ResearchPad - field-report Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) Outbreak at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City-Riyadh from Emergency Medical Services Perspective]]> Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a form of an infectious respiratory disease, discovered in November 2012 in Saudi Arabia. According to the World Health Organization (WHO; Geneva, Switzerland) reports, a total of 2,519 laboratory-confirmed cases and 866 MERS-CoV-related deaths were recorded as of March 5, 2016.1 The majority of reported cases originated from Saudi Arabia (2,121 cases). Also, MERS-CoV is believed to be of zoonotic origin and has been linked to camels in the Arabian area.1,2 In this report, the authors discuss the lessons learned from the MERS-CoV outbreak at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City-Riyadh (KAMC-R) from August through September 2015 from the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) perspective. The discussion includes the changes in policies and paramedic’s practice, the training and education in infection control procedures, and the process of transportation of these cases. The authors hope to share their experience in this unique situation and highlight the preparedness and response efforts that took place by the division of EMS during the outbreak.

<![CDATA[Air temperatures and occupational injuries in the construction industries: a report from Northern Italy (2000–2013)]]>

The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between environmental temperatures and occupational injuries (OIs) in construction workers (CWs) from a subalpine region of North-Eastern Italy. Data about OIs from 2000 to 2013, and daily weather for the specific site of the events were retrieved. Risk for daily OIs was calculate through a Poisson regression model. Estimated daily incidence for OIs was 5.7 (95%CI 5.5–5.8), or 2.8 OIs/10,000 workers/d (95%CI 2.7–2.9), with higher rates for time periods characterized by high temperatures (daily maximum ≥35°C), both in first 2 d (3.57, 95%CI 3.05–4.11) and from the third day onwards (i.e. during Heat Waves: 3.43, 95%CI 3.08–3.77). Higher risk for OIs was reported in days characterized temperatures ≥95th percentile (OR 1.145, 95%CI 1.062–1.235), summer days (daily maximum ≥25°C , OR 1.093, 95%CI 1.042–1.146). On the contrary, no significant increased risk was found for OIs having a more severe prognosis (≥40 d or more; death). In conclusion, presented findings recommend policymakers to develop appropriate procedures and guidelines, in particular aimed to improve the compliance of younger CWs towards severe-hot daily temperatures.

<![CDATA[Assessment of thermal exposure level among construction workers in UAE using WBGT, HSI and TWL indices]]>

The study aimed to assess the heat stress of the construction workers in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), using Wet Bulb Globe temperature (WBGT) index, whereas also computing Heat stress index (HSI), and Thermal Work Limit (TWL) for comparison. Portable Area Heat Stress Monitor (HS-32) was used for measuring WBGToutdoor, Dry Bulb Temperature, Natural Wet Bulb Temperature, Globe Temperature in°C, and Relative humidity. The outcomes demonstrated that the WBGT exceeded the recommended Threshold Limit Value (TLV) and that workers are at risk of heat stress. According to HSI, only fit acclimatized young workers can tolerate work in this site, and workers should be selected by medical examination. As per TWL, the site was labeled as Acclimatization Zone implying that no un-acclimatized worker should work here and working alone should be avoided. The construction workers lie at a high or medium risk of heat stress. The contribution of the radiant heat load was very high compared with metabolic load and convective load. Furthermore, WBGT, HSI, and TWL are suitable to assess thermal stress in construction environments. Scheduling of the work earlier or later (after sunset) along with breaks for rest on cool shaded areas are recommended.

<![CDATA[Prevalence of problem gambling in an employed population in Brittany, France]]>

Some employees may have recourse to gambling, notably as an adaptive strategy. Although many studies have been performed on specific occupational groups (i.e. gambling industry, transportation or teaching), none have been conducted with workers followed-up by Occupational Health Services (OHS). Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of problem gambling in an employed population and its links with work. We performed a cross-sectional study between November 2016 and April 2017, in an OHS in France. We evaluated the prevalence of gambling using the Lie or Bet questionnaire and the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Among the 410 employees included, 138 (33.7%) had gambled in the previous year, 12 (2.9%) considered their gambling experience to be work-related, 13 (3.2%) were identified as problem gamblers. The influence of colleagues and the workplace hierarchy and ease of access to gambling (in tobacco shops, bars…) could be risk factors. Screening for gambling behavior could be offered by occupational health services, using the Lie or Bet, especially for employees exposed to readily available gambling opportunities at their workplace.

<![CDATA[Relationship between mortality risk and health-related factors and sense of coherence in residents ofa rural area in Japan]]>

Objective: This study aimed to examine the relationship between mortality risk and health-related factors and sense of coherence (SOC) in a cohort study of residents from a rural area of Japan.

Materials and Methods: We followed-up with 3,416 baseline respondents over 3.76 years. Residents were subdivided into three groups based on SOC score: low, middle, and high. We used the total SOC score of the low-level SOC group as the standard, and calculated the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for the middle- and high-level SOC groups. For all three SOC groups, health-related factors were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance, and lifestyle and history were analyzed using the χ2 test. Results were also analyzed by gender and age.

Results: For men in the low-level SOC group, the SMR value was defined as 1, and for men in the high-level SOC group (0.44; 95% confidence interval: 0.11–0.77), the SMR value was significantly lower. There was a statistically significant reduction in the percentage of smokers in the men in the high-level SOC group.

Conclusion: In this study, high-level SOC was associated with low mortality risk. This finding was particularly pronounced in the men.

<![CDATA[An analysis of patients evacuated by a civilian physician-staffed helicopter from a military base]]>

Objective: We herein report our analysis of patients evacuated by a physician-staffed helicopter (doctor helicopter; DH) from a Japan Self Defense Force (JSDF) base.

Methods: From March 2004 to November 2018, a medical chart review was retrospectively performed for all patients who were transported by a DH from the temporary heliport at the JSDF Fuji base. The subjects were divided into two groups: the Before-2013 group (n=6) and the After-2013 group (n=7).

Results: The rate of military-patient involvement and the heart rate of the After-2013 group were greater than those of the-Before 2013 group, and the percutaneous oxygen saturation in the After-2013 group was lower than the Before-2013 group. Furthermore, the Glasgow Coma Scale in the After-2013 group was significantly lower than in the Before-2013 group. The survival rate was not significantly different between the two groups.

Conclusion: Patients transported by DHs in the After-2013 group tended to be in more severe conditions than those transported in the Before-2013 group. This might be due to the fact that over time, the fire department, or JSDF, began to appreciate the useful role played by the DH in life-saving management.

<![CDATA[Working conditions and job satisfaction of hospital nurses: a comparative study between Mongolia and Japan]]>

Objective: This study examines the job satisfaction of Mongolian hospital nurses by comparing their status and workload of Mongolian nurses with Japanese nurses’ one.

Settings and participants/Methods: Survey data were collected from randomly selected 200 nurses (100 were Mongolians and the other 100 were Japanese) who agreed to participate in the survey. Data were collected through a self-administered survey questionnaire. Survey items were age, the duration of work experience, work position, health condition, accumulated fatigue, stress level, and whether having family members who need child care or nursing care. Collected data were analyzed by t-test and Wilcoxon Rank Sum test.

Results: The average age of Mongolian nurses was significantly lower than that of Japanese nurses. Consequently, the average work experience of Mongolian nurses was less than that of Japanese nurses. More Japanese than Mongolian nurses had family members in need of care. Job satisfaction and status were significantly higher among Japanese than Mongolian nurses. However, Japanese nurses have family members who need child care or nursing care at a higher rate than Mongolian nurses. Job satisfaction of Japanese nurses about their work and job status was significantly higher than Mongolian nurses’ one. However, the opposite result was found in the job satisfaction about their workload. The influence of the relationships among nurses on the job satisfaction was significantly greater in Mongolian nurses than in Japanese nurses. Job satisfaction of Japanese nurses about their salaries was significantly higher than Mongolian nurses’ one.

Conclusion: In order to raise nurses’ job satisfaction in Mongolia, it is necessary to raise their “occupational status” and salary of nurses.