self-control (constraints), preference for deliberation (calculation), and communal orientation (collective responsibility), among others. The new scale provided similar results when formulated in a general vs. vaccine-specific way (Study 2). In a comparison of seven measures the 5C scale was constantly among the scales that explained the highest amounts of variance in analyses predicting single vaccinations (between 20% and 40%; Study 3). The present studies are limited to the concurrent validity of the scales.

Conclusions

The 5C scale provides a novel tool to monitor psychological antecedents of vaccination and facilitates diagnosis, intervention design and evaluation. Its short version is suitable for field settings and regular global monitoring of relevant antecedents of vaccination.

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<![CDATA[The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness, Version 2 (MAIA-2)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c10287ad5eed0c4842473cf

Interoception, the process by which the nervous system senses, interprets, and integrates signals originating from within the body, has become major research topic for mental health and in particular for mind-body interventions. Interoceptive awareness here is defined as the conscious level of interoception with its multiple dimensions potentially accessible to self-report. The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) is an 8-scale state-trait questionnaire with 32 items to measure multiple dimensions of interoception by self-report and was published in November 2012. Its numerous applications in English and other languages revealed low internal consistency reliability for two of its scales. This study’s objective was to improve these scales and the psychometrics of the MAIA by adding three new items to each of the two scales and evaluate these in a new sample. Data were collected within a larger project that took place as part of the Live Science residency programme at the Science Museum London, UK, where visitors to the museum (N = 1,090) completed the MAIA and the six additional items. Based on exploratory factor analysis in one-half of the adult participants and Cronbach alphas, we discarded one and included five of the six additional items into a Version 2 of the MAIA and conducted confirmatory factor analysis in the other half of the participants. The 8-factor model of the resulting 37-item MAIA-2 was confirmed with appropriate fit indices (RMSEA = 0.055 [95% CI 0.052–0.058]; SRMR = 0.064) and improved internal consistency reliability. The MAIA-2 is public domain and available (www.osher.ucsf.edu/maia) for interoception research and the evaluation of clinical mind-body interventions.

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<![CDATA[Two is more valid than one, but is six even better? The factor structure of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c117b3bd5eed0c4846985a9

Introduction

Self-compassion refers to a non-evaluative, interconnected and mindful attitude towards oneself especially when facing difficulties or feelings of personal inadequacies. The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) is a frequently used instrument designed to measure self-compassion either by using the six subscale scores, or by calculating a total score, averaged across all 26 items.

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the factor structure of the Self-Compassion Scale, and in particular, whether the widely used six-factor model and the unidimensional model can be confirmed.

Methods

The internal structure of the SCS was examined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Six different models (a one-factor model, an oblique six-factor model, a higher-order model, an oblique two-factor model, a bi-factor model with one general factor (bifactor model) and a bi-factor model with two general factors, i.e. two-bifactor model) were tested in a sample of adolescents (n = 1725; 50.3% female; mean age = 16.56, SD = 1.95). All models were replicated using responses collected five months after the first data collection from 1497 students (W2), who were largely, but not completely, the same students involved in W1 data collection.

Results

Fit indices for the two-factor model implied an acceptable fit, but none of the remaining models tested met the criteria for an adequate solution. Although the fit indices for the six-factor model suggested an acceptable fit to the data, in this model the negative components of the SCS were highly correlated with each other, especially with the over-identification factor.

Conclusion

The results of this study provide evidence to support the use of the separate self-compassion- and self-coldness -scores rather than the overall score of the SCS. Although the fit indices supported the six-factor model, the use of six subscale scores cannot be recommended on the basis of our results given the extremely high correlations within this model between some factors.

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<![CDATA[Basic color categories and Mandarin Chinese color terms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0841bfd5eed0c484fcaa2e

Basic color terms used in Mandarin Chinese have been controversial since first discussed by Berlin and Kay in 1969. Previous studies showed much inconsistency on what should be considered as basic color terms in Mandarin Chinese. In the present study, we investigated categories of color rather than merely the color terms used by Taiwanese native Mandarin speakers. Using samples conforming to the Berlin and Kay survey, various colors were chosen from a collection of Natural Color System (NCS) colored papers and mounted on a piece of neutral gray card. The card was then mounted on a touch-screen, under D65 illumination. Thirty-two single-character color related Mandarin terms were selected from a Chinese character database according to frequency of use. Participants were required to select the color sample that matched the term by pressing a virtual button on the touch screen. The results show that certain terms can be directly correlated to basic color terms in English, comparable with the results of Berlin and Kay’s original study and those that followed. However, some terms, such as Mo (墨 ink), Tie (鐵 iron), and Cai (菜vegetable), show a wide spread of term maps and inconsistent use among subjects. Principle component analysis (PCA) procedures were used to analysis the commodity of data among subjects. The findings suggest that the basic color categories among Mandarin Chinese speakers are similar to those found in the World Color Survey (WCS), but are represented by wide-spread and inconsistent color terms among speakers.

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