ResearchPad - fibromyalgia https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Reduces Movement‐Evoked Pain and Fatigue: A Randomized, Controlled Trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7347 Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by pain and fatigue, particularly during physical activity. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) activates endogenous pain inhibitory mechanisms. This study was undertaken to investigate if using TENS during activity would improve movement‐evoked pain and other patient‐reported outcomes in women with FM.MethodsParticipants were randomly assigned to receive active TENS (n = 103), placebo TENS (n = 99), or no TENS (n = 99) and instructed to use it at home during activity 2 hours each day for 4 weeks. TENS was applied to the lumbar and cervicothoracic regions using a modulated frequency (2–125 Hz) at the highest tolerable intensity. Participants rated movement‐evoked pain (primary outcome measure) and fatigue on an 11‐point scale before and during application of TENS. The primary outcome measure and secondary patient‐reported outcomes were assessed at baseline (time of randomization) and at 4 weeks.ResultsAfter 4 weeks, a greater reduction in movement‐evoked pain was reported in the active TENS group versus the placebo TENS group (group mean difference –1.0 [95% confidence interval –1.8, –0.2]; P = 0.008) and versus the no TENS group (group mean difference –1.8 [95% confidence interval –2.6, –1.0]; P < 0.0001). A reduction in movement‐evoked fatigue was also reported in the active TENS group versus the placebo TENS group (group mean difference –1.4 [95% confidence interval –2.4, –0.4]; P = 0.001) and versus the no TENS group (group mean difference –1.9 [95% confidence interval –2.9, –0.9]; P = <0.0001). A greater percentage of the patients in the active TENS group reported improvement on the global impression of change compared to the placebo TENS group (70% versus 31%; P < 0.0001) and the no TENS group (9%; P < 0.0001). There were no TENS‐related serious adverse events, and <5% of participants experienced minor adverse events from TENS.ConclusionAmong women who had FM and were on a stable medication regimen, 4 weeks of active TENS use compared to placebo TENS or no TENS resulted in a significant improvement in movement‐evoked pain and other clinical outcomes. Further research is needed to examine effectiveness in a real‐world setting to establish the clinical importance of these findings. ]]> <![CDATA[Does aerobic exercise associated with tryptophan supplementation attenuates hyperalgesia and inflammation in female rats with experimental fibromyalgia?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fddfd5eed0c484e5afa2

The objective of this study was to verify the effects of aerobic exercise associated with tryptophan (TRP) supplementation on hyperalgesia, as well as on cortisol, IL-6 and TNF concentrations in female rats with experimental fibromyalgia (FM). Female Wistar rats (initial body weight: ~ 350 g; age: 12 months) were randomly divided into 5 groups: CON (Control); F (Fibromyalgia induced); FE (Fibromyalgia induced plus exercise); FES (Fibromyalgia induced plus exercise and TRP supplementation) and FS (Fibromyalgia induced plus TRP supplementation). Fibromyalgia was induced with two injections (20 μL) of acidic saline (pH 4.0) into the right gastrocnemius muscle with a 3-day interval. Control animals received the same doses of neutral saline (pH 7.4). The exercised animals underwent progressive low-intensity aerobic exercise (LIAE) on a treadmill (10–12 m/min, 30–45 min/day, 5 days/week) for three weeks. During this period, the supplemented animals received a TRP supplemented diet (210 g/week), while the others received a control diet. Mechanical hyperalgesia was evaluated weekly and serum cortisol and muscle IL-6 and TNF concentrations were assessed after three weeks of interventions. Experimental FM caused bilateral hind paw hyperalgesia and augmented serum cortisol and muscle IL-6 concentrations. After 3 weeks of interventions, LIAE alone reduced hyperalgesia (151%) and reduced serum cortisol concentrations (72%). Tryptophan supplementation itself diminished hyperalgesia (57%) and reduced serum cortisol concentrations (67%). Adding TRP supplementation to LIAE did not further reduce hyperalgesia significantly (11%), which was followed by an important decrease in muscle IL-6 concentrations (68%), though reduction in serum cortisol pulled back to 45%. Muscle TNF concentrations were not affected. In conclusion, the association of TRP supplementation to LIAE does not potentiate significantly the reduction of bilateral mechanical hyperalgesia promoted by LIAE in female rats with experimental FM, however an important decrease in IL-6 is evident.

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<![CDATA[Cost-effectiveness of interventions for medically unexplained symptoms: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bce3d3440307c69b197f507

Background

In primary and secondary care medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) or functional somatic syndromes (FSS) constitute a major burden for patients and society with high healthcare costs and societal costs. Objectives were to provide an overview of the evidence regarding the cost-effectiveness of interventions for MUS or FSS, and to assess the quality of these studies.

Methods

We searched the databases PubMed, PsycINFO, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS-EED) and the CEA registry to conduct a systematic review. Articles with full economic evaluations on interventions focusing on adult patients with undifferentiated MUS or fibromyalgia (FM), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), with no restrictions on comparators, published until 15 June 2018, were included. We excluded preventive interventions. Two reviewers independently extracted study characteristics and cost-effectiveness data and used the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria Checklist to appraise the methodological quality.

Results

A total of 39 studies out of 1,613 articles met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-two studies reported costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained and cost-utility analyses (CUAs). In 13 CUAs the intervention conditions dominated the control conditions or had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio below the willingness-to-pay threshold of € 50,000 per QALY, meaning that the interventions were (on average) cost-effective in comparison with the control condition. Group interventions focusing on MUS (n = 3) or FM (n = 4) might be more cost-effective than individual interventions. The included studies were heterogeneous with regard to the included patients, interventions, study design, and outcomes.

Conclusion

This review provides an overview of 39 included studies of interventions for patients with MUS and FSS and the methodological quality of these studies. Considering the limited comparability due to the heterogeneity of the studies, group interventions might be more cost-effective than individual interventions.

Registration

Study methods were documented in an international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO) protocol, registration number: CRD42017060424.

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<![CDATA[Cerebral blood flow variability in fibromyalgia syndrome: Relationships with emotional, clinical and functional variables]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0e9898d5eed0c484eaae27

Objective

This study analyzed variability in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) and its association with emotional, clinical and functional variables and medication use in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS).

Methods

Using transcranial Doppler sonography, CBFV were bilaterally recorded in the anterior (ACA) and middle (MCA) cerebral arteries of 44 FMS patients and 31 healthy individuals during a 5-min resting period. Participants also completed questionnaires assessing pain, fatigue, insomnia, anxiety, depression and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).

Results

Fast Fourier transformation revealed a spectral profile with four components: (1) a first very low frequency (VLF) component with the highest amplitude at 0.0024 Hz; (2) a second VLF component around 0.01-to-0.025 Hz; (3) a low frequency (LF) component from 0.075-to-0.11 Hz; and (4) a high frequency (HF) component with the lowest amplitude from 0.25-to-0.35 Hz. Compared to controls, FMS patients exhibited lower LF and HF CBFV variability in the MCAs (p < .005) and right ACA (p = .03), but higher variability at the first right MCA (p = .04) and left ACA (p = .005) VLF components. Emotional, clinical and functional variables were inversely related to LF and HF CBFV variability (r≥-.24, p≤.05). However, associations for the first VLF component were positive (r≥.28, p≤.05). While patients´ medication use was associated with lower CBFV variability, comorbid depression and anxiety disorders were unrelated to variability.

Conclusions

Lower CBFV variability in the LF and HF ranges were observed in FMS, suggesting impaired coordination of cerebral regulatory systems. CBFV variability was differentially associated with clinical variables as a function of time-scale, with short-term variability being related to better clinical outcomes. CBFV variability analysis may be a promising tool to characterize FMS pathology and it impact on facets of HRQoL.

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<![CDATA[Association between fibromyalgia syndrome and peptic ulcer disease development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc1ab

Purpose

The correlation of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is unclear. We therefore conducted a cohort study to investigate whether FMS is correlated with an increased risk of PUD.

Methods

In this study, we established an FMS cohort comprising 26068 patients aged more than 20 years who were diagnosed with FMS from 2000 to 2011. Furthermore, we established a control cohort by randomly choosing 104269 people without FMS who were matched to the FMS patients by gender, age, and index year. All patients were free of PUD at the baseline. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed to compute the hazard ratio of PUD after adjustment for demographic characteristics and comorbidities.

Results

The prevalence of comorbidities was significantly higher in the FMS patients than in the controls. The incidence of PUD was 29.8 and 19.4 per 1000 person-years in the FMS and control cohorts, respectively. In addition, the FMS cohort exhibited a 1.40-fold higher risk of PUD (95% confidence interval = 1.35–1.45) compared with the control cohort. After control for confounding factors, the medications (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and antidepressants) taken by the FMS patients did not increase the risk of PUD.

Conclusion

FMS patients exhibit a higher risk of PUD than that of patients without FMS.

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<![CDATA[Subjects with Knee Osteoarthritis Exhibit Widespread Hyperalgesia to Pressure and Cold]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7fab0ee8fa60b99f99

Hyperalgesia to mechanical and thermal stimuli are characteristics of a range of disorders such as tennis elbow, whiplash and fibromyalgia. This study evaluated the presence of local and widespread mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in individuals with knee osteoarthritis, compared to healthy control subjects. Twenty-three subjects with knee osteoarthritis and 23 healthy controls, matched for age, gender and body mass index, were recruited for the study. Volunteers with any additional chronic pain conditions were excluded. Pain thresholds to pressure, cold and heat were tested at the knee, ipsilateral heel and ipsilateral elbow, in randomized order, using standardised methodology. Significant between-groups differences for pressure pain and cold pain thresholds were found with osteoarthritic subjects demonstrating significantly increased sensitivity to both pressure (p = .018) and cold (p = .003) stimuli, compared with controls. A similar pattern of results extended to the pain-free ipsilateral ankle and elbow indicating widespread pressure and cold hyperalgesia. No significant differences were found between groups for heat pain threshold, although correlations showed that subjects with greater sensitivity to pressure pain were also likely to be more sensitive to both cold pain and heat pain. This study found widespread elevated pain thresholds in subjects with painful knee osteoarthritis, suggesting that altered nociceptive system processing may play a role in ongoing arthritic pain for some patients.

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<![CDATA[Augmented Pain Processing in Primary and Secondary Somatosensory Cortex in Fibromyalgia: A Magnetoencephalography Study Using Intra-Epidermal Electrical Stimulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db25ab0ee8fa60bd0333

The aim of this study was to investigate augmented pain processing in the cortical somatosensory system in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Cortical evoked responses were recorded in FM (n = 19) and healthy subjects (n = 21) using magnetoencephalography after noxious intra-epidermal electrical stimulation (IES) of the hand dorsum (pain rating 6 on a numeric rating scale, perceptually-equivalent). In addition, healthy subjects were stimulated using the amplitude corresponding to the average stimulus intensity rated 6 in patients with FM (intensity-equivalent). Quantitative sensory testing was performed on the hand dorsum or thenar muscle (neutral site) and over the trapezius muscle (tender point), using IES (thresholds, ratings, temporal summation of pain, stimulus-response curve) and mechanical stimuli (threshold, ratings). Increased amplitude of cortical responses was found in patients with FM as compared to healthy subjects. These included the contralateral primary (S1) and bilateral secondary somatosensory cortices (S2) in response to intensity-equivalent stimuli and the contralateral S1 and S2 in response to perceptually-equivalent stimuli. The amplitude of the contralateral S2 response in patients with FM was positively correlated with average pain intensity over the last week. Quantitative sensory testing results showed that patients with FM were more sensitive to painful IES as well as to mechanical stimulation, regardless of whether the stimulation site was the hand or the trapezius muscle. Interestingly, the slope of the stimulus-response relationship as well as temporal summation of pain in response to IES was not different between groups. Together, these results suggest that the observed pain augmentation in response to IES in patients with FM could be due to sensitization or disinhibition of the cortical somatosensory system. Since the S2 has been shown to play a role in higher-order functions, further studies are needed to clarify the role of augmented S2 response in clinical characteristics of FM.

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<![CDATA[A review of patient and carer participation and the use of qualitative research in the development of core outcome sets]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbf2f

Background

To be meaningful, a core outcome set (COS) should be relevant to all stakeholders including patients and carers. This review aimed to explore the methods by which patients and carers have been included as participants in COS development exercises and, in particular, the use and reporting of qualitative methods.

Methods

In August 2015, a search of the Core Outcomes Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) database was undertaken to identify papers involving patients and carers in COS development. Data were extracted to identify the data collection methods used in COS development, the number of health professionals, patients and carers participating in these, and the reported details of qualitative research undertaken.

Results

Fifty-nine papers reporting patient and carer participation were included in the review, ten of which reported using qualitative methods. Although patients and carers participated in outcome elicitation for inclusion in COS processes, health professionals tended to dominate the prioritisation exercises. Of the ten qualitative papers, only three were reported as a clear pre-designed part of a COS process. Qualitative data were collected using interviews, focus groups or a combination of these. None of the qualitative papers reported an underpinning methodological framework and details regarding data saturation, reflexivity and resource use associated with data collection were often poorly reported. Five papers reported difficulty in achieving a diverse sample of participants and two reported that a large and varied range of outcomes were often identified by participants making subsequent rating and ranking difficult.

Conclusions

Consideration of the best way to include patients and carers throughout the COS development process is needed. Additionally, further work is required to assess the potential role of qualitative methods in COS, to explore the knowledge produced by different qualitative data collection methods, and to evaluate the time and resources required to incorporate qualitative methods into COS development.

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<![CDATA[Fibromyalgia Is Correlated with Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thinning]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e1ab0ee8fa60b69cea

Objective

To investigate whether fibromyalgia induces axonal damage in the optic nerve that can be detected using optical coherence tomography (OCT), as the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) is atrophied in patients with fibromyalgia compared with controls.

Methods

Fibromyalgia patients (n = 116) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 144) were included in this observational and prospective cohort study. All subjects underwent visual acuity measurement and structural analysis of the RNFL using two OCT devices (Cirrus and Spectralis). Fibromyalgia patients were evaluated according to Giesecke’s fibromyalgia subgroups, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), and the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ5D) scale. We compared the differences between fibromyalgia patients and controls, and analyzed the correlations between OCT measurements, disease duration, fibromyalgia subgroups, severity, and quality of life. The impact on quality of life in fibromyalgia subgroups and in patients with different disease severity was also analyzed.

Results

A significant decrease in the RNFL was detected in fibromyalgia patients compared with controls using the two OCT devices: Cirrus OCT ganglion cell layer analysis registered a significant decrease in the minimum thickness of the inner plexiform layer (74.99±16.63 vs 79.36±3.38 μm, respectively; p = 0.023), nasal inferior, temporal inferior and temporal superior sectors (p = 0.040; 0.011 and 0.046 respectively). The Glaucoma application of the Spectralis OCT revealed thinning in the nasal, temporal inferior and temporal superior sectors (p = 0.009, 0.006, and 0.002 respectively) of fibromyalgia patients and the Axonal application in all sectors, except the nasal superior and temporal sectors. The odds ratio (OR) to estimate the size effect of FM in RNFL thickness was 1.39. RNFL atrophy was detected in patients with FIQ scores <60 (patients in early disease stages) compared with controls in the temporal inferior sector (78.74±17.75 vs 81.65±3.61; p = 0.020) and the temporal superior sector (78.20±14.50 vs 80.74±3.88; p = 0.039) with Cirrus OCT; in the temporal inferior sector (145.85±24.32 vs 150.18±19.71; p = 0.012) and temporal superior sector (131.54±20.53 vs 138.13±16.67; p = 0.002) with the Glaucoma application of the Spectralis OCT; and in all sectors, except the average, nasal superior, and temporal sectors, and parameters with the Axonal application of the Spectralis OCT. Temporal inferior RNFL thickness was significantly reduced in patients with severe fibromyalgia (FIQ≥60) compared with patients with mild fibromyalgia (FIQ<60; 145.85±24.32 vs 138.99±18.09 μm, respectively; 145.43±13.21 vs 139.85±13.09 μm, p = 0.032 with the Glaucoma application and p = 0.021 with the Axonal application). The subgroup with biologic fibromyalgia exhibited significant thinning in the temporal inferior and superior sectors (115.17±20.82 μm and 117.05±24.19 μm, respectively) compared with the depressive (130.83±22.97 μm and 127.71±26.10 μm, respectively) and atypical (128.60±26.54 μm and 125.55±23.65 μm, respectively) subgroups (p = 0.005 and 0.001 respectively).

Conclusions

Fibromyalgia causes subclinical axonal damage in the RNFL that can be detected using innocuous and non-invasive OCT, even in the early disease stages. The impact on the RNFL in the temporal sectors is greater in patients with biologic fibromyalgia, suggesting the presence of neurodegenerative processes in this subgroup of patients with fibromyalgia.

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<![CDATA[Co-occurrence of Pain Symptoms and Somatosensory Sensitivity in Burning Mouth Syndrome: A Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf7ab0ee8fa60bc3437

Background

Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic and spontaneous oral pain with burning quality in the tongue or other oral mucosa without any identifiable oral lesion or laboratory finding. Pathogenesis and etiology of BMS are still unknown. However, BMS has been associated with other chronic pain syndromes including other idiopathic orofacial pain, the dynias group and the family of central sensitivity syndromes. This would imply that BMS shares common mechanisms with other cephalic and/or extracephalic chronic pains. The primary aim of this systematic review was to determine whether BMS is actually associated with other pain syndromes, and to analyze cephalic and extracephalic somatosensory sensitivity in these patients.

Methods

This report followed the PRISMA Statement. An electronic search was performed until January 2015 in PubMed, Cochrane library, Wiley and ScienceDirect. Searched terms included “burning mouth syndrome OR stomatodynia OR glossodynia OR burning tongue OR oral burning”. Studies were selected according to predefined inclusion criteria (report of an association between BMS and other pain(s) symptoms or of cutaneous cephalic and/or extracephalic quantitative sensory testing in BMS patients), and a descriptive analysis conducted.

Results

The search retrieved 1512 reports. Out of these, twelve articles met criteria for co-occurring pain symptoms and nine studies for quantitative sensory testing (QST) in BMS patients. The analysis reveals that in BMS patients co-occurring pain symptoms are rare, assessed by only 0.8% (12 of 1512) of the retrieved studies. BMS was associated with headaches, TMD, atypical facial pain, trigeminal neuralgia, post-herpetic facial pain, back pain, fibromyalgia, joint pain, abdominal pain, rectal pain or vulvodynia. However, the prevalence of pain symptoms in BMS patients is not different from that in the age-matched general population. QST studies reveal no or inconsistent evidence of abnormal cutaneous cephalic and extracephalic somatosensory sensitivity.

Conclusions

There is no evidence for a high rate of other pain symptoms or somatosensory impairments co-occurring with BMS. These results thus suggest that BMS rather depends on specific mechanisms, likely at the trigeminal level. Nevertheless, more thoroughly conducted research is required to draw definitive conclusion.

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<![CDATA[The degree of cardiac baroreflex involvement during active standing is associated with the quality of life in fibromyalgia patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be108a

Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a rheumatologic disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain, fatigue and other symptoms. Baroreflex dysfunction has been observed in women with FMS. However, it is unknown whether the limited involvement of the baroreflex control during an orthostatic stimulus has some impact on the quality of life of the FMS patient. Therefore, the aim of the study is evaluate the relationship between the quality of life of the FMS patient and indexes of the cardiovascular autonomic control as estimated from spontaneous fluctuations of heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP). We enrolled 35 women with FMS (age: 48.8±8.9 years; body mass index: 29.3±4.3 Kg/m2). The electrocardiogram, non-invasive finger blood pressure and respiratory activity were continuously recorded during 15 minutes at rest in supine position (REST) and in orthostatic position during active standing (STAND). Traditional cardiovascular autonomic control markers were assessed along with a Granger causality index assessing the strength of the causal relation from SAP to HP (CRSAP→HP) and measuring the degree of involvement of the cardiac baroreflex. The impact of FMS on quality of life was quantified by the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ) and visual analog score for pain (VAS pain). No significant linear association was found between FIQ scores and the traditional cardiovascular indexes both at REST and during STAND (p>0.05). However, a negative relationship between CRSAP→HP during STAND and FIQ score was found (r = -0.56, p<0.01). Similar results were found with VAS pain. In conclusion, the lower the degree of cardiac baroreflex involvement during STAND in women with FMS, the higher the impact of FMS on the quality of life, thus suggesting that Granger causality analysis might be clinically helpful in assessing the state of the FMS patient.

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<![CDATA[Effect of acute pancreatitis on the risk of developing osteoporosis: A nationwide cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5eab0ee8fa60be0aa8

Purpose

Chronic exocrine pancreatic insufficiency can lead to osteoporosis. However, the incidence and risk of osteoporosis after acute inflammation of pancreas remained known. Thus, we conducted a population-based cohort study to clarify the association between acute pancreatitis (AP) and osteoporosis.

Methods

Patients newly diagnosed with AP with index date between 2000 and 2011 were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Osteoporosis were defined according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. We applied age-, sex-, and comorbidities-adjusted variable Cox proportional hazard models for assessing the association between AP and osteoporosis. Moreover, these models were used to adjust for the influences of patient characteristics and comorbidities.

Results

In this study, 4,016 patients were included in the AP cohort (males, 67.9%; mean age, 51.8 years) and 4,016 matched controls in the non-AP cohort. After a mean follow-up period of 4.97 and 5.21 years in the AP and non-AP cohorts, respectively, the incidence of osteoporosis was 8.22 per 1000 person-years in the AP cohort. The AP cohort had a higher risk [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02–1.58] of osteoporosis than did the non-AP cohort. The risk of osteoporosis was highest in the female patients of the AP cohort (aHR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.85–2.76) and patients aged 50–64 years (aHR = 4.14, 95% CI = 3.13–5.47).

Conclusion

AP patients are at a risk of osteoporosis, especially female gender and age 50–64 years. Those with > 3 episodes of AP had highest significant risk of developing osteoporosis.

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<![CDATA[Comparative Effectiveness of Etanercept and Adalimumab in Patient Reported Outcomes and Injection-Related Tolerability]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da12ab0ee8fa60b7a120

Objective

To describe patient preferences in selecting specific biologics and compare clinical response using patient reported outcomes (PROs) among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) started on different anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapies.

Methods

Participants were enrollees in Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Patients with RA who had at least two provider visits and started a new anti-TNF therapy from 10/2010–8/2011, were eligible for participation in this longitudinal study. Using a telephone survey, patient preferences in biologic selection and RAPID3, MDHAQ, and SF-12 scores were collected at baseline and at 6 months. Patient scores rating injection/infusion-site burning and stinging (ISBS) were collected at 6 months.

Results

In all, 267 patients with RA responded to the baseline survey, of whom 57% preferred an injectable biologic, 22% preferred an infused biologic, and 21% had no preference. Motivation for injectable biologics was convenience (92%) and for infusion therapy was dislike or lack of self-efficacy for self-injection (16%). After 6 months of treatment with anti-TNF, 70% of the 177 patients who answered the ISBS question reported ISBS with the last dose; on a scale of 1 (none) to 10 (worst), 41% of these reported a score of 2–5; and 29% reported a score of 6–10. Adalimumab users experienced 3.2 times (95% confidence interval 1.2–8.6) the level of ISBS that etanercept users experienced. There were no significant differences in RAPID3, MDHAQ, or SF-12 scores between etanercept or adalimumab initiators.

Conclusion

Convenience and fear of self-injection were important considerations to patients selecting a biologic drug. Although more convenient, adalimumab associated with more ISBS than did etanercept, and this rate was higher than reported in clinical trials. At 6 months, PROs did not differ between etanercept and adalimumab users.

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<![CDATA[Stress and Resilience in Functional Somatic Syndromes – A Structural Equation Modeling Approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da92ab0ee8fa60ba05b9

Background

Stress has been suggested to play a role in the development and perpetuation of functional somatic syndromes. The mechanisms of how this might occur are not clear.

Purpose

We propose a multi-dimensional stress model which posits that childhood trauma increases adult stress reactivity (i.e., an individual's tendency to respond strongly to stressors) and reduces resilience (e.g., the belief in one's competence). This in turn facilitates the manifestation of functional somatic syndromes via chronic stress. We tested this model cross-sectionally and prospectively.

Methods

Young adults participated in a web survey at two time points. Structural equation modeling was used to test our model. The final sample consisted of 3′054 participants, and 429 of these participated in the follow-up survey.

Results

Our proposed model fit the data in the cross-sectional (χ2(21)  = 48.808, p<.001, CFI  = .995, TLI  = .992, RMSEA  = .021, 90% CI [.013.029]) and prospective analyses (χ2(21)  = 32.675, p<.05, CFI  = .982, TLI  = .969, RMSEA  = .036, 90% CI [.001.059]).

Discussion

Our findings have several clinical implications, suggesting a role for stress management training in the prevention and treatment of functional somatic syndromes.

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<![CDATA[“I Try and Smile, I Try and Be Cheery, I Try Not to Be Pushy. I Try to Say ‘I'm Here for Help’ but I Leave Feeling… Worried”: A Qualitative Study of Perceptions of Interactions with Health Professionals by Community-Based Older Adults with Chronic Pain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da01ab0ee8fa60b740e7

Background

Over 50% of community-dwelling older adults experience chronic pain, which threatens their quality of life. Of importance to their pain management is older people's interaction with health professionals that, if unsatisfactory, may impair the outcome.

Aims

To add to the limited research specific to older people living with chronic pain in the community, we explored how they perceive their experiences of interacting with health professionals, seeking factors that might optimise these interactions.

Methods

Purposive sampling was used to recruit men and women >65 years with self-reported musculoskeletal chronic pain. Qualitative individual interviews and one group interview were undertaken with 23 participants. Data were transcribed verbatim and underwent Framework Analysis.

Results

Three themes were identified. Seeking help illustrates issues around why older people in the community may or may not seek help for chronic pain, and highlights the potential involvement of social comparison. Importance of diagnosis illustrates the desire for professional validation of their condition and an aversion to vague explanations based on the person's age. Being listened to and being heard illustrates the importance of empathic communication and understanding expectations, with due respect for the person's age.

Conclusions

In common with people of all ages, an effective partnership between an older person in pain and health professionals is essential if pain is to be reported, appropriately assessed and managed, because of the subjective nature of pain and its treatment responses. For older people with pain, perception about their age, by both parties in the partnership, is an additional factor that can unnecessarily interfere with the effectiveness of this partnership. Health professionals should engage with older adults to clarify their expectations about pain and its management, which may be influenced by perceptions about age; and to encourage expression of their concerns, which may also be affected by perceptions about age.

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<![CDATA[Lengthened Cutaneous Silent Period in Fibromyalgia Suggesting Central Sensitization as a Pathogenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da72ab0ee8fa60b95530

The pathogenesis of fibromyalgia (FM) has not been clearly elucidated, but central sensitization, which plays an important role in the development of neuropathic pain, is considered to be the main mechanism. The cutaneous silent period (CSP), which is a spinal reflex mediated by A-delta cutaneous afferents, is useful for the evaluation of sensorimotor integration at the spinal and supraspinal levels. To understand the pathophysiology of FM, we compared CSP patterns between patients with FM and normal healthy subjects. Twenty-four patients with FM diagnosed in accordance with the 1990 American College of Rheumatology classification system and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. The CSP was measured from the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. Demographic data, number of tender points, and visual analog scale and FM impact questionnaire scores were collected. The measured CSP and clinical parameters of the patient and control groups were compared. In addition, possible correlations between the CSP parameters and the other clinical characteristics were analyzed. Mean CSP latencies did not differ between patients (55.50 ± 10.97 ms) and healthy controls (60.23 ± 11.87 ms; p = 0.158), although the mean CSP duration was significantly longer in patients (73.75 ± 15.67 ms) than in controls (63.50 ± 14.05 ms; p = 0.021). CSP variables did not correlate with any clinical variables. The significantly longer CSP duration in FM patients suggests central dysregulation at the spinal and supraspinal levels, rather than peripheral small fiber dysfunction.

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<![CDATA[Metabolomics Analysis and Modeling Suggest a Lysophosphocholines-PAF Receptor Interaction in Fibromyalgia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab9ab0ee8fa60bae0e7

Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) is a chronic disease characterized by widespread pain, and difficult to diagnose and treat. We analyzed the plasma metabolic profile of patients with FMS by using a metabolomics approach combining Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time Of Flight/Mass Spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF/MS) with multivariate statistical analysis, aiming to discriminate patients and controls. LC-Q-TOF/MS analysis of plasma (FMS patients: n = 22 and controls: n = 21) identified many lipid compounds, mainly lysophosphocholines (lysoPCs), phosphocholines and ceramides. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed to identify the discriminating metabolites. A protein docking and molecular dynamic (MD) study was then performed, using the most discriminating lysoPCs, to validate the binding to Platelet Activating Factor (1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, PAF) Receptor (PAFr). Discriminating metabolites between FMS patients and controls were identified as 1-tetradecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [PC(14∶0/0∶0)] and 1-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [PC(16∶0/0∶0)]. MD and docking indicate that the ligands investigated have similar potentialities to activate the PAFr receptor. The application of a metabolomic approach discriminated FMS patients from controls, with an over-representation of PC(14∶0/0∶0) and PC(16∶0/0∶0) compounds in the metabolic profiles. These results and the modeling of metabolite-PAFr interaction, allowed us to hypothesize that lipids oxidative fragmentation might generate lysoPCs in abundance, that in turn will act as PAF-like bioactivators. Overall results suggest disease biomarkers and potential therapeutical targets for FMS.

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<![CDATA[Vitamin and mineral status in chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db59ab0ee8fa60bdf170

Background

Many chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients (35–68%) use nutritional supplements, while it is unclear whether deficiencies in vitamins and minerals contribute to symptoms in these patients. Objectives were (1) to determine vitamin and mineral status in CFS and FMS patients as compared to healthy controls; (2) to investigate the association between vitamin and mineral status and clinical parameters, including symptom severity and quality of life; and (3) to determine the effect of supplementation on clinical parameters.

Methods

The databases PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, and PsycINFO were searched for eligible studies. Articles published from January 1st 1994 for CFS patients and 1990 for FMS patients till March 1st 2017 were included. Articles were included if the status of one or more vitamins or minerals were reported, or an intervention concerning vitamins or minerals was performed. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias.

Results

A total of 5 RCTs and 40 observational studies were included in the qualitative synthesis, of which 27 studies were included in the meta-analyses. Circulating concentrations of vitamin E were lower in patients compared to controls (pooled standardized mean difference (SMD): -1.57, 95%CI: -3.09, -0.05; p = .042). However, this difference was not present when restricting the analyses to the subgroup of studies with high quality scores. Poor study quality and a substantial heterogeneity in most studies was found. No vitamins or minerals have been repeatedly or consistently linked to clinical parameters. In addition, RCTs testing supplements containing these vitamins and/or minerals did not result in clinical improvements.

Discussion

Little evidence was found to support the hypothesis that vitamin and mineral deficiencies play a role in the pathophysiology of CFS and FMS, and that the use of supplements is effective in these patients.

Registration

Study methods were documented in an international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO) protocol, registration number: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42015032528.

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<![CDATA[Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Gallbladder Calculosis in Fibromyalgia Patients: Impact on Musculoskeletal Pain, Somatic Hyperalgesia and Central Sensitization]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da34ab0ee8fa60b85b2e

Fibromyalgia, a chronic syndrome of diffuse musculoskeletal pain and somatic hyperalgesia from central sensitization, is very often comorbid with visceral pain conditions. In fibromyalgia patients with gallbladder calculosis, this study assessed the short and long-term impact of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on fibromyalgia pain symptoms. Fibromyalgia pain (VAS scale) and pain thresholds in tender points and control areas (skin, subcutis and muscle) were evaluated 1week before (basis) and 1week, 1,3,6 and 12months after laparoscopic cholecystectomy in fibromyalgia patients with symptomatic calculosis (n = 31) vs calculosis patients without fibromyalgia (n. 26) and at comparable time points in fibromyalgia patients not undergoing cholecystectomy, with symptomatic (n = 27) and asymptomatic (n = 28) calculosis, and no calculosis (n = 30). At basis, fibromyalgia+symptomatic calculosis patients presented a significant linear correlation between the number of previously experienced biliary colics and fibromyalgia pain (direct) and muscle thresholds (inverse)(p<0.0001). After cholecystectomy, fibromyalgia pain significantly increased and all thresholds significantly decreased at 1week and 1month (1-way ANOVA, p<0.01-p<0.001), the decrease in muscle thresholds correlating linearly with the peak postoperative pain at surgery site (p<0.003-p<0.0001). Fibromyalgia pain and thresholds returned to preoperative values at 3months, then pain significantly decreased and thresholds significantly increased at 6 and 12months (p<0.05-p<0.0001). Over the same 12-month period: in non-fibromyalgia patients undergoing cholecystectomy thresholds did not change; in all other fibromyalgia groups not undergoing cholecystectomy fibromyalgia pain and thresholds remained stable, except in fibromyalgia+symptomatic calculosis at 12months when pain significantly increased and muscle thresholds significantly decreased (p<0.05-p<0.0001). The results of the study show that biliary colics from gallbladder calculosis represent an exacerbating factor for fibromyalgia symptoms and that laparoscopic cholecystectomy produces only a transitory worsening of these symptoms, largely compensated by the long-term improvement/desensitization due to gallbladder removal. This study provides new insights into the role of visceral pain comorbidities and the effects of their treatment on fibromyalgia pain/hypersensitivity.

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<![CDATA[Determinants of quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia: A structural equation modeling approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdb8df

Objective

Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) is lower than in patients with other chronic diseases and the general population. Although various factors affect HRQOL, no study has examined a structural equation model of HRQOL as an outcome variable in FM patients. The present study assessed relationships among physical function, social factors, psychological factors, and HRQOL, and the effects of these variables on HRQOL in a hypothesized model using structural equation modeling (SEM).

Methods

HRQOL was measured using SF-36, and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) was used to assess physical dysfunction. Social and psychological statuses were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES), and the Social Support Scale. SEM analysis was used to test the structural relationships of the model using the AMOS software.

Results

Of the 336 patients, 301 (89.6%) were women with an average age of 47.9±10.9 years. The SEM results supported the hypothesized structural model (χ2 = 2.336, df = 3, p = 0.506). The final model showed that Physical Component Summary (PCS) was directly related to self-efficacy and inversely related to FIQ, and that Mental Component Summary (MCS) was inversely related to FIQ, BDI, and STAI.

Conclusions

In our model of FM patients, HRQOL was affected by physical, social, and psychological variables. In these patients, higher levels of physical function and self-efficacy can improve the PCS of HRQOL, while physical function, depression, and anxiety negatively affect the MCS of HRQOL.

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