ResearchPad - femur https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Ultrasound prediction of Zika virus-associated congenital injury using the profile of fetal growth]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13878 Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, recently linked to microcephaly and central nervous system anomalies following infection in pregnancy. Striking findings of disproportionate growth with a smaller than expected head relative to body length have been observed more commonly among fetuses with exposure to ZIKV in utero compared to pregnancies without ZIKV infection regardless of other signs of congenital infection including microcephaly. This study’s objective was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of femur-sparing profile of intrauterine growth restriction for the identification of ZIKV-associated congenital injuries on postnatal testing. A retrospective cohort study of pregnant women with possible or confirmed ZIKV infection between January 1, 2016 and December 31, 2017 were included. Subjects were excluded if no prenatal ultrasound was available. A femur-sparing profile of growth restriction determined using INTERGROWTH-21st sonographic standard for head circumference to femur length (HC: FL). Congenital injuries were determined postnatally by imaging, comprehensive eye exam and standard newborn hearing screen. A total of 111 pregnant women diagnosed with ZIKV infection underwent fetal ultrasound and 95 neonates had complete postnatal evaluation. Prenatal microcephaly was detected in 5% of fetuses (6/111). Postnatal testing detected ZIKV-associated congenital injuries in 25% of neonates (24/95). A HC: FL Z-score ≤ -1.3 had a 52% specificity (95% CI 41–63%), 82% negative predictive value (NPV, 95% CI 73–88%) for the detection of ZIKV-associated congenital injuries in the neonatal period. A more stringent threshold with a Z-score ≤ -2 was associated with a 90% specificity (95% CI 81–95%), 81% NPV (95% CI 77–85%). Excluding cases of fetal microcephaly, HC: FL (Z-score ≤ -2) demonstrated a similar specificity (89%, 95% CI 81–95%) with superior NPV (87%, 95% CI 84–90%). The sonographic recognition of a normally proportioned fetus may be useful prenatally to exclude a wider spectrum of ZIKV-associated congenital injuries detected postnatally.

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<![CDATA[Anatomy of the dinosaur Pampadromaeus barberenai (Saurischia—Sauropodomorpha) from the Late Triassic Santa Maria Formation of southern Brazil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe1bd5eed0c484e5b4e9

Sauropodomorphs are the most abundant and diverse clade of Triassic dinosaurs, but the taxonomy of their earliest (Carnian) representatives is still poorly understood. One such taxon is Pampadromaeus barberenai, represented by a nearly complete disarticulated skeleton recovered from the upper part of the Santa Maria Formation of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Here, the osteology of Pam. barberenai is fully described for the first time. Detailed comparisons with other Carnian sauropodomorphs reveal a unique anatomy, corroborating its status as a valid species. Potential autapomorphies of Pam. barberenai can be seen in the articulation of the sacral zygapophyses, the length of the pectoral epipodium, the shape of the distal articulation of the femur and the proximal articulation of metatarsal 1. A novel phylogenetic study shows that relationships among the Carnian sauropodomorphs are poorly constrained, possibly because they belong to a “zone of variability”, where homoplasy abounds. Yet, there is some evidence that Pam. barberenai may nest within Saturnaliidae, along with Saturnalia tupiniquim and Chromogisaurus novasi, which represents the sister group to the larger sauropodomorphs, i.e. Bagualosauria.

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<![CDATA[A new baby oviraptorid dinosaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous Nemegt Formation of Mongolia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648cf4d5eed0c484c81b9d

Recent discoveries of new oviraptorosaurs revealed their high diversity from the Cretaceous Period in Asia and North America. Particularly, at the family level, oviraptorids are among the most diverse theropod dinosaurs in the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia and China. A new oviraptorid dinosaur Gobiraptor minutus gen. et sp. nov. from the Upper Cretaceous Nemegt Formation is described here based on a single holotype specimen that includes incomplete cranial and postcranial elements. The most prominent characters of Gobiraptor are its thickened rostrodorsal end of the mandibular symphysis and a rudimentary lingual shelf on each side of the dentary. Each lingual shelf is lined with small occlusal foramina and demarcated by a weakly developed lingual ridge. This mandibular morphology of Gobiraptor is unique among oviraptorids and likely to be linked to a specialized diet that probably included hard materials, such as seeds or bivalves. The osteohistology of the femur of the holotype specimen indicates that the individual was fairly young at the time of its death. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Gobiraptor as a derived oviraptorid close to three taxa from the Ganzhou region in southern China, but rather distantly related to other Nemegt oviraptorids which, as the results of recent studies, are also not closely related to each other. Gobiraptor increases diversity of oviraptorids in the Nemegt Formation and its presence confirms the successful adaptation of oviraptorids to a mesic environment.

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<![CDATA[Minimal medical imaging can accurately reconstruct geometric bone models for musculoskeletal models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b26b8d5eed0c484289f10

Accurate representation of subject-specific bone anatomy in lower-limb musculoskeletal models is important for human movement analyses and simulations. Mathematical methods can reconstruct geometric bone models using incomplete imaging of bone by morphing bone model templates, but the validity of these methods has not been fully explored. The purpose of this study was to determine the minimal imaging requirements for accurate reconstruction of geometric bone models. Complete geometric pelvis and femur models of 14 healthy adults were reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging through segmentation. From each complete bone segmentation, three sets of incomplete segmentations (set 1 being the most incomplete) were created to test the effect of imaging incompleteness on reconstruction accuracy. Geometric bone models were reconstructed from complete sets, three incomplete sets, and two motion capture-based methods. Reconstructions from (in)complete sets were generated using statistical shape modelling, followed by host-mesh and local-mesh fitting through the Musculoskeletal Atlas Project Client. Reconstructions from motion capture-based methods used positional data from skin surface markers placed atop anatomic landmarks and estimated joint centre locations as target points for statistical shape modelling and linear scaling. Accuracy was evaluated with distance error (mm) and overlapping volume similarity (%) between complete bone segmentation and reconstructed bone models, and statistically compared using a repeated measure analysis of variance (p<0.05). Motion capture-based methods produced significantly higher distance error than reconstructions from (in)complete sets. Pelvis volume similarity reduced significantly with the level of incompleteness: complete set (92.70±1.92%), set 3 (85.41±1.99%), set 2 (81.22±3.03%), set 1 (62.30±6.17%), motion capture-based statistical shape modelling (41.18±9.54%), and motion capture-based linear scaling (26.80±7.19%). A similar trend was observed for femur volume similarity. Results indicate that imaging two relevant bone regions produces overlapping volume similarity >80% compared to complete segmented bone models, and improve analyses and simulation over current standard practice of linear scaling musculoskeletal models.

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<![CDATA[Towards a new osteometric method for sexing ancient cremated human remains. Analysis of Late Bronze Age and Iron Age samples from Italy with gendered grave goods]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b5248d5eed0c4842bc5ec

Sex estimation of human remains is one of the most important research steps for physical anthropologists and archaeologists dealing with funerary contexts and trying to reconstruct the demographic structure of ancient societies. However, it is well known that in the case of cremations sex assessment might be complicated by the destructive/transformative effect of the fire on bones. Osteometric standards built on unburned human remains and contemporary cremated series are often inadequate for the analysis of ancient cremations, and frequently result in a significant number of misclassifications. This work is an attempt to overcome the scarcity of methods that could be applied to pre-proto-historic Italy and serve as methodological comparison for other European contexts. A set of 24 anatomical traits were measured on 124 Bronze Age and Iron Age cremated individuals with clearly engendered grave goods. Assuming gender largely correlated to sex, male and female distributions of each individual trait measured were compared to evaluate sexual dimorphism through inferential statistics and Chaktaborty and Majumder’s index. The discriminatory power of each variable was evaluated by cross-validation tests. Eight variables yielded an accuracy equal to or greater than 80%. Four of these variables also show a similar degree of precision for both sexes. The most diagnostic measurements are from radius, patella, mandible, talus, femur, first metatarsal, lunate and humerus. Overall, the degree of sexual dimorphism and the reliability of estimates obtained from our series are similar to those of a modern cremated sample recorded by Gonçalves and collaborators. Nevertheless, mean values of the male and female distributions in our case study are lower, and the application of the cut-off point calculated from the modern sample to our ancient individuals produces a considerable number of misclassifications. This result confirms the need to build population-specific methods for sexing the cremated remains of ancient individuals.

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<![CDATA[The effect of haemorrhagic shock and resuscitation on fracture healing in a rabbit model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c686013d5eed0c4840207b3

Aims

Little is known about the effect of haemorrhagic shock and resuscitation on fracture healing. This study used a rabbit model with a femoral osteotomy and fixation to examine this relationship.

Materials and Methods

A total of 18 male New Zealand white rabbits underwent femoral osteotomy with intramedullary fixation with ‘shock’ (n = 9) and control (n = 9) groups. Shock was induced in the study group by removal of 35% of the total blood volume 45 minutes before resuscitation with blood and crystalloid. Fracture healing was monitored for eight weeks using serum markers of healing and radiographs.

Results

Four animals were excluded due to postoperative complications. The serum concentration of osteocalcin was significantly elevated in the shock group postoperatively (p < 0.0001). There were otherwise no differences with regard to serum markers of bone healing. The callus index was consistently increased in the shock group on anteroposterior (p = 0.0069) and lateral (p = 0.0165) radiographs from three weeks postoperatively. The control group showed an earlier decrease of callus index. Radiographic scores were significantly greater in the control group (p = 0.0025).

Conclusion

In a rabbit femoral osteotomy model with intramedullary fixation, haemorrhagic shock and resuscitation produced larger callus but with evidence of delayed remodelling.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:1234–40.

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<![CDATA[Light-dark rhythms during incubation of broiler chicken embryos and their effects on embryonic and post hatch leg bone development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e6cfd5eed0c484ef3e83

There are indications that lighting schedules applied during incubation can affect leg health at hatching and during rearing. The current experiment studied effects of lighting schedule: continuous light (24L), 12 hours of light, followed by 12 hours of darkness (12L:12D), or continuous darkness (24D) throughout incubation of broiler chicken eggs on the development and strength of leg bones, and the role of selected hormones in bone development. In the tibiatarsus and femur, growth and ossification during incubation and size and microstructure at day (D)0, D21, and D35 post hatching were measured. Plasma melatonin, growth hormone, and IGF-I were determined perinatally. Incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia, a leg pathology resulting from poor ossification at the bone’s epiphyseal plates, was determined at slaughter on D35. 24L resulted in lower embryonic ossification at embryonic day (E)13 and E14, and lower femur length, and lower tibiatarsus weight, length, cortical area, second moment of area around the minor axis, and mean cortical thickness at hatching on D0 compared to 12L:12D especially. Results were long term, with lower femur weight and tibiatarsus length, cortical and medullary area of the tibiatarsus, and second moment of area around the minor axis, and a higher incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia for 24L. Growth hormone at D0 was higher for 24D than for 12L:12D, with 24L intermediate, but plasma melatonin and IGF-I did not differ between treatments, and the role of plasma melatonin, IGF-I, and growth hormone in this process was therefore not clear. To conclude, in the current experiment, 24L during incubation of chicken eggs had a detrimental effect on embryonic leg bone development and later life leg bone strength compared to 24D and 12L:12D, while the light-dark rhythm of 12L:12D may have a stimulating effect on leg health.

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<![CDATA[Epidemiology of low-energy lower extremity fracture in Chinese populations aged 50 years and above]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c46657fd5eed0c484519799

This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of low-energy lower-extremity fracture in Chinese men and women aged 50 years and above. This study was a part of Chinese National Fracture Survey (CNFS), which used the stratified multistage cluster random sampling method to recruit subjects between January and May 2015. A total of 512187 individuals participated in the CNFS and of them there were 154099 men and women aged 50 years and above included in this study for data analysis. Low-energy fracture was defined as a fracture caused by slip, trip or fall from standing height. Univariate analyses and gender-based multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to identify the independent risk factors. A total of 215 patients had sustained low-energy lower extremity fractures in 2014, indicating the overall incidence was 139.5 (120.9 to 158.2) per 100000 persons, with 127.8 (102.5 to 153.1) and 151.1 (123.8 to 178.5) per 100000 person-year in men and women. Over 80% of fractures occurred at home and on the common road. In men, alcohol consumption (OR, 2.00; 95%CI, 1.29 to 3.08), sleep duration<7h/d (OR, 2.60; 95%CI, 1.68 to 4.03) and history of past fracture (OR, 2.57; 95%CI, 1.33 to 4.95) were identified as significant risk factors associated with low-energy fractures. In women, advanced age (80+ years) (OR, 3.22; 95%CI, 1.80 to 5.75), alcohol consumption(OR, 1.72; 95%CI, 1.00 to 2.98), sleep duration <7h/d (OR, 2.11; 95%CI, 1.40 to 3.18), and history of past fracture (OR, 3.46; 95%CI, 1.97 to 6.09) were identified as significant risk factors and living in western region (OR, 0.60; 95%CI, 0.38 to 0.94) and current weight of 50 to 59.9 kg (OR, 0.17; 95%CI, 0.04 to 0.73) were identified as protective factors for fractures. Accordingly, awareness on the importance of sleep and alcohol consumption on fragility fracture should be improved, and health policies that focus on decreasing alcohol consumption and encouraging individuals to improve their sleep quality and duration should be considered. Maintaining a healthy bodyweight for women should be specifically emphasized to prevent low-energy fractures.

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<![CDATA[Prenatal growth map of the mouse knee joint by means of deformable registration technique]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b7b3d5eed0c4844909ca

Joint morphogenesis is the process during which distinct and functional joint shapes emerge during pre- and post-natal joint development. In this study, a repeatable semi-automatic protocol capable of providing a 3D realistic developmental map of the prenatal mouse knee joint was designed by combining Optical Projection Tomography imaging (OPT) and a deformable registration algorithm (Sheffield Image Registration toolkit, ShIRT). Eleven left limbs of healthy murine embryos were scanned with OPT (voxel size: 14.63μm) at two different stages of development: Theiler stage (TS) 23 (approximately 14.5 embryonic days) and 24 (approximately 15.5 embryonic days). One TS23 limb was used to evaluate the precision of the displacement predictions for this specific case. The remaining limbs were then used to estimate Developmental Tibia and Femur Maps. Acceptable uncertainties of the displacement predictions computed from repeated images were found for both epiphyses (between 1.3μm and 1.4μm for the proximal tibia and between 0.7μm and 1.0μm for the femur, along all directions). The protocol was found to be reproducible with maximum Modified Housdorff Distance (MHD) differences equal to 1.9 μm and 1.5 μm for the tibial and femoral epiphyses respectively. The effect of the initial shape of the rudiment affected the developmental maps with MHD of 21.7 μm and 21.9 μm for the tibial and femoral epiphyses respectively, which correspond to 1.4 and 1.5 times the voxel size. To conclude, this study proposes a repeatable semi-automatic protocol capable of providing mean 3D realistic developmental map of a developing rudiment allowing researchers to study how growth and adaptation are directed by biological and mechanobiological factors.

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<![CDATA[Computational model for the patella onset]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1966c6d5eed0c484b52d75

The patella is a sesamoid bone embedded within the quadriceps tendon and the patellar tendon that articulates with the femur. However, how is it formed is still unknown. Therefore, here we have evaluated, computationally, how three theories explain, independently, the patella onset. The first theory was proposed recently, in 2015. This theory suggested that the patella is initially formed as a bone eminence, attached to the anterodistal surface of the femur, while the quadriceps tendon is forming. Thereafter, a joint develops between the eminence and the femur, regulated by mechanical load. We evaluated this theory by simulating the biochemical environment that surrounds the tendon development. As a result, we obtained a patella-like structure embedded within the tendon, especially for larger flexion angles. The second and third theories are the most accepted until now. They state that the patella develops within tendons in response to the mechanical environment provided by the attaching muscles. The second theory analyzed the mechanical conditions (high hydrostatic stress) that (according to previous Carter theories) lead to the differentiation from tendon to fibrocartilage, and then, to bone. The last theory was evaluated using the self-optimizing capability of biological tissue. It was considered that the development of the patella, due to tissue topological optimization of the developing quadriceps tendon, is a feasible explanation of the patella appearance. For both theories, a patella onset was obtained as a structure embedded within the tendon. This model provided information about the relationship between the flexion angle and the patella size and shape. In conclusion, the computational models used to evaluate and analyze the selected theories allow determining that the patella onset may be the result of a combination of biochemical and mechanical factors that surround the patellar tendon development.

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<![CDATA[Differential aging of growth plate cartilage underlies differences in bone length and thus helps determine skeletal proportions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b60363a463d7e4090b7ce28

Bones at different anatomical locations vary dramatically in size. For example, human femurs are 20-fold longer than the phalanges in the fingers and toes. The mechanisms responsible for these size differences are poorly understood. Bone elongation occurs at the growth plates and advances rapidly in early life but then progressively slows due to a developmental program termed “growth plate senescence.” This developmental program includes declines in cell proliferation and hypertrophy, depletion of cells in all growth plate zones, and extensive underlying changes in the expression of growth-regulating genes. Here, we show evidence that these functional, structural, and molecular senescent changes occur earlier in the growth plates of smaller bones (metacarpals, phalanges) than in the growth plates of larger bones (femurs, tibias) and that this differential aging contributes to the disparities in bone length. We also show evidence that the molecular mechanisms that underlie the differential aging between different bones involve modulation of critical paracrine regulatory pathways, including insulin-like growth factor (Igf), bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp), and Wingless and Int-1 (Wnt) signaling. Taken together, the findings reveal that the striking disparities in the lengths of different bones, which characterize normal mammalian skeletal proportions, is achieved in part by modulating the progression of growth plate senescence.

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<![CDATA[Cryptic, Sympatric Diversity in Tegu Lizards of the Tupinambis teguixin Group (Squamata, Sauria, Teiidae) and the Description of Three New Species]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadbab0ee8fa60bb9ce7

Tegus of the genera Tupinambis and Salvator are the largest Neotropical lizards and the most exploited clade of Neotropical reptiles. For three decades more than 34 million tegu skins were in trade, about 1.02 million per year. The genus Tupinambis is distributed in South America east of the Andes, and currently contains four recognized species, three of which are found only in Brazil. However, the type species of the genus, T. teguixin, is known from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela (including the Isla de Margarita). Here we present molecular and morphological evidence that this species is genetically divergent across its range and identify four distinct clades some of which are sympatric. The occurrence of cryptic sympatric species undoubtedly exacerbated the nomenclatural problems of the past. We discuss the species supported by molecular and morphological evidence and increase the number of species in the genus Tupinambis to seven. The four members of the T. teguixin group continue to be confused with Salvator merianae, despite having a distinctly different morphology and reproductive mode. All members of the genus Tupinambis are CITES Appendix II. Yet, they continue to be heavily exploited, under studied, and confused in the minds of the public, conservationists, and scientists.

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<![CDATA[The Effects on the Femoral Cortex of a 24 Month Treatment Compared to an 18 Month Treatment with Teriparatide: A Multi-Trial Retrospective Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db42ab0ee8fa60bd7372

Background

Teriparatide (TPTD) is an anabolic agent indicated for the treatment of severely osteoporotic patients who are at high risk of fragility fractures. The originally approved duration of TPTD treatment in several regions, including Europe, was 18 months. However, studies of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) showed additional benefit when treatment is continued beyond 18 months, and the drug is currently licenced for 24 months. Improvements in cortical structure at the proximal femur have already been shown in patients given TPTD for 24 months using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Here, we investigate whether cortical and endocortical trabecular changes differ between an 18- and 24-month treatment.

Methods

Since an 18- versus 24-month TPTD study using QCT has not been conducted, we studied combined QCT data from four previous clinical trials. Combined femoral QCT data from three 18-month TPTD studies (‘18-month group’) were compared with data from a fourth 24-month trial (‘24-month group’). Cortical parameters were measured over the entire proximal femur which allowed for a comparison of the mean changes as well as a visual comparison of the colour maps of changes after 18 and 24 months TPTD.

Results

For both the combined 18-month group and the 24-month group, overall cortical thickness and endocortical trabecular density increased, while overall cortical bone mineral density decreased. While the changes in the 24-month group were of greater magnitude compared to the 18-month group, the differences were only significant for the endocortical trabecular density (ECTD), corrected for age, weight, femoral neck T-score, total hip T-score and the baseline mean ECTD.

Conclusion

Although the combination of data from different clinical trials is not optimal, these data support the concept that the duration of TPTD in the 18–24 month phase is of clinical relevance when considering improvement in hip structure.

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<![CDATA[Differential Effects of Dietary Fat Content and Protein Source on Bone Phenotype and Fatty Acid Oxidation in Female C57Bl/6 Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da2cab0ee8fa60b82b8c

Background

Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a 64-amino acid glycophosphopeptide released from κ-casein during cheesemaking that promotes satiety, reduces body fat, increases bone mass and infers prebiotic and anti-inflammatory effects. The impact of adiposity and gender on bone health is unclear.

Objective

To determine how feeding female mice diets providing 60% Fat Kcal (high-fat) or 13% Fat Kcal (control) with either GMP or casein as the protein source impacts: body composition, ex vivo fatty acid oxidation, bone (femoral) biomechanical performance, and the relationship between body composition and bone.

Methods

Weanling female C57Bl/6 mice were fed high-fat (60% Fat Kcal) or control diets (13% Fat Kcal) with GMP or casein from 3 to 32 weeks of age with assessment of body weight and food intake. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Fatty acid oxidation was measured in liver, muscle, and fat tissues using 14C-palmitate. Plasma concentrations of hormones and cytokines were determined. Bone biomechanical performance was assessed by the 3-point bending test.

Results

Female mice fed high-fat diets showed increased fatty acid oxidation capacity in both gastrocnemius muscle and brown adipose tissue compared to mice fed the control diets with a lower fat content. Despite increased fat mass in mice fed the high-fat diets, there was little evidence of glucose impairment or inflammation. Mice fed the high-fat diets had significantly greater total body bone mineral density (BMD), femoral BMD, and femoral cross-sectional area than mice fed the control diets. Femora of mice fed the high-fat diets had increased yield load and maximum load before fracture, consistent with greater bone strength, but reduced post-yield displacement or ductility, consistent with bone brittleness. Female mice fed a high-fat GMP diet displayed increased fat oxidation capacity in subcutaneous fat relative to mice fed the high-fat casein diet. Regardless of dietary fat content, GMP increased total body bone mineral content and femur length. The prebiotic properties of GMP may mediate the beneficial effects of GMP on bone.

Conclusions

Female mice adapt to high-fat feeding by increasing oxidative capacity in muscle tissue and to a lesser extent brown adipose tissue. High-fat feeding in female mice leads to development of a bone phenotype where femora show increased BMD and are stronger, yet more brittle. The increased brittleness of bone was associated with increased body fat content due to high-fat feeding. In summary, high-fat feeding in female mice increases mineralization of bone, but negatively impacts bone quality resulting in brittle bones.

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<![CDATA[Biomechanical Characteristics of Osteoporotic Fracture Healing in Ovariectomized Rats: A Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9ebab0ee8fa60b6c971

Biomechanical tests are widely used in animal studies on osteoporotic fracture healing. However, the biomechanical recovery process is still unknown, leading to difficulty in choosing time points for biomechanical tests and in correctly assessing osteoporotic fracture healing. To determine the biomechanical recovery process during osteoporotic fracture healing, studies on osteoporotic femur fracture healing with biomechanical tests in ovariectomized rat (OVX) models were collected from PUBMED, EMBASE, and Chinese databases. Quadratic curves of fracture healing time and maximum load were fitted with data from the analyzed studies. In the fitted curve for normal fractures, the predicted maximum load was 145.56 N, and the fracture healing time was 88.0 d. In the fitted curve for osteoporotic fractures, the predicted maximum load was 122.30 N, and the fracture healing time was 95.2 d. The maximum load of fractured femurs in OVX rats was also lower than that in sham rats at day 84 post-fracture (D84 PF). The fracture healing time was prolonged and maximum load at D84 PF decreased in OVX rats with closed fractures. The maximum load of Wister rats was higher than that of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, but the fracture healing time of SD and Wister rats was similar. Osteoporotic fracture healing was delayed in rats that were < = 12 weeks old when ovariectomized, and at D84 PF, the maximum load of rats < = 12 weeks old at ovariectomy was lower than that of rats >12 weeks old at ovariectomy. There was no significant difference in maximum load at D84 PF between rats with an osteoporosis modeling time <12 weeks and > = 12 weeks. In conclusion, fracture healing was delayed and biomechanical property decreased by osteoporosis. Time points around D95.2 PF should be considered for biomechanical tests of osteoporotic femur fracture healing in OVX rat models. Osteoporotic fracture healing in OVX rats was affected by the fracture type but not by the strain of the rat.

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<![CDATA[Novel insight into the origin of the growth dynamics of sauropod dinosaurs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be1254

Sauropod dinosaurs include the largest terrestrial animals and are considered to have uninterrupted rapid rates of growth, which differs from their more basal relatives, which have a slower cyclical growth. Here we examine the bone microstructure of several sauropodomorph dinosaurs, including basal taxa, as well as the more derived sauropods. Although our results agree that the plesiomorphic condition for Sauropodomorpha is cyclical growth dynamics, we found that the hypothesized dichotomy between the growth patterns of basal and more derived sauropodomorphs is not supported. Here, we show that sauropod-like growth dynamics of uninterrupted rapid growth also occurred in some basal sauropodomorphs, and that some basal sauropods retained the plesiomorphic cyclical growth patterns. Among the sauropodomorpha it appears that the basal taxa exploited different growth strategies, but the more derived Eusauropoda successfully utilized rapid, uninterrupted growth strategies.

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<![CDATA[Pleistocene Hominins as a Resource for Carnivores: A c. 500,000-Year-Old Human Femur Bearing Tooth-Marks in North Africa (Thomas Quarry I, Morocco)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da6bab0ee8fa60b92d56

In many Middle Pleistocene sites, the co-occurrence of hominins with carnivores, who both contributed to faunal accumulations, suggests competition for resources as well as for living spaces. Despite this, there is very little evidence of direct interaction between them to-date. Recently, a human femoral diaphysis has been recognized in South-West of Casablanca (Morocco), in the locality called Thomas Quarry I. This site is famous for its Middle Pleistocene fossil hominins considered representatives of Homo rhodesiensis. The bone was discovered in Unit 4 of the Grotte à Hominidés (GH), dated to c. 500 ky and was associated with Acheulean artefacts and a rich mammalian fauna. Anatomically, it fits well within the group of known early Middle Pleistocene Homo, but its chief point of interest is that the diaphyseal ends display numerous tooth marks showing that it had been consumed shortly after death by a large carnivore, probably a hyena. This bone represents the first evidence of consumption of human remains by carnivores in the cave. Whether predated or scavenged, this chewed femur indicates that humans were a resource for carnivores, underlining their close relationships during the Middle Pleistocene in Atlantic Morocco.

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<![CDATA[The Transcription Factor Hand1 Is Involved In Runx2-Ihh-Regulated Endochondral Ossification]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da27ab0ee8fa60b80ecf

The developing long bone is a model of endochondral ossification that displays the morphological layers of chondrocytes toward the ossification center of the diaphysis. Indian hedgehog (Ihh), a member of the hedgehog family of secreted molecules, regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, as well as osteoblast differentiation, through the process of endochondral ossification. Here, we report that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Hand1, which is expressed in the cartilage primordia, is involved in proper osteogenesis of the bone collar via its control of Ihh production. Genetic overexpression of Hand1 in the osteochondral progenitors resulted in prenatal hypoplastic or aplastic ossification in the diaphyses, mimicking an Ihh loss-of-function phenotype. Ihh expression was downregulated in femur epiphyses of Hand1-overexpressing mice. We also confirmed that Hand1 downregulated Ihh gene expression in vitro by inhibiting Runx2 transactivation of the Ihh proximal promoter. These results demonstrate that Hand1 in chondrocytes regulates endochondral ossification, at least in part through the Runx2-Ihh axis.

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<![CDATA[Characterization of interfragmentary motion associated with common osteosynthesis devices for rat fracture healing studies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db59ab0ee8fa60bdf14f

Rat models are widely used in preclinical studies investigating fracture healing. The interfragmentary movement at a fracture site is critical to the course of healing and therefore demands definition in order to aptly interpret the experimental results. Estimation of this movement requires knowledge of the fixation stiffness and loading. The characteristic loading for the rat femur has been estimated, but the stiffness of fixation used in rat studies has yet to be fully described. This study aimed to determine the 6 degree of freedom stiffness of four commonly used implants, two external fixators (RatExFix and UlmExFix), a locking plate, and a locking intramedullary nail, in all degrees of freedom and estimate the interfragmentary movement under specific physiological loads. The external fixator systems allow the greatest movement. Mounted 45° anterolateral on the femur, the RatExFix allows an average of 0.88 mm of motion in each anatomic direction while the stiffer UlmExFix allows about 0.6 mm of motion. The nail is far stiffer than the other implants investigated while the plate allows movement of an intermediate magnitude. Both the nail and plate demonstrate higher axial than shear stiffness. The relatively large standard deviations in external fixator shear motion imply strong dependence on bone axis alignment across the gap and the precise orientation of the specimen relative to the loading. The smaller standard deviation associated with the nail and plate results from improved alignment and minimization of the influence of rotational positioning of the specimen due to the reduced implant eccentricity relative to the specimen axis. These results show that the interfragmentary movement is complex and varies significantly between fixation devices but establishes a baseline for the evaluation of the results of different studies.

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<![CDATA[Queen Nefertari, the Royal Spouse of Pharaoh Ramses II: A Multidisciplinary Investigation of the Mummified Remains Found in Her Tomb (QV66)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da2cab0ee8fa60b82d5c

Queen Nefertari, the favourite Royal Consort of Pharaoh Ramses II (Ancient Egypt, New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty c. 1250 BC) is famous for her beautifully decorated tomb in the Valley of the Queens. Her burial was plundered in ancient times yet still many objects were found broken in the debris when the tomb was excavated. Amongst the found objects was a pair of mummified legs. They came to the Egyptian Museum in Turin and are henceforth regarded as the remains of this famous Queen, although they were never scientifically investigated. The following multidisciplinary investigation is the first ever performed on those remains. The results (radiocarbon dating, anthropology, paleopathology, genetics, chemistry and Egyptology) all strongly speak in favour of an identification of the remains as Nefertari’s, although different explanations—albeit less likely—are considered and discussed. The legs probably belong to a lady, a fully adult individual, of about 40 years of age. The materials used for embalming are consistent with Ramesside mummification traditions and indeed all objects within the tomb robustly support the burial as of Queen Nefertari.

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