ResearchPad - fish https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Aging-associated sinus arrest and sick sinus syndrome in adult zebrafish]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13853 Because of its powerful genetics, the adult zebrafish has been increasingly used for studying cardiovascular diseases. Considering its heart rate of ~100 beats per minute at ambient temperature, which is very close to human, we assessed the use of this vertebrate animal for modeling heart rhythm disorders such as sinus arrest (SA) and sick sinus syndrome (SSS). We firstly optimized a protocol to measure electrocardiogram in adult zebrafish. We determined the location of the probes, implemented an open-chest microsurgery procedure, measured the effects of temperature, and determined appropriate anesthesia dose and time. We then proposed an PP interval of more than 1.5 seconds as an arbitrary criterion to define an SA episode in an adult fish at ambient temperature, based on comparison between the current definition of an SA episode in humans and our studies of candidate SA episodes in aged wild-type fish and Tg(SCN5A-D1275N) fish (a fish model for inherited SSS). With this criterion, a subpopulation of about 5% wild-type fish can be considered to have SA episodes, and this percentage significantly increases to about 25% in 3-year-old fish. In response to atropine, this subpopulation has both common SSS phenotypic traits that are shared with the Tg(SCN5A-D1275N) model, such as bradycardia; and unique SSS phenotypic traits, such as increased QRS/P ratio and chronotropic incompetence. In summary, this study defined baseline SA and SSS in adult zebrafish and underscored use of the zebrafish as an alternative model to study aging-associated SSS.

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<![CDATA[Sustainability management of short-lived freshwater fish in human-altered ecosystems should focus on adult survival]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7859 Fish populations globally are susceptible to endangerment through exploitation and habitat loss. We present theoretical simulations to explore how reduced adult survival (age truncation) might affect short-lived freshwater fish species in human-altered contemporary environments. Our simulations evaluate two hypothetical "average fish" and five example fish species of age 1 or age 2 maturity. From a population equilibrium baseline representing a natural, unaltered environment we impose systematic reductions in adult survival and quantify how age truncation affects the causes of variation in population growth rate. We estimate the relative contributions to population growth rate arising from simulated temporal variation in age-specific vital rates and population structure. At equilibrium and irrespective of example species, population structure (first adult age class) and survival probability of the first two adult age classes are the most important determinants of population growth. As adult survival decreases, the first reproductive age class becomes increasingly important to variation in population growth. All simulated examples show the same general pattern of change with age truncation as known for exploited, longer-lived fish species in marine and freshwater environments. This implies age truncation is a general potential concern for fish biodiversity across life history strategies and ecosystems. Managers of short-lived, freshwater fishes in contemporary environments often focus on supporting reproduction to ensure population persistence. However, a strong focus on water management to support reproduction may reduce adult survival. Sustainability management needs a focus on mitigating adult mortality in human-altered ecosystems. A watershed spatial extent embracing land and water uses may be necessary to identify and mitigate causes of age truncation in freshwater species. Achieving higher adult survival will require paradigm transformations in society and government about water management priorities.

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<![CDATA[The 2015-2016 El Niño increased infection parameters of copepods on Eastern Tropical Pacific dolphinfish populations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7672 The oceanographic conditions of the Pacific Ocean are largely modified by El Niño (EN), affecting several ecological processes. Parasites and other marine organisms respond to environmental variation, but the influence of the EN cycle on the seasonal variation of parasitic copepods has not been yet evaluated. We analysed the relation between infection parameters (prevalence and mean intensity) of the widespread parasitic copepods Caligus bonito and Charopinopsis quaternia in the dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus and oceanography during the strong 2015–16 EN. Fish were collected from capture fisheries on the Ecuadorian coast (Tropical Eastern Pacific) over a 2-year period. Variations of sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, chlorophyll a (Chl-a), Oceanic Niño Index (ONI), total host length (TL) and monthly infection parameters of both copepod species were analysed using time series and cross-correlations. We used the generalised additive models for determine the relationship between environmental variables and infection parameters. The total body length of the ovigerous females and the length of the eggs of C. bonito were measured in both periods. Infection parameters of both C. bonito and Ch. quaternia showed seasonal and annual patterns associated with the variation of environmental variables examined (SST, salinity, Chl-a and ONI 1+2). Infection parameters of both copepod species were significantly correlated with ONI 1+2, SST, TL and Chl-a throughout the GAMLSS model, and the explained deviance contribution ranged from 16%-36%. Our results suggest than an anomaly higher than +0.5°C triggers a risen in infection parameters of both parasitic copepods. This risen could be related to increases in egg length, female numbers and the total length of the ovigerous females in EN period. This study provides the first evidence showing that tropical parasitic copepods are sensitive to the influence of EN event, especially from SST variations. The observed behaviour of parasitic copepods likely affects the host populations and structure of the marine ecosystem at different scales.

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<![CDATA[Time matters: genetic composition and evaluation of effective population size in temperate coastal fish species]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3c941b76-3ff8-49b6-a56c-740a41f92c9a Extensive knowledge on the genetic characterization of marine organisms has been assembled, mainly concerning the spatial distribution and structuring of populations. Temporal monitoring assesses not only the stability in genetic composition but also its trajectory over time, providing critical information for the accurate forecast of changes in genetic diversity of marine populations, particularly important for both fisheries and endangered species management. We assessed fluctuations in genetic composition among different sampling periods in the western Portuguese shore in three fish species.MethodsWhite seabream Diplodus sargus, sand smelt Atherina presbyter and shanny Lipophrys pholis were chosen, because of their genetic patterns in distinct ecological environments, insight into historical and contemporary factors influencing population effective size (Ne), and degree of commercial exploitation. Samples were obtained near Lisbon between 2003 and 2014 and screened for genetic variation with mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Analyses included genealogies, genetic diversities, temporal structures and contemporary Ne.ResultsFor mtDNA no temporal structure was detected, while for nDNA significant differences were recorded between some sampling periods for the shanny and the sand smelt. Haplotype networks revealed deep genealogies, with various levels of diversification. The shanny revealed a smaller Ne/generation when compared to the other species, which, in turn, revealed no evidence of genetic drift for most study periods. These results highlight the fact that temporal variations in genetic pool composition should be considered when evaluating the population structure of fish species with long distance dispersal, which are more vulnerable to recruitment fluctuations. ]]> <![CDATA[Long-term impact of a 4-day feed restriction at the protozoea stage on metabolic gene expressions of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc9d1ca49-6d28-4edb-8edf-94e3b420d66a

Based on the “nutritional programming” concept, we evaluated the long-term effects of an early four-day caloric restriction (40% reduction in feed allowance compared to a normal feeding level) at the protozoea stage in whiteleg shrimp. We analyzed long-term programming of shrimp by studying metabolism at the molecular level, through RT-qPCR of key biomarkers (involved in intermediary metabolism and digestion). The mRNA levels (extracted from the whole body) were analyzed after the stimulus and after the rearing period, at 20 and 35 days, respectively. At the end of the experimental period, shrimp growth performance was evaluated. There was no difference between normal feed allowance (CTL) and feed-restricted shrimp (RES) for performance parameters (survival, final body weight and the number of post-larvae g−1 or PL g−1). The stimulus directly affected the mRNA levels for only two genes, i.e., preamylase and lvglut 2 which were expressed at higher levels in feed-restricted shrimp. In the long-term, higher levels of mRNAs for enzymes coding for glycolysis and ATP synthesis were also detected. This suggests a possible long-term modification of the metabolism that is linked to the stimulus at the protozoea stage. Overall, further studies are needed to improve nutritional programming in shrimp.

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<![CDATA[First transcriptome analysis of bryozoan Fredericella sultana, the primary host of myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbc223737-c945-4d07-b32b-dae09e0ab6f2

Bryozoans are aquatic invertebrate moss animals that are found worldwide. Fredericella sultana is a freshwater bryozoan and is the most common primary host of myxozoan parasite, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. However, limited genomic resources are available for this bryozoan, which hampers investigations into the molecular mechanisms of host-parasite interactions. To better understand these interactions, there is a need to build a transcriptome dataset of F. sultana, for functional genomics analysis by large-scale RNA sequencing. Total RNA was extracted from zooids of F. sultana cultivated under controlled laboratory conditions. cDNA libraries were prepared and were analyzed by the Illumina paired-ends sequencing. The sequencing data were used for de novo transcriptome assembly and functional annotation. Approximately 118 million clean reads were obtained, and assembled into 85,544 contigs with an average length of 852 bp, an N50 of 1,085 bp, and an average GC content 51.4%. A total of 23,978 (28%) contigs were annotated using BLASTX analysis. Of these transcripts, 4,400 contigs had highest similarity to brachiopod species Lingula anatina. Based on Gene ontology (GO) annotation, the most highly scored categories of biological process were categorized into cellular process (27%), metabolic process (24%), and biological regulation (8%) in the transcriptome of F. sultana. This study gives first insights into the transcriptome of F. sultana and provides comprehensive genetic resources for the species. We believe that the transcriptome of F. sultana will serve as a useful genomic dataset to accelerate research of functional genomics and will help facilitate whole genome sequencing and annotation. Candidate genes potentially involved in growth, proteolysis, and stress/immunity-response were identified, and are worthy of further investigation.

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<![CDATA[Two species of Thoracostomopsidae (Nematoda: Enoplida) from Jeju Island, South Korea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd6f075e6-61c4-4ffd-9fc5-9d3a90d27b8d

During a survey of intertidal zones at beaches on Jeju Island, two species belonging to the family Thoracostomopsidae were discovered. One new species, Enoploides koreanus sp. nov. and one known species, Epacanthion hirsutum Shi & Xu, 2016 are reported. Along with morphological analysis, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (mtCOI) sequences and 18S rRNA sequences of the species were also obtained and used to check relative p-distance and phylogenetic positions. While most species of Enoploides have long spicules, the new species belongs to a group of Enoploides with short spicules < 150 µm). Of the seven species with short spicules, the new species is most closely related to E. disparilis Sergeeva, 1974. They both have similar body length, fairly similar sized and shaped spicules with small gubernaculum running parallel to distal end of spicule, and an index value of b. The new species can be distinguished from E. disparilis by having pre-anal supplementary organ with short conical tail, while E. disparilis lacks pre-anal supplementary organ and has a long conico-cylindrical tail. Along with the description of the new species, the genus Enoploides Ssaweljev, 1912 is bibliographically reviewed and revised. Of 45 species described to date, 27 are now considered valid, 16 species inquirendae due to inadequate descriptions and ambiguity of the material examined, along with two cases of nomen nudum. With this review, we provide an updated diagnosis and list of valid species, a tabular key comparing diagnostic characters of all valid species, and a new complete key to species. One known species, Epacanthion hirsutum Shi & Xu, 2016, is reported in Korea for the first time. The morphology agrees well with the original description provided by Shi & Xu, 2016. As they had already reviewed the genus at the time of reporting four Epacanthion species, we provide only a description, depiction, and measurements for comparison purposes.

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<![CDATA[Genetic diversity and population structure of Meretrix petechialis in China revealed by sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N761bea7b-e839-4545-a14c-09fa4416a841

Genetic variation in nine stocks of Meretrix petechialis collected from China was analyzed using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. Eight primer pairs produced 132 polymorphic loci with an average of 16.5 loci per primer pair. A population from Jiangsu had the highest percentage of polymorphic loci at 27.27%, suggesting that these resources had a rich genetic diversity. The Nei’s gene diversity of the nine populations ranged from 0.0647 to 0.0793; a population from Shandong was the lowest and a population from North Korea the highest. The Shannon’s information index was between 0.1023 and 0.1202, with the lowest in the Shandong population and the highest in the Jiangsu population. The Nei’s unbiased genetic distance between the nine populations was 0.0243–0.0570 and the genetic similarity was 0.9446–0.9760; the genetic distance between Guangxi and Shandong populations was the furthest (0.0570) and the genetic distance between Shandong and Jiangsu populations was the closest (0.0243). Nei’s gene diversity analysis indicated that the genetic variance was mainly found within individual geographical populations, and the analysis of molecular variance revealed low but significant genetic differentiation among local and regional populations. The limited gene flow (Nm = 0.555) was inferred as a major reason for the extent of genetic differentiation in M. petechialis. The results obtained here indicated that M. petechialis have high degree of genetic diversity and the potential of further breeding with excellent germplasm resources. This study provides a scientific basis for the protection of germplasm resources and the breeding of M. petechialis.

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<![CDATA[Alternative dietary protein and water temperature influence the skin and gut microbial communities of yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N07b2900a-9072-426e-a9bb-74df3aabf27d

Fish skin and gut microbiomes contribute to host health and growth and are often significantly different in aquaculture-reared fish compared to wild fish. Determining how factors associated with aquaculture, including altered diet and abiotic conditions, affect the microbiome will assist with optimizing farming practices and non-invasively assessing fish health. Here, juvenile yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) housed at optimal (22 °C) and non-optimal (26 °C) water temperature were fed a fishmeal control diet or the same diet substituted with 30% soy-protein concentrate (SPC) in order to investigate impacts on host health and the microbial community composition of the skin mucosa, gut mucosa and digesta. Each of these sites was observed to have a distinct microbiome composition. The combination of SPC and housing at 26 °C significantly reduced weight gain in yellowtail kingfish and affected immune parameters. The overall microbial composition and relative abundance of specific operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was also significantly altered by inclusion of SPC at 26 °C, with a notable increase in an OTU identified as Photobacterium in the skin mucosa and digesta. Increased relative abundance of Photobacterium sp. was significantly correlated with reduced levels of digesta myeloperoxidase in yellowtail kingfish; a recognized innate immunity defense mechanism. The changes in the microbial communities of yellowtail kingfish fed a diet containing 30% SPC at 26 °C highlights the importance of considering the interactive effects of diet and environmental factors on microbiome health in farmed yellowtail kingfish.

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<![CDATA[Integrative analysis reveals pathways associated with sex reversal in Cynoglossus semilaevis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf5a8c16b-4568-4660-a17c-2c0aa4ca6181

Sex reversal is a complex biological phenomenon exhibited by Cynoglossus semilaevis. Some genetic females may irreversibly convert to pseudomales, thus increasing aquaculture costs because males grow much more slowly than females. In this study, an integrative analysis of transcriptome and proteome was performed to compare differences in gene and protein expression in females and pseudomales after gonad differentiation in C. semilaevis. Based on RNA-Seq results, 1893 genes showed differences in expression at the transcript level between females and pseudomales. Of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs), zona pellucida sperm-binding protein 4-like (LOC103393374 , ZP4), zona pellucida sperm-binding protein 4-like (LOC103396071, ZP4) and forkhead box L2 (foxl2) were highly expressed in females and doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1(dmrt1) and doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 3 (dmrt3) were highly expressed in pseudomales. GO enrichment analysis results indicate that wnt signaling pathways and oocyte maturation are two terms enriched in female. At the protein level, Tandem Mass Tags analysis revealed that 324 proteins differed in their relative abundance between pseudomales and females. KEGG analysis found that pseudo-highly expressed proteins were enriched in the ubiquitin mediated proteolysis pathway. For integrative analysis, the Spearman correlation coefficient between the transcriptome and proteome was 0.59. Among 52 related genes, 46 DEGs (88%) were well matched in their levels of change in protein abundance. These findings reveal major active pathways in female and pseudomale gonads after sex reversal and provide new insights into molecular mechanisms associated with sex reversal regulatory network.

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<![CDATA[The effect of personality measurement conditions on spontaneous swimming behavior in the pale chub Zacco platypus (Cyprinidae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N84047234-6c25-4bd5-928d-ce3ec0f961e4

Studies on personality have revealed that some personality traits are strongly correlated; thus, researchers may be able to acquire data for variables related to different personality traits from one measurement. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test whether spontaneous movement traits used in fish personality measurements are correlated or vary among different contexts in a common Chinese cyprinid fish, the pale chub (Zacco platypus, Cyprinidae). The median swimming speed, percent time spent moving and median turning rate were measured in a boldness context (with a shelter available), then in an exploration context (with a novel object nearby) and finally in a control context (i.e., with no shelter or novel object). The median swimming speed, percent time spent moving, and median turning rate all showed positive correlations between the control and the other two contexts, which suggests that future studies might use spontaneous swimming variables measured in exploration or boldness contexts to avoid the need to carry out a separate activity test. Further analysis comparing the distance to and latency to explore the novel object between the exploration context (with the novel object present) and control context (with an imaginary object at the same position) showed that the amount of time it took for the fish to first reach the object for exploration was significantly shorter in an exploration context than in a control context. This suggests that latency to explore might be useful as a variable indicating exploration in the pale chub in the future.

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<![CDATA[Impact of the antidepressant citalopram on the behaviour of two different life stages of brown trout]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N47c83d32-6f0c-44d3-9963-fbee3edcdd74

Background

Over the last two decades, there has been a constant increase in prescription rates of antidepressants. In parallel, neuroactive pharmaceuticals are making their way into aquatic environments at increasing concentrations. Among the antidepressants detected in the environment citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is one of the most commonly found. Given citalopram is specifically designed to alter mood and behaviour in humans, there is growing concern it can adversely affect the behaviour on non-target wildlife

Methods

In our study, brown trout were exposed to citalopram (nominal concentrations: 1, 10, 100, 1000 µg/L) in two different life stages. Larvae were exposed at 7 and 11 °C from the eyed ova stage until 8 weeks post yolk sac consumption, and juvenile brown trout were exposed for 4 weeks at 7 °C. At both stages we measured mortality, weight, length, tissue citalopram concentration, behaviour during exposure and behaviour in a stressfull environment. For brown trout larvae additionally hatching rate and heart rate, and for juvenile brown trout the tissue cortisol concentration were assessed.

Results

During the exposure, both larvae and juvenile fish exposed to the highest test concentration of citalopram (1 mg/L) had higher swimming activity and spent longer in the upper part of the aquaria compared to control fish, which is an indicator for decreased anxiety. Most probably due to the higher swimming activity during the exposure, the juveniles and larvae exposed to 1 mg/L citalopram showed decreased weight and length. Additionally, in a stressful artificial swimming measurement device, brown trout larvae displayed the anxiolytic effect of the antidepressant by reduced swimming activity during this stress situation, already at concentrations of 100 µg/L citalopram. Chemical analysis of the tissue revealed rising citalopram tissue concentrations with rising exposure concentrations. Tissue concentrations were 10 times higher in juvenile fish compared to brown trout larvae. Fish plasma concentrations were calculated, which exceeded human therapeutic levels for the highest exposure concentration, matching the behavioural results. Developmental parameters like hatching rate and heart rate, as well as mortality and tissue cortisol content were unaffected by the antidepressant. Overall, we could trace the pharmacological mode of action of the antidepressant citalopram in the non-target organism brown trout in two different life stages.

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<![CDATA[Sound production in the Meagre, Argyrosomus regius (Asso, 1801): intraspecific variability associated with size, sex and context]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc15d2ab5-8bd3-4a3f-ac42-bbe3168fb6f1

Background

Many fish taxa produce sound in voluntary and in disturbance contexts but information on the full acoustic repertoire is lacking for most species. Yet, this knowledge is critical to enable monitoring fish populations in nature through acoustic monitoring.

Methods

In this study we characterized the sounds emitted during disturbance and voluntary contexts by juvenile and adult meagre, Argyrosomus regius, in laboratory conditions. Breeding sounds produced by captive adults were also compared with meagre sounds registered in the Tagus estuary (Lisbon, Portugal) from unseen fish during the breeding season.

Results

The present dataset demonstrates for the first time that in this species dominant frequency is inversely related to fish size, and that sounds vary according to sex, context and age. Sounds from captive breeding adults were similar to sounds recorded in the field.

Discussion

Our findings indicate that A. regius sound features carry information about size, sex, age and motivation. This variability could potentially be used to identify meagre in the field and to infer about ontogenetic phase (i.e., juveniles vs. adults, and variation with size) and motivation (e.g., spawning). Future studies should confirm sex differences and ascertain the influence of water temperature on acoustic features.

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<![CDATA[Effects of chronic prazosin, an alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist, on anxiety-like behavior and cortisol levels in a chronic unpredictable stress model in zebrafish (Danio rerio)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N90c7b43a-c7de-4e7c-a1c1-0ea2d49f49e7

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often associated with significant neuroendocrine dysfunction and a variety of other symptoms. Today, there are limited efficacious treatment options for PTSD, none of which directly target the dysfunction observed with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The development of new pharmacological treatments is expensive and time consuming; thus, there is utility in repurposing compounds already approved for use in other conditions. One medication in particular that has shown promise for the alleviation of PTSD symptoms is prazosin, an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist used to treat hypertension. While there have been many studies indicating the efficacy of prazosin in the treatment of PTSD symptoms, no studies fully elucidate mechanisms elicited by this treatment, nor is it clear if prazosin normalizes neuroendocrine dysfunction associated with trauma exposure. The use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been growing in popularity, in part, due to the homology of the stress response system with mammals. In this study, the zebrafish model was utilized to determine behavioral and biological changes induced by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) and how these effects could be modulated by chronic prazosin treatment. The results indicated that 7d of CUS increased anxiety-like behavior in the novel tank test and decreased basal levels of cortisol. Chronic (7d) prazosin treatment decreased anxiety-like behaviors overall but did not appear to affect CUS-induced changes in behavior and basal cortisol levels. This suggests that the clinical effectiveness of prazosin may not normalize dysregulated stress responses prevalent in many patients with PTSD, but that prazosin-induced relief from anxiety in stress-related conditions may involve an alternative mechanism other than by normalizing neuroendocrine dysfunction.

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<![CDATA[Metabolic response of Scapharca subcrenata to heat stress using GC/MS-based metabolomics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N16003d24-61f3-4c58-a1b3-3d26eff715f7

Marine mollusks are commonly subjected to heat stress. To evaluate the effects of heat stress on the physiological metabolism of the ark shell Scapharca subcrenata, clams were exposed to different high temperatures (24, 28 and 32 °C) for 72 h. The oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates were measured at 2, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. The results indicated that the metabolic rates of the ark shell significantly increased with increasing heat stress, accompanied by mortalities in response to prolonged exposure. A metabolomics approach based on gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was further applied to assess the changes of metabolites in the mantle of the ark shell at 32 °C. Moreover, multivariate and pathway analyses were conducted for the different metabolites. The results showed that the heat stress caused changes in energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, osmotic regulation, carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism through different metabolic pathways. These results are consistent with the significant changes of oxygen consumption rate and ammonia excretion rate. The present study contributes to the understanding of the impacts of heat stress on intertidal bivalves and elucidates the relationship between individual-level responses and underlying molecular metabolic dynamics.

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<![CDATA[Accelerated brain aging towards transcriptional inversion in a zebrafish model of the K115fs mutation of human PSEN2]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N35618ab8-cca5-47c4-ba7f-8d3941adbaaf

Background

The molecular changes involved in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) progression remain unclear since we cannot easily access antemortem human brains. Some non-mammalian vertebrates such as the zebrafish preserve AD-relevant transcript isoforms of the PRESENILIN genes lost from mice and rats. One example is PS2V, the alternative transcript isoform of the PSEN2 gene. PS2V is induced by hypoxia/oxidative stress and shows increased expression in late onset, sporadic AD brains. A unique, early onset familial AD mutation of PSEN2, K115fs, mimics the PS2V coding sequence suggesting that forced, early expression of PS2V-like isoforms may contribute to AD pathogenesis. Here we use zebrafish to model the K115fs mutation to investigate the effects of forced PS2V-like expression on the transcriptomes of young adult and aged adult brains.

Methods

We edited the zebrafish genome to model the K115fs mutation. To explore its effects at the molecular level, we analysed the brain transcriptome and proteome of young (6-month-old) and aged (24-month-old) wild type and heterozygous mutant female sibling zebrafish. Finally, we used gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to compare molecular changes in the brains of these fish to human AD.

Results

Young heterozygous mutant fish show transcriptional changes suggesting accelerated brain aging and increased glucocorticoid signalling. These early changes precede a transcriptional ‘inversion’ that leads to glucocorticoid resistance and other likely pathological changes in aged heterozygous mutant fish. Notably, microglia-associated immune responses regulated by the ETS transcription factor family are altered in both our zebrafish mutant model and in human AD. The molecular changes we observe in aged heterozygous mutant fish occur without obvious histopathology and possibly in the absence of Aβ.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that forced expression of a PS2V-like isoform contributes to immune and stress responses favouring AD pathogenesis. This highlights the value of our zebrafish genetic model for exploring molecular mechanisms involved in AD pathogenesis.

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<![CDATA[Population genetics of swamp eel in the Yangtze River: comparative analyses between mitochondrial and microsatellite data provide novel insights]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc43376eb-1976-473f-88de-4adb57ed8032

The swamp eel (Monopterus albus) is a typical sex reversal fish with high economic value. Several phylogeographic studies have been performed using various markers but comparative research between mitochondrial and nuclear markers is rare. Here, a fine-scale study was performed across six sites along the Yangtze River including three sites on the main stem and three sites from tributaries. A total of 180 swamp eel individuals were collected. Genetic structure and demographic history were explored using data from two mitochondrial genes and eight microsatellite loci. The results revealed the samples from tributary sites formed three separate clades which contained site-specific lineages. Geographic isolation and the habitat patchiness caused by seasonal cutoff were inferred to be the reasons for this differentiation. Strong gene flow was detected among the sites along the main stem. Rapid flow of the river main stem may provide the dynamic for the migration of swamp eel. Interestingly, the comparative analyses between the two marker types was discordant. Mitochondrial results suggested samples from three tributary sites were highly differentiated. However, microsatellite analyses indicated the tributary samples were moderately differentiated. We conclude this discordance is mainly caused by the unique life history of sex reversal fish. Our study provides novel insights regarding the population genetics of sex reversal fish.

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<![CDATA[Comparative analysis of cutaneous bacterial communities of farmed Rana dybowskii after gentamycin bath]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd545f94c-f12a-4b8f-95c0-a38dd6e755fd

Introduction

Pathogenic bacteria limit the success of Rana dybowskii breeding. Gentamicin is used to treat R. dybowskii disease. To understand the effects of gentamicin on the composition and structure of the cutaneous bacterial community of R. dybowskii, three groups (control, gentamicin and recovery) were established in this study.

Materials & Methods

The V3–V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was analyzed in samples by high-throughput sequencing. Alpha diversity and beta diversity were evaluated to compare the cutaneous bacterial community diversity.

Results

A total of 1,159,668 valid sequences and 3,132 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from these three experimental groups. The number of OTUs obtained in the control group, gentamicin group and recovery group were 2,194, 2,288, and 2,047, respectively, and the number of shared OTUs was 1,313. The alpha diversity of the cutaneous bacterial community was not significantly affected by gentamicin, while beta diversity was significantly affected.

Discussion & Conclusions

The effect of a gentamicin bath on relative species abundance was greater than the effect on the species composition. The changes in Proteobacteria, Acinetobacter, and Chryseobacterium were significant, and reductions were observed after the recovery period. Six potentially pathogenic genera were detected, including Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Chryseobacterium, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus. Among them, Aeromonas and Chryseobacterium were significantly inhibited by the gentamicin bath. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis for the application of gentamicin in R. dybowskii breeding.

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<![CDATA[Reproductive life-history strategies in a species-rich assemblage of Amazonian electric fishes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N810c6abb-a507-4d5b-89ae-f4ccddeb69e1

The reproductive biology of only a small fraction of Neotropical freshwater fishes has been described, and detailed comparative studies of reproductive life-history variation in the Neotropical ichthyofauna are lacking. Here we describe interspecific variation in reproductive life history for a multi-species assemblage of the electric knifefish genus Brachyhypopomus (Hypopomidae: Gymnotiformes: Ostariophysi) from Amazonian floodplain and terra firme stream systems. During a year-round quantitative sampling program, we collected and measured key life-history traits from 3,410 individuals. Based on oocyte size distributions, and on circannual variation in gonadosomatic indices, hepatosomatic indices, and capture-per-unit-effort abundance of reproductive adults, we concluded that all species exhibit a single protracted annual breeding season during which females spawn fractionally. We found small clusters of post-larval individuals in one floodplain species and one terra firme stream species, but no signs of parental care. From analyses of body size-frequency distributions and otolith growth increments, we concluded that five species in our study area have approximately one-year (annual) semelparous life history with a single reproductive period followed by death, while two species have a two-year iteroparous life history, with breeding in both year-groups. Despite predictions from life-history theory we found no salient correlations between life history strategy (semelparity or iteroparity) and habitat occupancy (floodplain or terra firme stream). In the iteroparous species B. beebei, we documented evidence for reproductive restraint in the first breeding season relative to the second breeding season and argue that this is consistent with age-regulated terminal investment.

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<![CDATA[Microglia exit the CNS in spinal root avulsion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c79a3e5d5eed0c4841d1bf2

Microglia are central nervous system (CNS)-resident cells. Their ability to migrate outside of the CNS, however, is not understood. Using time-lapse imaging in an obstetrical brachial plexus injury (OBPI) model, we show that microglia squeeze through the spinal boundary and emigrate to peripheral spinal roots. Although both macrophages and microglia respond, microglia are the debris-clearing cell. Once outside the CNS, microglia re-enter the spinal cord in an altered state. These peripheral nervous system (PNS)-experienced microglia can travel to distal CNS areas from the injury site, including the brain, with debris. This emigration is balanced by two mechanisms—induced emigration via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA) dependence and restriction via contact-dependent cellular repulsion with macrophages. These discoveries open the possibility that microglia can migrate outside of their textbook-defined regions in disease states.

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