ResearchPad - fatty-acids https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Improvement of steatotic rat liver function with a defatting cocktail during <i>ex situ</i> normothermic machine perfusion is not directly related to liver fat content]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13803 There is a significant organ shortage in the field of liver transplantation, partly due to a high discard rate of steatotic livers from donors. These organs are known to function poorly if transplanted but make up a significant portion of the available pool of donated livers. This study demonstrates the ability to improve the function of steatotic rat livers using a combination of ex situ machine perfusion and a “defatting” drug cocktail. After 6 hours of perfusion, defatted livers demonstrated lower perfusate lactate levels and improved bile quality as demonstrated by higher bile bicarbonate and lower bile lactate. Furthermore, defatting was associated with decreased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased expression of enzymes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Rehabilitation of marginal or discarded steatotic livers using machine perfusion and tailored drug therapy can significantly increase the supply of donor livers for transplantation.

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<![CDATA[Instigation of indigenous thermophilic bacterial consortia for enhanced oil recovery from high temperature oil reservoirs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13812 The purpose of the study involves the development of an anaerobic, thermophilic microbial consortium TERIK from the high temperature reservoir of Gujarat for enhance oil recovery. To isolate indigenous microbial consortia, anaerobic baltch media were prepared and inoculated with the formation water; incubated at 65°C for 10 days. Further, the microbial metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography, FTIR and surface tension. The efficiency of isolated consortia towards enhancing oil recovery was analyzed through core flood assay. The novelty of studied consortia was that, it produces biomass (600 mg/l), bio-surfactant (325 mg/l), and volatile fatty acids (250 mg/l) at 65°C in the span of 10 days, that are adequate to alter the surface tension (70 to 34 mNm -1) and sweep efficiency of zones facilitating the displacement of oil. TERIK was identified as Clostridium sp. The FTIR spectra of biosurfactant indicate the presence of N-H stretch, amides and polysaccharide. A core flooding assay was designed to explore the potential of TERIK towards enhancing oil recovery. The results showed an effective reduction in permeability at residual oil saturation from 2.14 ± 0.1 to 1.39 ± 0.05 mD and 19% incremental oil recovery.

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<![CDATA[Nutritional and physicochemical characteristics of purple sweet corn juice before and after boiling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7720 Sweet corn juice is becoming increasingly popular in China. In order to provide valuable health-related information to consumers, the nutritional and physicochemical characteristics of raw and boiled purple sweet corn juices were herein investigated. Sugars, antinutrients, total free phenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity were analyzed by conventional chemical methods. The viscosity and stability of juices were determined by Ubbelohde viscosity meter and centrifugation, respectively. Boiling process could elevate viscosity, stability and sugar content, and reduce antinutrients, total free phenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity in corn juice. In addition, short time boiling efficiently reduced the degradation of anthocyanins during subsequent refrigeration. The content of amino acids, vitamin B1/B2 and E were detected by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry was used for the analysis of fatty acids and aroma compounds. Several aroma compounds not previously reported in corn were identified, including 1-heptanol, 2-methyl-2-butenal, (Z)-3-nonen-1-ol, 3-ethyl-2-methyl-1,3-hexadiene, and 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol. Interestingly, the boiling process had no apparent effect on the amino acids profile, but it caused a 45.8% loss of fatty acids in the juice by promoting the retention of fatty acids in the corn residue. These results provide detailed information that could be used for increasing consumers’ knowledge of sweet corn juice, further development of sweet corn juice by food producers, and maize breeding programs.

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<![CDATA[Monotherapy with a low-dose lipopeptide HIV fusion inhibitor maintains long-term viral suppression in rhesus macaques]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e93ed5eed0c48496fa7b

Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) dramatically improves survival of HIV-infected patients, but lifelong treatment can ultimately result in cumulative toxicities and drug resistance, thus necessitating the development of new drugs with significantly improved pharmaceutical profiles. We recently found that the fusion inhibitor T-20 (enfuvirtide)-based lipopeptides possess dramatically increased anti-HIV activity. Herein, a group of novel lipopeptides were designed with different lengths of fatty acids, identifying a stearic acid-modified lipopeptide (LP-80) with the most potent anti-HIV activity. It inhibited a large panel of divergent HIV subtypes with a mean IC50 in the extremely low picomolar range, being > 5,300-fold more active than T-20 and the neutralizing antibody VRC01. It also sustained the potent activity against T-20-resistant mutants and exhibited very high therapeutic selectivity index. Pharmacokinetics of LP-80 in rats and monkeys verified its potent and long-acting anti-HIV activity. In the monkey, subcutaneous administration of 3 mg/kg LP-80 yielded serum concentrations of 1,147 ng/ml after injection 72 h and 9 ng/ml after injection 168 h (7 days), equivalent to 42,062- and 330-fold higher than the measured IC50 value. In SHIV infected rhesus macaques, a single low-dose LP-80 (3 mg/kg) sharply reduced viral loads to below the limitation of detection, and twice-weekly monotherapy could maintain long-term viral suppression.

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<![CDATA[Effects of increased space allowance on animal welfare, meat and ham quality of heavy pigs slaughtered at 160Kg]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c706779d5eed0c4847c70a2

Sixty barrows (Body Weight–BW- range: 23.9–160 kg) were allotted to two experimental groups (6 pens of 5 pigs each): the control group was kept at a space allowance of 1m2/head; the second group was kept at 1.3m2/head. Behaviour, growth parameters, carcass and meat quality were assessed, as well as fat and cured ham quality. Results showed that pigs raised at 1.3m2/head spent more time laying (particularly in lateral recumbency, P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively) compared to pigs kept at lower space allowance. They also reduced the aimless exploration of the slatted pen floor (P<0.001) and increased overall expression of other, mainly active, behaviors (e.g., drinking, walking and standing, P<0.01). Pigs raised at 1.3m2/head showed higher final BW (P = 0.02), more favourable Average Daily Gain (ADG) and gain-to-Feed ratio (G:F) both during the last period of the trial (P<0.05 for both parameters) and over the entire trial (P = 0.01 for both parameters). No significant difference was observed between groups for carcass traits and the main meat quality attributes. Subcutaneous fat from green hams had higher α-linolenic acid content (P<0.01) in the group reared at greater space allowance. Green hams from this group lost less weight at trimming (P<0.01) and the resulting cured hams received better sensory evaluations (P<0.05). No difference was observed in fatty acid composition and unsaturation levels of the subcutaneous fat from cured hams. Our data suggest that heavy pigs intended for Parma ham would benefit from the adoption of higher individual floor space allowances, both in terms of animal welfare (increased possibility to rest) and of productive parameters, without having any detrimental effect on the suitability of the thighs for dry-curing or on the quality of the final product.

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<![CDATA[Effects of the electrical conductivity of a soilless culture system on gamma linolenic acid levels in borage seed oil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac6dd5eed0c484d0875e

Borage is a well-known plant of great importance in human nutrition and health. Expanding knowledge of particular plants that have anti-cancer products is a global concern. There is substantial information regarding the benefits, presence and extraction of gamma linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3n6) in different plants around the world, especially in borage seeds. However, there is little information concerning the effects of the salinity of the nutrient solution on the growth and presence of GLA in borage seeds. The objective of this work was to determine the optimal salinity of the nutrient solution for obtaining GLA in soilless cultivation systems. Borage plants were grown in coconut fibre and provided three treatments of nutrient solution of 2.20, 3.35 and 4.50 dS m-1, increasing solution salinity with the standard nutrient solution of concentrated macronutrients as a reference. Vegetative growth, seed production and GLA ratio were measured. The results of vegetative development and GLA production doubled and tripled with the increase in salinity of the nutrient solution, respectively.

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<![CDATA[The ovine hepatic mitochondrial proteome: Understanding seasonal weight loss tolerance in two distinct breeds]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe3cd5eed0c484e5b761

Seasonal weight loss (SWL) is a primary constraint for farmers in the Mediterranean and tropics. One cost-effective solution to SWL is utilizing breeds like the Damara sheep that have adapted to deal with nutritional stress. Previous studies concluded that one of the adaptation mechanisms of SWL is a specialized fatty acid metabolism. Accordingly, hepatic-mitochondrial proteomes were compared across two different breeds (24 sheep total, Merino, n = 12 and Damara, n = 12) and two different diets (restricted vs unrestricted diet, 6 per breed, per diet, 24 total). Mitochondrial-proteins were isolated and relatively quantified using Blue native PAGE / 2D-electrophoresis and then analyzed via mass spectrometry. The tool ReviGO summarized the proteomes’ gene-ontology terms. A total of 50 proteins were identified with 7 changing significantly in abundance (ANOVA p-value<0.05). Specific abundance patterns of corticosteroid and inflammatory response-associated proteins such as annexin and glutamate dehydrogenase suggests that the Damara has an unusual inflammation response when subjected to SWL in addition to its unique metabolism. All significant proteins warrant further study; Annexin in particular shows promise as a potentially useful biomarker.

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<![CDATA[Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition attenuates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in diet-induced obese mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c673077d5eed0c484f37b8e

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease. NAFLD begins with excessive lipid accumulation in the liver and progresses to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NAFLD is closely linked to dysregulated hepatic lipid metabolism. Although recent studies have reported that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling regulates lipid metabolism, the roles of EGFR and EGFR inhibitors as modulators of lipid metabolism are largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether inhibiting EGFR using the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) PD153035 improves NAFLD. Our results demonstrate that EGFR was activated in liver tissues from high fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD mice. Inhibiting EGFR using PD153035 significantly reduced phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling and sterol responsive elementary binding protein 1 and 2 expression, which prevented HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and hypercholesterolemia by reducing de novo lipogenesis and cholesterol synthesis and enhancing fatty acid oxidation. Additionally, inhibiting EGFR improved HFD-induced glucose intolerance. In conclusion, these results indicate that EGFR plays an important role in NAFLD and is a potential therapeutic target.

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<![CDATA[Structural basis of DSF recognition by its receptor RpfR and its regulatory interaction with the DSF synthase RpfF]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8f4d5eed0c48496f4de

The diffusible signal factors (DSFs) are a family of quorum-sensing autoinducers (AIs) produced and detected by numerous gram-negative bacteria. The DSF family AIs are fatty acids, differing in their acyl chain length, branching, and substitution but having in common a cis-2 double bond that is required for their activity. In both human and plant pathogens, DSFs regulate diverse phenotypes, including virulence factor expression, antibiotic resistance, and biofilm dispersal. Despite their widespread relevance to both human health and agriculture, the molecular basis of DSF recognition by their cellular receptors remained a mystery. Here, we report the first structure–function studies of the DSF receptor regulation of pathogenicity factor R (RpfR). We present the X-ray crystal structure of the RpfR DSF-binding domain in complex with the Burkholderia DSF (BDSF), which to our knowledge is the first structure of a DSF receptor in complex with its AI. To begin to understand the mechanistic role of the BDSF–RpfR contacts observed in the biologically important complex, we have also determined the X-ray crystal structure of the RpfR DSF-binding domain in complex with the inactive, saturated isomer of BDSF, dodecanoic acid (C12:0). In addition to these ligand–receptor complex structures, we report the discovery of a previously overlooked RpfR domain and show that it binds to and negatively regulates the DSF synthase regulation of pathogenicity factor F (RpfF). We have named this RpfR region the RpfF interaction (FI) domain, and we have determined its X-ray crystal structure alone and in complex with RpfF. These X-ray crystal structures, together with extensive complementary in vivo and in vitro functional studies, reveal the molecular basis of DSF recognition and the importance of the cis-2 double bond to DSF function. Finally, we show that throughout cellular growth, the production of BDSF by RpfF is post-translationally controlled by the RpfR N-terminal FI domain, affecting the cellular concentration of the bacterial second messenger bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP). Thus, in addition to describing the molecular basis for the binding and specificity of a DSF for its receptor, we describe a receptor–synthase interaction regulating bacterial quorum-sensing signaling and second messenger signal transduction.

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<![CDATA[Omega-3 and -6 fatty acid plasma levels are not associated with liver cirrhosis-associated systemic inflammation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca296d5eed0c48441e70f

Background

Liver cirrhosis is associated with profound immunodysfunction, i.e. a parallel presence of chronic systemic inflammation and immunosuppression, which can result in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Omega-3 fatty acids are precursors of pro-resolving mediators and support the resolution of inflammation.

Objective

The aim of this study was to determine plasma levels of omega-3 fatty acids in patients with liver cirrhosis and ACLF.

Methods

Patients with liver cirrhosis with and without ACLF were enrolled in a prospective cohort study and analyzed post-hoc for the present sub-study. Clinical data and biomaterials were collected at baseline and at day 7, 28 and after 3 months of follow-up. Plasma concentrations of arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which represent key omega-6 and -3 fatty acids, respectively, were quantified and associated with markers of systemic inflammation and severity of liver cirrhosis.

Results

A total of 117 patients were included in the present analyses. Of those, 26 (22.2%), 51 (43.6%) and 40 (34.2%) patients had compensated or decompensated liver cirrhosis, and ACLF. Plasma levels of ARA and DHA were similar in patients with compensated cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis, and ACLF. Furthermore, no significant association between plasma ARA or DHA and C-reactive protein or peripheral blood leukocytes were observed (P>0.05).

Conclusion

In our study plasma levels of key omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid are neither associated with the severity of liver cirrhosis nor with liver-cirrhosis-associated systemic inflammation.

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<![CDATA[Fluorescent labelling of membrane fatty acid transporter CD36 (SR-B2) in the extracellular loop]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c521873d5eed0c484798546

Context

Upon palmitate oversupply, membrane fatty acid-transporter CD36 (SR-B2) permanently translocates from endosomal storage to the sarcolemma, inducing lipotoxicity. CD36 translocation results from endosomal alkalinisation elicited by palmitate-induced disattachment of the cytoplasmic V1-subcomplex from the membrane-integrated V0-subcomplex of vacuolar-type H+-ATPase.

Objective

Develop a CD36 fluorescent labeling technique as initial step towards live cell imaging.

Methods

Three human CD36 (hCD36) mutants were constructed via insertion of a tetracysteine motif at different positions within the extracellular domain. Constructs were lentivirally transduced for subsequent CD36 labeling with fluorescein-arsenical hairpin-binder (FlAsH). Cell imaging was combined with V0/V1 immunostaining and Western blotting.

Results

Transduction of hCD36-wildtype and mutants yielded corresponding proteins in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Tetracysteine mutant-2 (hCD36-TC2) showed similar fatty acid uptake to wildtype. FlAsH staining revealed a speckled pattern reminiscent of endosomes. We found decreased V1 co-localization with CD36 upon high-palmitate culturing. Conversely, V0 consistently co-localized with CD36.

Conclusion

hCD36-TC2 is a possible candidate for application of biarsenical dyes in live imaging studies pending further investigation. Our data is compatible with V0/V1 disassembly in high-palmitate-treated cells.

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<![CDATA[Dietary calcium affects body composition and lipid metabolism in rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f821d5eed0c484387137

Calcium (Ca) intakes may affect cardiovascular disease risk by altering body composition (body weight and fat) and serum lipid profile, but results have been inconsistent and the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The effects of dietary Ca on body composition and lipid metabolism were examined in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed high-fat, high-energy diets containing (g/kg) low (0.75Ca, 0.86 ± 0.05; 2Ca, 2.26 ± 0.02), normal (5Ca, 5.55 ± 0.08) or high (10Ca, 11.03 ± 0.17; 20Ca, 21.79 ± 0.15) Ca for 10 weeks. Rats fed the lowest Ca diet (0.75Ca) had lower (p < 0.05) body weight and fat mass compared to other groups. Rats fed the high Ca diets had lower serum total and LDL cholesterol compared to rats fed normal or low Ca. Liver total cholesterol was lower in rats fed high compared to low Ca. In general, liver mRNA expression of genes involved in cholesterol uptake from the circulation (Ldlr), cholesterol synthesis (Hmgcr and Hmgcs1), fatty acid oxidation (Cpt2) and cholesterol esterification (Acat2) were higher in rats fed higher Ca. Apparent digestibility of total trans, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids was lower in rats fed the high compared to the low Ca diets, with the largest effects seen on trans and saturated fatty acids. Fecal excretion of cholesterol and total bile acids was highest in rats fed the highest Ca diet (20Ca). The results suggest little effect of dietary Ca on body composition unless Ca intakes are very low. Decreased bile acid reabsorption and reduced absorption of neutral sterols and saturated and trans fatty acids may contribute to the better serum lipid profile in rats fed higher Ca.

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<![CDATA[Screening dietary biochanin A, daidzein, equol and genistein for their potential to increase DHA biosynthesis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c8bd5eed0c484bd2fbe

Plant oil utilization in aquafeeds is still the most practical option, although it decreases the content of the nutritionally highly valuable omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) in fish. Phytoestrogens and their metabolites are putatively able to affect genes encoding proteins centrally involved in the biosynthesis of EPA and DHA due to their estrogenic potential. Thus, the aim of the study was to screen the potential of the phytoestrogens to stimulate the biosynthesis of EPA and DHA in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Additionally, the potential effects on growth performance, nutrient composition and hepatic lipid metabolism in rainbow trout were investigated. For that, a vegetable oil based diet served as a control diet (C) and was supplemented with 15 g/kg dry matter of biochanin A (BA), daidzein (DA), genistein (G) and equol (EQ), respectively. These five diets were fed to rainbow trout (initial body weight 83.3 ± 0.4 g) for 52 days. Growth performance and nutrient composition of whole body homogenates were not affected by the dietary treatments. Furthermore, feeding EQ to rainbow trout significantly increased DHA levels by +8% in whole body homogenates compared to samples of fish fed the diet C. A tendency towards increased DHA levels in whole body homogenates was found for fish fed the diet G. Fish fed diets BA and DA lacked these effects. Moreover, EQ and G fed fish showed significantly decreased hepatic mRNA steady state levels for fatty acyl desaturase 2a (delta-6) (fads2a(d6)). In contrast, carnitine palmitoyl transferases 1 (cpt1) hepatic mRNA steady state levels and hepatic Fads2a(d6) protein contents were not affected by the dietary treatment. In conclusion, when combined with dietary vegetable oils, equol and genistein seem to stimulate the biosynthesis of DHA and thereby increase tissue DHA levels in rainbow trout, however, only to a moderate extent.

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<![CDATA[Tofu and fish oil independently modulate serum lipid profiles in rats: Analyses of 10 class lipoprotein profiles and the global hepatic transcriptome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c605a43d5eed0c4847ccc8f

Soy protein and fish oil are food components that decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies demonstrated that these food components reduced serum cholesterol levels and suppressed hepatic lipogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms of action of these food components remain unclear. Ten classes of serum lipoprotein profiles showed that dietary tofu, a soybean curd, suppressed cholesterol absorption, while fish oil reduced most of the lipoprotein classes in rats. Tofu and fish oil both halved the level of the lipoprotein class LAC1 (LDL-anti-protease complex), a 15-nm LDL-anti-protease complex, which is speculated to be a cause of atherosclerosis. Moreover, a global transcriptome analysis revealed that tofu inhibited the mRNA expression of genes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, while fish oil stimulated that of genes related to fatty acid degradation. Therefore, tofu and fish oil independently regulate lipid metabolism. The decrease observed in LAC1 may have been due to reduced cholesterol absorption in the tofu diet group and the interference of lipogenesis via the activation of polyunsaturated fatty acid detoxification in the fish oil group.

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<![CDATA[Regulation of pollen lipid body biogenesis by MAP kinases and downstream WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2d2eb5d5eed0c484d9b346

Signaling pathways that control the activities in non-photosynthetic plastids, important sites of plant metabolism, are largely unknown. Previously, we demonstrated that WRKY2 and WRKY34 transcription factors play an essential role in pollen development downstream of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MPK3) and MPK6 in Arabidopsis. Here, we report that GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE/PHOSPHATE TRANSLOCATOR 1 (GPT1) is a key target gene of WRKY2/WRKY34. GPT1 transports glucose-6-phosphate (Glc6P) into plastids for starch and/or fatty acid biosynthesis depending on the plant species. Loss of function of WRKY2/WRKY34 results in reduced GPT1 expression, and concomitantly, reduced accumulation of lipid bodies in mature pollen, which leads to compromised pollen viability, germination, pollen tube growth, and male transmission in Arabidopsis. Pollen-specific overexpression of GPT1 rescues the pollen defects of wrky2 wrky34 double mutant. Furthermore, gain-of-function activation of MPK3/MPK6 enhances GPT1 expression; whereas GPT1 expression is reduced in mkk4 mkk5 double mutant. Together, this study revealed a cytoplasmic/nuclear signaling pathway capable of coordinating the metabolic activities in plastids. High-level expression of GPT1 at late stages of pollen development drives Glc6P from cytosol into plastids, where Glc6P is used for fatty acid biosynthesis, an important step of lipid body biogenesis. The accumulation of lipid bodies during pollen maturation is essential to pollen fitness and successful reproduction.

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<![CDATA[Identification of calnexin as a diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 interacting protein]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d0124d5eed0c484038a83

Triacylglycerol synthesis is catalyzed by acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2). DGAT2 is an integral membrane protein that is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and interacts with lipid droplets. Using BioId, a method to detect proximal and interacting proteins, we identified calnexin as a DGAT2-interacting protein. Co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays confirmed this finding. We found that calnexin-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts had reduced intracellular triacylglycerol levels and fewer large lipid droplets (>1.0 μm2 area). Despite the alterations in triacylglycerol metabolism, in vitro DGAT2 activity, localization and protein stability were not affected by the absence of calnexin.

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<![CDATA[Non-proteolytic ubiquitin modification of PPARγ by Smurf1 protects the liver from steatosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c23f26ed5eed0c484046a2b

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by abnormal accumulation of triglycerides (TG) in the liver and other metabolic syndrome symptoms, but its molecular genetic causes are not completely understood. Here, we show that mice deficient for ubiquitin ligase (E3) Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1) spontaneously develop hepatic steatosis as they age and exhibit the exacerbated phenotype under a high-fat diet (HFD). Our data indicate that loss of Smurf1 up-regulates the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and its target genes involved in lipid synthesis and fatty acid uptake. We further show that PPARγ is a direct substrate of Smurf1-mediated non-proteolytic lysine 63 (K63)-linked ubiquitin modification that suppresses its transcriptional activity, and treatment of Smurf1-deficient mice with a PPARγ antagonist, GW9662, completely reversed the lipid accumulation in the liver. Finally, we demonstrate an inverse correlation of low SMURF1 expression to high body mass index (BMI) values in human patients, thus revealing a new role of SMURF1 in NAFLD pathogenesis.

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<![CDATA[Topical essential fatty acid oil on wounds: Local and systemic effects]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c390bafd5eed0c48491dd3a

Background

The use of medicinal plants and their derivatives is increasing, and approximately one-third of all traditional herbal medicines are intended for wound treatment. Natural products used in these treatments include vegetable oils, which are rich in essential fatty acids. Once in contact with an ulcerative surface, the oil reaches the blood and lymphatic vessels, thus eliciting systemic effects.

Objective

This study evaluated the local and possible systemic effects of essential fatty acids (sunflower oil) applied topically to rat wounds.

Methods

Cutaneous punch wounds (6 mm) were produced on the dorsa of 30 rats. Saline (SS), mineral oil (MO) or essential fatty acid (EFA) solutions were applied topically. Healing was evaluated after 2, 4 and 10 days (n = 5 per group) by visual and histological/morphometric examination, second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, and cytokine and growth factor quantification in the scar tissue (real-time PCR) and in serum (ELISA).

Results

MO/EFA-treated animals had higher IGF-1, leptin, IL-6 and IFN-γ mRNA expression and lower serum IL-6 levels than the control (SS/MO) animals. SHG analysis showed no difference in collagen density between the animals treated with MO and EFA.

Conclusion

EFA treatment induces topical (observed by local IGF-1, leptin, IL-6 and IFN-γ production) and systemic effects, lowering IL-6 levels in the serum. As the oil is widely used to shorten ulcer healing time, studies are needed to evaluate the treatment safety and possible undesired effects.

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<![CDATA[Changes in hepato-renal gene expression in microminipigs following a single exposure to a mixture of perfluoroalkyl acids]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c390b92d5eed0c48491d4a6

It is evident that some perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), a group of globally dispersed pollutants, have long biological half-lives in humans and farm animals. However, the effects of PFAAs in domestic animals have not been fully elucidated. The present study investigated how exposure to a single dose of a mixture of 10 PFAAs influenced hepatic and renal gene expression and histopathology, as well as plasma clinical biochemistry, in microminipigs (MMPigs) over 21 days. In animals treated with PFAAs, the mRNA expression of twelve genes related to fatty acid metabolism was upregulated in the kidney, while only few of these genes were induced in the liver. The expression of several kidney injury-associated genes such as, IGFBP1, IGFBP6, GCLC X2, GCLC X3, MSGT1, OLR1 was upregulated in the kidney. Interestingly, the expression of IGFBP-genes was differentially altered in the liver and kidney. Our findings thus identified hepato-renal gene expression changes in MMPigs that were associated with various molecular pathways including peroxisome proliferation, lipid metabolism, kidney injury, and apoptosis. Furthermore, serum HDL levels were significantly decreased following exposure to PFAAs, whereas no significant histopathological changes were detected, as compared to the vehicle group. Taken together, the present study provided the first indication that a single exposure to a mixture of PFAAs can produce changes in MMPig renal gene expression that were observed three weeks post exposure, suggesting that more attention should be paid to the kidney as a primary target organ of PFAAs.

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<![CDATA[Effect of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) and juçara (Euterpe edulis) waste extract on oxidation process stability in broiler meat treated by UV-C]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c25457ed5eed0c48442c84b

The aim of this study was to determine the potential for waste extracts from the pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) and juçara (Euterpe edulis) to reduce oxidatiove processes in antibiotic-free broiler meat. The use of natural antioxidants extracted from fruit-processing wastes has been neglected. Although these residues contain high amounts of these bioactive compounds, they are often discarded by industry. Meat samples were exposed previously submitted to UV-C radiation at 1.161 mW / cm2 for 10 minutes to accelerate the rancidity process. Pequi and juçara waste extracts were obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). A total of four conditions were tested using antibiotic-free broiler thighs and drumstick meat: BN–with no antioxidant (negative control), BP–with BHT (Butylated hydroxytoluene) (positive control), BE–with juçara extract, BC–with pequi extract. The color, pH, lipid and protein oxidation (days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10), antioxidant contents and activity (days 0 and 10), and proximal composition and fatty acid profile (day 0) were tested, followed by principal component analysis (PCA). Pequi waste extract presented the highest antioxidant content and activity. BE and BC treatments presented the highest total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) content, and BE presented the highest total monomeric anthocyanin content (TAC). TFC increased during storage in all treatments. The waste extracts of C. brasiliense presented the highest antioxidant activity against lipid oxidation in the antibiotic-free broiler meat. Moreover, both extracts presented high antioxidant activity against protein oxidation. Although the pequi peel extract had a better effect in terms of suppressing both types of oxidation, either this extract or the jussara waste extract could be used as a technological strategy to reduce the oxidative processes in antibiotic-free broiler meat for the poultry industry. Thus, waste extracts can be a potential technology to reduce the oxidative processes in antibiotic-free broiler meat.

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