ResearchPad - features https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Kelp is on the way]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13717 Seaweed farming could help clean up the oceans and the atmosphere, reports Michael Marshall

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<![CDATA[Best behaviour]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13095 Scientists are trying to control our actions in this pandemic, but what happens when they get things wrong? Graham Lawton reports

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<![CDATA[An uncommon cold]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12851 The covid-19 virus isn't the first coronavirus to jump from animals to humans. What can we learn from previous encounters, asks Anthony King

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<![CDATA[A Call to Action: The Role of Antiretroviral Stewardship in Inpatient Practice, a Joint Policy Paper of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, HIV Medicine Association, and American Academy of HIV Medicine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10229 Persons receiving antiretrovirals are at risk for medication-related errors in the inpatient setting. This joint policy paper endorses antiretroviral stewardship and antiretroviral stewardship programs, designed to improve patient safety

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<![CDATA[Infectious Diseases Society of America Guidelines on the Treatment and Management of Patients with COVID-19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbb066783-a3be-4b0a-9cbc-2ae8599cf927 There are many pharmacologic therapies that are being used or considered for treatment of COVID-19. There is a need for frequently updated practice guidelines on their use, based on critical evaluation of rapidly emerging literature.ObjectiveDevelop evidence-based rapid guidelines intended to support patients, clinicians and other health-care professionals in their decisions about treatment and management of patients with COVID-19.MethodsIDSA formed a multidisciplinary guideline panel of infectious disease clinicians, pharmacists, and methodologists with varied areas of expertise. Process followed a rapid recommendation checklist. The panel prioritized questions and outcomes. Then a systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature was conducted. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to assess the certainty of evidence and make recommendations.ResultsThe IDSA guideline panel agreed on 7 treatment recommendations and provided narrative summaries of other treatments undergoing evaluations.ConclusionsThe panel expressed the overarching goal that patients be recruited into ongoing trials, which would provide much needed evidence on the efficacy and safety of various therapies for COVID-19, given that we could not make a determination whether the benefits outweigh harms for most treatments. ]]> <![CDATA[Long saphenous vein and its anatomical variations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bd73c8bd5eed0c48489cb6b

Abstract

Vascular ultrasonography has an important role in the diagnosis and management of venous disease. The venous system, however, is more complex and variable compared to the arterial system due to its frequent anatomical variations. This often becomes quite challenging for sonographers. This paper discusses the anatomy of the long saphenous vein and its anatomical variations accompanied by sonograms and illustrations.

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<![CDATA[Factors associated with professional confidence in Japanese public health nurses: A cross‐sectional survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndad67b08-f2bc-4756-9646-a6c4293c5532

Abstract

Objectives

To clarify factors associated with professional confidence in Japanese public health nurses (PHNs) and to examine the relationship between professional confidence and professional competency.

Design

A cross‐sectional study.

Sample

Public health nurses (N = 1,512) working in local government agencies.

Measurements

An anonymous, self‐administered questionnaire with questions on demographic characteristics (sex, age, experience as a PHN, educational background, affiliation, and position) and 34 items on professional confidence developed by the researchers based on a literature review was administered. Factors associated with the professional confidence were extracted through an exploratory factor analysis, and construct validity of the confidence was verified through a confirmatory factor analysis.

Results

In total, 883 responses (response rate, 58.4%) were received; only 467 (30.9%) of them were valid. On the basis of the exploratory factor analysis results, professional confidence included 17 items, with the following four factors: “technical practice,” “effortful learning,” “exploring the evidence,” and “educators in workplace.” The goodness‐of‐fit model in the confirmatory factor analysis proved the construct validity of professional confidence.

Conclusions

Professional confidence was gained by self‐improvement that reflects on public health practice. Professional confidence underpinned the generalist level of professional competency among PHNs.

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<![CDATA[The development of a parental attachment recognition scale for mothers nurturing preschool children]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf28b47a8-e423-43c3-862f-821fe256d937

Abstract

Background

Attachment theory shows that childhood experiences influence the parenting style that the child shows later, as a parent. Nevertheless, at present there are no instruments to efficiently quantify the emotions associated with parents’ early attachment.

Objective

This study aims to develop a cognitive scale that measures both the positive and negative emotions reflecting the early attachment experience of Japanese mothers now nurturing their own preschool‐age children.

Design

A Parental Attachment Recognition Scale is developed in three phases that include concept analysis, item pool development and validity analysis, and investigation of the scale's statistical features, factor structure, validity, and reliability.

Measurements and Sample

The scale development is based on a self‐administered questionnaire survey, answered by 639 mothers.

Results

The scale consists of 27 items, grouped by factor analysis into three subordinate scales, named: (1) Parent–child contact; (2) Emotional bond; and (3) Parental impressions.

Conclusions

The study proposes a new scale to measure the recognition of early childhood attachment experiences among mothers raising their own preschool children. The instrument has a considerable degree of validity and reliability. The scale is expected to be useful in helping public health nurses assess mothers in need of childrearing support.

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<![CDATA[Clinical coordination in accountable care organizations: A qualitative study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9739ecd5eed0c484964b8b

Background:

Accountable care organizations (ACOs) are becoming a common payment and delivery model. Despite widespread interest, little empirical research has examined what efforts or strategies ACOs are using to change care and reduce costs. Knowledge of ACOs' clinical efforts can provide important context for understanding ACO performance, particularly to distinguish arenas where ACOs have and have not attempted care transformation.

Purpose:

The aim of the study was to understand ACOs' efforts to change clinical care during the first 18 months of ACO contracts.

Methods:

We conducted semistructured interviews between July and December 2013. Our sample includes ACOs that began performance contracts in 2012, including Medicare Shared Savings Program and Pioneer participants, stratified across key factors. In total, we conducted interviews with executives from 30 ACOs. Iterative qualitative analysis identified common patterns and themes.

Results:

ACOs in the first year of performance contracts are commonly focusing on four areas: first, transforming primary care through increased access and team-based care; second, reducing avoidable emergency department use; third, strengthening practice-based care management; and fourth, developing new boundary spanner roles and activities. ACOs were doing little around transforming specialty care, acute and postacute care, or standardizing care across practices during the first 18 months of ACO performance contracts.

Practice Implications:

Results suggest that cost reductions associated with ACOs in the first years of contracts may be related to primary care. Although in the long term many hope ACOs will achieve coordination across a wide array of care settings and providers, in the short term providers under ACO contracts are focused largely on primary care-related strategies. Our work provides a template of the common areas of clinical activity in the first years of ACO contracts, which may be informative to providers considering becoming an ACO. Further research will be needed to understand how these strategies are associated with performance.

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<![CDATA[Changing Autonomy in Operative Experience Through UK General Surgery Training]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8bf7cad5eed0c484b1e6f2

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text

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<![CDATA[Editorial: Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, The Bone & Joint Journal, The Journal of Orthopaedic Research, and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery Will Not Accept Clinical Research Manuscripts Previously Posted to Preprint Servers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c7eababd5eed0c48489cbd2 ]]> <![CDATA[Impact of Home Care Admission Nurses' Goals on Electronic Health Record Documentation Strategies at the Point of Care]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c79af77d5eed0c4841e3059

Home care nurses have multiple goals at the patient admission visit. Electronic health records support some of these goals, including high-quality documentation, but nurses may not complete the electronic documentation at the point of care. To characterize admission nurses' practices at the point of care and lay the foundation for design recommendations, this study investigates admission nurses' documentation strategies with respect to entering electronic data and how nursing goals affect them. We conducted 10 observations of home care agency admissions with five admission nurses in rural Pennsylvania. We collected screenshots and recorded the admission process. We asked the nurses questions outside the point of care. We coded the nurses' strategies at the data-entry screen level. Using thematic analysis, we investigated the influence of nursing goals on documentation strategies. Subject matter experts reviewed our findings. Several goals affect nurses' documentation strategies: ensure data accuracy, reduce time in the patient's home, and prevent infection. Home care admission nurses distribute the electronic documentation temporally due to their goals. Nurses developed memory aids to support completion of the documentation after leaving the patients' homes. Design and training should support the distributed manner in which home care nurses document patient encounters.

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<![CDATA[Improving Aseptic Technique During the Treatment of Pediatric Septic Shock]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c4b8fcad5eed0c4848717e1

Rapid fluid resuscitation is used to treat pediatric septic shock. However, achieving fluid delivery goals while maintaining aseptic technique can be challenging. Two methods of fluid resuscitation—the commonly used push-pull technique (PPT) and a new fluid infusion technique using the LifeFlow device (410 Medical, Inc; Durham, NC)—were compared in a simulated patient model. PPT was associated with multiple aseptic technique violations related to contamination of the syringe barrel. This study confirms the risk of PPT-associated syringe contamination and suggests that this risk could be mitigated with the use of a protected syringe system, such as LifeFlow.

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<![CDATA[The role of leadership in place-based development and building institutional arrangements]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b5bfb35463d7e27f039274c

In various case studies across Europe the vital role of rural place leadership in enabling a place-based approach to local and regional development has been highlighted, although not always explicitly addressed as such. This paper aims to do so by reviewing the findings from a selection of earlier research projects within a framework of the role of rural leadership in place-based development. Building on the increasing body of literature on place leadership, the review reveals how place leadership in rural areas is performed by varied public, private and civic actors; is able to bridge vested stakes and make new connections; is supportive to joint learning and innovation and an increasing range of bottom-up grassroots initiatives. Effective rural place leadership initiates joint reflection and enforces a collaborative spirit resulting in an expanding spiral of new alliances and new (institutional) arrangements. This underpins the importance of rural place leadership in building collective agency and its capacity to better attune the institutional setting to the specificities of place and thus enhance place-based development.

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<![CDATA[Predicting the Occurrence of Cave-Inhabiting Fauna Based on Features of the Earth Surface Environment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da33ab0ee8fa60b85464

One of the most challenging fauna to study in situ is the obligate cave fauna because of the difficulty of sampling. Cave-limited species display patchy and restricted distributions, but it is often unclear whether the observed distribution is a sampling artifact or a true restriction in range. Further, the drivers of the distribution could be local environmental conditions, such as cave humidity, or they could be associated with surface features that are surrogates for cave conditions. If surface features can be used to predict the distribution of important cave taxa, then conservation management is more easily obtained. We examined the hypothesis that the presence of major faunal groups of cave obligate species could be predicted based on features of the earth surface. Georeferenced records of cave obligate amphipods, crayfish, fish, isopods, beetles, millipedes, pseudoscorpions, spiders, and springtails within the area of Appalachian Landscape Conservation Cooperative in the eastern United States (Illinois to Virginia and New York to Alabama) were assigned to 20 x 20 km grid cells. Habitat suitability for these faunal groups was modeled using logistic regression with twenty predictor variables within each grid cell, such as percent karst, soil features, temperature, precipitation, and elevation. Models successfully predicted the presence of a group greater than 65% of the time (mean = 88%) for the presence of single grid cell endemics, and for all faunal groups except pseudoscorpions. The most common predictor variables were latitude, percent karst, and the standard deviation of the Topographic Position Index (TPI), a measure of landscape rugosity within each grid cell. The overall success of these models points to a number of important connections between the surface and cave environments, and some of these, especially soil features and topographic variability, suggest new research directions. These models should prove to be useful tools in predicting the presence of species in understudied areas.

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<![CDATA[Undergraduate Research Experiences in Biology: Alternatives to the Apprenticeship Model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5abba249463d7e237111a8b0 ]]> <![CDATA[Preserving residual renal function in dialysis patients: an update on evidence to assist clinical decision making]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ae6b093463d7e61d62f9c5e

It has been documented that preservation of residual renal function in dialysis patients improves quality of life as well as survival. Clinical trials on strategies to preserve residual renal function are clearly lacking. While waiting for more results from clinical trials, patients will benefit from clinicians being aware of available knowledge. The aim of this review was to offer an update on current evidence assisting doctors in clinical practice.

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<![CDATA[Rock Outcrops Redistribute Organic Carbon and Nutrients to Nearby Soil Patches in Three Karst Ecosystems in SW China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9efab0ee8fa60b6e007

Emergent rock outcrops are common in terrestrial ecosystems. However, little research has been conducted regarding their surface function in redistributing organic carbon and nutrient fluxes to soils nearby. Water that fell on and ran off 10 individual rock outcrops was collected in three 100 × 100 m plots within a rock desertification ecosystem, an anthropogenic forest ecosystem, and a secondary forest ecosystem between June 2013 and June 2014 in Shilin, SW China. The concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in the water samples were determined during three seasons, and the total amounts received by and flowing out from the outcrops were calculated. In all three ecosystems, TOC and N, P, and K were found throughout the year in both the water received by and delivered to nearby soil patches. Their concentrations and amounts were generally greater in forested ecosystems than in the rock desertification ecosystem. When rock outcrops constituted a high percentage (≥ 30%) of the ground surface, the annual export of rock outcrop runoff contributed a large amount of organic carbon and N, P, and K nutrients to soil patches nearby by comparison to the amount soil patches received via atmospheric deposition. These contributions may increase the spatial heterogeneity of soil fertility within patches, as rock outcrops of different sizes, morphologies, and emergence ratios may surround each soil patch.

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<![CDATA[Half and half nails]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ae6f2b0463d7e75b7192581 ]]> <![CDATA[Unique and redundant roles of class IA PI3Kinase regulatory subunits in mast cell development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ac98d3e463d7e1970057dd9 ]]>