ResearchPad - fluorescence-imaging https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[DLX1008 (brolucizumab), a single-chain anti-VEGF-A antibody fragment with low picomolar affinity, leads to tumor involution in an <i>in vivo</i> model of Kaposi Sarcoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14618 Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) is among the most angiogenic cancers in humans and an AIDS-defining condition. KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is necessary for KS development, as is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A). DLX1008 is a novel anti-VEGF-A antibody single-chain variable fragment (scFv) with low picomolar affinity for VEGF-A. In vivo imaging techniques were used to establish the efficacy of DLX1008 and to establish the mechanism of action; this included non-invasive imaging by ultrasound and optical fluorescence, verified by post-mortem histochemistry. The results showed that DLX1008 was efficacious in a KS mouse model. The NSG mouse xenografts suffered massive internal necrosis or involution, consistent with a lack of blood supply. We found that imaging by ultrasound was superior to external caliper measurements in the validation of the angiogenesis inhibitor DLX1008. Further development of DLX1008 against VEGF-dependent sarcomas is warranted.

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<![CDATA[Early cell-autonomous accumulation of neutral lipids during infection promotes mycobacterial growth]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14614 Lipids represent an important source of nutrition for infecting mycobacteria, accumulating within the necrotic core of granulomas and present in foamy macrophages associated with mycobacterial infection. In order to better understand the timing, process and importance of lipid accumulation, we developed methods for direct in vivo visualization and quantification of this process using the zebrafish-M. marinum larval model of infection. We find that neutral lipids accumulate cell-autonomously in mycobacterium-infected macrophages in vivo during early infection, with detectable levels of accumulation by two days post-infection. Treatment with ezetimibe, an FDA-approved drug, resulted in decreased levels of free cholesterol and neutral lipids, and a reduction of bacterial growth in vivo. The effect of ezetimibe in reducing bacterial growth was dependent on the mce4 operon, a key bacterial determinant of lipid utilization. Thus, in vivo, lipid accumulation can occur cell-autonomously at early timepoints of mycobacterial infection, and limitation of this process results in decreased bacterial burden.

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<![CDATA[Quantitative live imaging of Venus::BMAL1 in a mouse model reveals complex dynamics of the master circadian clock regulator]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13838 Cell-autonomous circadian clocks are transcriptional/translational feedback loops that co-ordinate almost all mammalian physiology and behaviour. Although their genetic basis is well understood, we are largely ignorant of the natural behaviour of clock proteins and how they work within these loops. This is particularly true for the essential transcriptional activator BMAL1. To address this, we created and validated a mouse carrying a fully functional knock-in allele that encodes a fluorescent fusion of BMAL1 (Venus::BMAL1). Quantitative live imaging in tissue explants and cells, including the central clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), revealed the circadian expression, nuclear-cytoplasmic mobility, fast kinetics and surprisingly low molecular abundance of endogenous BMAL1, providing significant quantitative insights into the intracellular mechanisms of circadian timing at single-cell resolution.

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<![CDATA[Observation and quantification of the morphological effect of trypan blue rupturing dead or dying cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nce15bf32-82da-4cd0-8031-f3eea4581b61

Trypan blue has long been the gold standard for staining dead cell to determine cell viability. The dye is excluded from membrane-intact live cells, but can enter and concentrate in membrane-compromised dead cells, rendering the cells dark blue. Over the years, there has been an understanding that trypan blue is inaccurate for cell viability under 80% without scientific support. We previously showed that trypan blue can alter the morphology of dead cells to a diffuse shape, which can lead to over-estimation of viability. Here, we investigate the origin of the dim and diffuse objects after trypan blue staining. Utilizing image and video acquisition, we show real-time transformation of cells into diffuse objects when stained with trypan blue. The same phenomenon was not observed when staining cells with propidium iodide. We also demonstrate the co-localization of trypan blue and propidium iodide, confirming these diffuse objects as cells that contain nuclei. The videos clearly show immediate cell rupturing after trypan blue contact. The formation of these diffuse objects was monitored and counted over time as cells die outside of the incubator. We hypothesize and demonstrate that rapid water influx may have caused the cells to rupture and disappear. Since some dead cells disappear after trypan blue staining, the total can be under-counted, leading to over-estimation of cell viability. This inaccuracy could affect the outcomes of cellular therapies, which require accurate measurements of immune cells that will be infused back into patients.

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<![CDATA[Enhanced in vivo-imaging in medaka by optimized anaesthesia, fluorescent protein selection and removal of pigmentation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9902e5d5eed0c484b98849

Fish are ideally suited for in vivo-imaging due to their transparency at early stages combined with a large genetic toolbox. Key challenges to further advance imaging are fluorophore selection, immobilization of the specimen and approaches to eliminate pigmentation. We addressed all three and identified the fluorophores and anaesthesia of choice by high throughput time-lapse imaging. Our results indicate that eGFP and mCherry are the best conservative choices for in vivo-fluorescence experiments, when availability of well-established antibodies and nanobodies matters. Still, mVenusNB and mGFPmut2 delivered highest absolute fluorescence intensities in vivo. Immobilization is of key importance during extended in vivo imaging. Here, traditional approaches are outperformed by mRNA injection of α-Bungarotoxin which allows a complete and reversible, transient immobilization. In combination with fully transparent juvenile and adult fish established by the targeted inactivation of both, oca2 and pnp4a via CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in medaka we could dramatically improve the state-of-the art imaging conditions in post-embryonic fish, now enabling light-sheet microscopy of the growing retina, brain, gills and inner organs in the absence of side effects caused by anaesthetic drugs or pigmentation.

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<![CDATA[DeephESC 2.0: Deep Generative Multi Adversarial Networks for improving the classification of hESC]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c89774dd5eed0c4847d2963

Human embryonic stem cells (hESC), derived from the blastocysts, provide unique cellular models for numerous potential applications. They have great promise in the treatment of diseases such as Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, diabetes mellitus, etc. hESC are a reliable developmental model for early embryonic growth because of their ability to divide indefinitely (pluripotency), and differentiate, or functionally change, into any adult cell type. Their adaptation to toxicological studies is particularly attractive as pluripotent stem cells can be used to model various stages of prenatal development. Automated detection and classification of human embryonic stem cell in videos is of great interest among biologists for quantified analysis of various states of hESC in experimental work. Currently video annotation is done by hand, a process which is very time consuming and exhaustive. To solve this problem, this paper introduces DeephESC 2.0 an automated machine learning approach consisting of two parts: (a) Generative Multi Adversarial Networks (GMAN) for generating synthetic images of hESC, (b) a hierarchical classification system consisting of Convolution Neural Networks (CNN) and Triplet CNNs to classify phase contrast hESC images into six different classes namely: Cell clusters, Debris, Unattached cells, Attached cells, Dynamically Blebbing cells and Apoptically Blebbing cells. The approach is totally non-invasive and does not require any chemical or staining of hESC. DeephESC 2.0 is able to classify hESC images with an accuracy of 93.23% out performing state-of-the-art approaches by at least 20%. Furthermore, DeephESC 2.0 is able to generate large number of synthetic images which can be used for augmenting the dataset. Experimental results show that training DeephESC 2.0 exclusively on a large amount of synthetic images helps to improve the performance of the classifier on original images from 93.23% to 94.46%. This paper also evaluates the quality of the generated synthetic images using the Structural SIMilarity (SSIM) index, Peak Signal to Noise ratio (PSNR) and statistical p-value metrics and compares them with state-of-the-art approaches for generating synthetic images. DeephESC 2.0 saves hundreds of hours of manual labor which would otherwise be spent on manually/semi-manually annotating more and more videos.

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<![CDATA[Subunits of the mechano-electrical transduction channel, Tmc1/2b, require Tmie to localize in zebrafish sensory hair cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648d15d5eed0c484c81f40

Mutations in transmembrane inner ear (TMIE) cause deafness in humans; previous studies suggest involvement in the mechano-electrical transduction (MET) complex in sensory hair cells, but TMIE’s precise role is unclear. In tmie zebrafish mutants, we observed that GFP-tagged Tmc1 and Tmc2b, which are subunits of the MET channel, fail to target to the hair bundle. In contrast, overexpression of Tmie strongly enhances the targeting of Tmc1-GFP and Tmc2b-GFP to stereocilia. To identify the motifs of Tmie underlying the regulation of the Tmcs, we systematically deleted or replaced peptide segments. We then assessed localization and functional rescue of each mutated/chimeric form of Tmie in tmie mutants. We determined that the first putative helix was dispensable and identified a novel critical region of Tmie, the extracellular region and transmembrane domain, which is required for both mechanosensitivity and Tmc2b-GFP expression in bundles. Collectively, our results suggest that Tmie’s role in sensory hair cells is to target and stabilize Tmc channel subunits to the site of MET.

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<![CDATA[Localization of near-infrared labeled antibodies to the central nervous system in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c706776d5eed0c4847c7081

Antibodies, including antibodies to the RNA binding protein heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, thus it is important to assess their biological activity using animal models of disease. Near-infrared optical imaging of fluorescently labeled antibodies and matrix metalloproteinase activity were measured and quantified in an animal model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We successfully labeled, imaged and quantified the fluorescence signal of antibodies that localized to the central nervous system of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Fluorescently labeled anti-heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 antibodies persisted in the central nervous system of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, colocalized with matrix metalloproteinase activity, correlated with clinical disease and shifted rostrally within the spinal cord, consistent with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis being an ascending paralysis. The fluorescent antibody signal also colocalized with matrix metalloproteinase activity in brain. Previous imaging studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis analyzed inflammatory markers such as cellular immune responses, dendritic cell activity, blood brain barrier integrity and myelination, but none assessed fluorescently labeled antibodies within the central nervous system. This data suggests a strong association between autoantibody localization and disease. This system can be used to detect other antibodies that might contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system including multiple sclerosis.

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<![CDATA[Evaluating the pharmacological response in fluorescence microscopy images: The Δm algorithm]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca2ed5eed0c48452a88e

Current drug discovery procedures require fast and effective quantification of the pharmacological response evoked in living cells by agonist compounds. In the case of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), the efficacy of a particular drug to initiate the endocytosis process is related to the formation of endocytic vesicles or endosomes and their subsequent internalisation within intracellular compartments that can be observed with high spatial and temporal resolution by fluorescence microscopy techniques. Recently, an algorithm has been proposed to evaluate the pharmacological response by estimating the number of endosomes per cell on time series of images. However, the algorithm was limited by the dependence on some manually set parameters and in some cases the quality of the image does not allow a reliable detection of the endosomes. Here we propose a simple, fast and automated image analysis method—the Δm algorithm- to quantify a pharmacological response with data obtained from fluorescence microscopy experiments. This algorithm does not require individual object detection and computes the relative increment of the third order moment in fluorescence microscopy images after filtering with the Laplacian of Gaussian function. It was tested on simulations demonstrating its ability to discriminate different experimental situations according to the number and the fluorescence signal intensity of the simulated endosomes. Finally and in order to validate this methodology with real data, the algorithm was applied to several time-course experiments based on the endocytosis of the mu opioid receptor (MOP) initiated by different agonist compounds. Each drug displayed a different Δm sigmoid time-response curve and statistically significant differences were observed among drugs in terms of efficacy and kinetic parameters.

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<![CDATA[Targeted fluorescence lifetime probes reveal responsive organelle viscosity and membrane fluidity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f151fd5eed0c48467ae1c

The only way to visually observe cellular viscosity, which can greatly influence biological reactions and has been linked to several human diseases, is through viscosity imaging. Imaging cellular viscosity has allowed the mapping of viscosity in cells, and the next frontier is targeted viscosity imaging of organelles and their microenvironments. Here we present a fluorescent molecular rotor/FLIM framework to image both organellar viscosity and membrane fluidity, using a combination of chemical targeting and organelle extraction. For demonstration, we image matrix viscosity and membrane fluidity of mitochondria, which have been linked to human diseases, including Alzheimer’s Disease and Leigh’s syndrome. We find that both are highly dynamic and responsive to small environmental and physiological changes, even under non-pathological conditions. This shows that neither viscosity nor fluidity can be assumed to be fixed and underlines the need for single-cell, and now even single-organelle, imaging.

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<![CDATA[Learning the sequence of influenza A genome assembly during viral replication using point process models and fluorescence in situ hybridization]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d65ed5eed0c484031d18

Within influenza virus infected cells, viral genomic RNA are selectively packed into progeny virions, which predominantly contain a single copy of 8 viral RNA segments. Intersegmental RNA-RNA interactions are thought to mediate selective packaging of each viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP). Clear evidence of a specific interaction network culminating in the full genomic set has yet to be identified. Using multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization to visualize four vRNP segments within a single cell, we developed image-based models of vRNP-vRNP spatial dependence. These models were used to construct likely sequences of vRNP associations resulting in the full genomic set. Our results support the notion that selective packaging occurs during cytoplasmic transport and identifies the formation of multiple distinct vRNP sub-complexes that likely form as intermediate steps toward full genomic inclusion into a progeny virion. The methods employed demonstrate a statistically driven, model based approach applicable to other interaction and assembly problems.

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<![CDATA[The tumor suppressor p53 can promote collective cellular migration]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df35cd5eed0c4845811ac

Loss of function of the tumor suppressor p53 is known to increase the rate of migration of cells transiting the narrow pores of the traditional Boyden chamber assay. Here by contrast we investigate how p53 impacts the rate of cellular migration within a 2D confluent cell layer and a 3D collagen-embedded multicellular spheroid. We use two human carcinoma cell lines, the bladder carcinoma EJ and the colorectal carcinoma HCT116. In the confluent 2-D cell layer, for both EJ and HCT cells the migratory speeds and effective diffusion coefficients for the p53 null cells were significantly smaller than in p53-expressing cells. Compared to p53 expressers, p53-null cells exhibited more organized cortical actin rings together with reduced front-rear cell polarity. Furthermore, loss of p53 caused cells to exert smaller traction forces upon their substrates, and reduced formation of cryptic lamellipodia. In the 3D multicellular spheroid, loss of p53 consistently reduced collective cellular migration into surrounding collagen matrix. As regards the role of p53 in cellular migration, extrapolation from the Boyden chamber assay to other cellular microenvironments is seen to be fraught even in terms of the sign of the effect. Together, these paradoxical results show that the effects of p53 on cellular migration are context-dependent.

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<![CDATA[Serotonin and neuropeptides are both released by the HSN command neuron to initiate Caenorhabditis elegans egg laying]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c536ad5d5eed0c484a479f2

Neurons typically release both a small-molecule neurotransmitter and one or more neuropeptides, but how these two types of signal from the same neuron might act together remains largely obscure. For example, serotonergic neurons in mammalian brain express the neuropeptide Substance P, but it is unclear how this co-released neuropeptide might modulate serotonin signaling. We studied this issue in C. elegans, in which all serotonergic neurons express the neuropeptide NLP-3. The serotonergic Hermaphrodite Specific Neurons (HSNs) are command motor neurons within the egg-laying circuit which have been shown to release serotonin to initiate egg-laying behavior. We found that egg-laying defects in animals lacking serotonin were far milder than in animals lacking HSNs, suggesting that HSNs must release other signal(s) in addition to serotonin to stimulate egg laying. While null mutants for nlp-3 had only mild egg-laying defects, animals lacking both serotonin and NLP-3 had severe defects, similar to those of animals lacking HSNs. Optogenetic activation of HSNs induced egg laying in wild-type animals, and in mutant animals lacking either serotonin or NLP-3, but failed to induce egg laying in animals lacking both. We recorded calcium activity in the egg-laying muscles of animals lacking either serotonin, NLP-3, or both. The single mutants, and to a greater extent the double mutant, showed muscle activity that was uncoordinated and unable to expel eggs. Specifically, the vm2 muscles cells, which are direct postsynaptic targets of the HSN, failed to contract simultaneously with other egg-laying muscle cells. Our results show that the HSN neurons use serotonin and the neuropeptide NLP-3 as partially redundant co-transmitters that together stimulate and coordinate activity of the target cells onto which they are released.

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<![CDATA[Golgin-160 and GMAP210 play an important role in U251 cells migration and invasion initiated by GDNF]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59feb7d5eed0c484135327

Gliomas are the most common malignant tumors of the brain and are characteristic of severe migration and invasion. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes glioma development process. However, the regulatory mechanisms of promoting occurrence and development of glioma have not yet been clearly elucidated. In the present study, the mechanism by which GDNF promotes glioma cell migration and invasion through regulating the dispersion and location of the Golgi apparatus (GA) is described. Following GDNF treatment, a change in the volume and position of GA was observed. The stack area of the GA was enlarged and it was more concentrated near the nucleus. Golgin-160 and Golgi microtubule-associated protein 210 (GMAP210) were identified as target molecules regulating GA positioning. In the absence of either golgin-160 or GMAP210 using lentivirus, the migration and invasion of U251 cells were decreased, while it was increased following GDNF. It was also found that the GA was decreased in size and dispersed following golgin-160 or GMAP210 knockdown, as determined by GA green fluorescence assay. Once GDNF was added, the above phenomenon would be twisted, and the concentrated location and volume of the GA was restored. In combination, the present data suggested that the regulation of the position and size of the GA by golgin-160 and GMAP210 play an important role in U251 cell migration and invasion.

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<![CDATA[A compact holographic projector module for high-resolution 3D multi-site two-photon photostimulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d62cd5eed0c484031834

Patterned two-photon (2P) photolysis via holographic illumination is a powerful method to investigate neuronal function because of its capability to emulate multiple synaptic inputs in three dimensions (3D) simultaneously. However, like any optical system, holographic projectors have a finite space-bandwidth product that restricts the spatial range of patterned illumination or field-of-view (FOV) for a desired resolution. Such trade-off between holographic FOV and resolution restricts the coverage within a limited domain of the neuron’s dendritic tree to perform highly resolved patterned 2P photolysis on individual spines. Here, we integrate a holographic projector into a commercial 2P galvanometer-based 2D scanning microscope with an uncaging unit and extend the accessible holographic FOV by using the galvanometer scanning mirrors to reposition the holographic FOV arbitrarily across the imaging FOV. The projector system utilizes the microscope’s built-in imaging functions. Stimulation positions can be selected from within an acquired 3D image stack (the volume-of-interest, VOI) and the holographic projector then generates 3D illumination patterns with multiple uncaging foci. The imaging FOV of our system is 800×800 μm2 within which a holographic VOI of 70×70×70 μm3 can be chosen at arbitrary positions and also moved during experiments without moving the sample. We describe the design and alignment protocol as well as the custom software plugin that controls the 3D positioning of stimulation sites. We demonstrate the neurobiological application of the system by simultaneously uncaging glutamate at multiple spines within dendritic domains and consequently observing summation of postsynaptic potentials at the soma, eventually resulting in action potentials. At the same time, it is possible to perform two-photon Ca2+ imaging in 2D in the dendrite and thus to monitor synaptic Ca2+ entry in selected spines and also local regenerative events such as dendritic action potentials.

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<![CDATA[Fluorescent labelling of membrane fatty acid transporter CD36 (SR-B2) in the extracellular loop]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c521873d5eed0c484798546

Context

Upon palmitate oversupply, membrane fatty acid-transporter CD36 (SR-B2) permanently translocates from endosomal storage to the sarcolemma, inducing lipotoxicity. CD36 translocation results from endosomal alkalinisation elicited by palmitate-induced disattachment of the cytoplasmic V1-subcomplex from the membrane-integrated V0-subcomplex of vacuolar-type H+-ATPase.

Objective

Develop a CD36 fluorescent labeling technique as initial step towards live cell imaging.

Methods

Three human CD36 (hCD36) mutants were constructed via insertion of a tetracysteine motif at different positions within the extracellular domain. Constructs were lentivirally transduced for subsequent CD36 labeling with fluorescein-arsenical hairpin-binder (FlAsH). Cell imaging was combined with V0/V1 immunostaining and Western blotting.

Results

Transduction of hCD36-wildtype and mutants yielded corresponding proteins in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Tetracysteine mutant-2 (hCD36-TC2) showed similar fatty acid uptake to wildtype. FlAsH staining revealed a speckled pattern reminiscent of endosomes. We found decreased V1 co-localization with CD36 upon high-palmitate culturing. Conversely, V0 consistently co-localized with CD36.

Conclusion

hCD36-TC2 is a possible candidate for application of biarsenical dyes in live imaging studies pending further investigation. Our data is compatible with V0/V1 disassembly in high-palmitate-treated cells.

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<![CDATA[Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 blocks fusion of sensitive but not resistant viruses by partitioning into virus-carrying endosomes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c46651fd5eed0c484517878

Late endosome-resident interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) inhibits fusion of diverse viruses, including Influenza A virus (IAV), by a poorly understood mechanism. Despite the broad antiviral activity of IFITM3, viruses like Lassa virus (LASV), are fully resistant to its inhibitory effects. It is currently unclear whether resistance arises from a highly efficient fusion machinery that is capable of overcoming IFITM3 restriction or the ability to enter from cellular sites devoid of this factor. Here, we constructed and validated a functional IFITM3 tagged with EGFP or other fluorescent proteins. This breakthrough allowed live cell imaging of virus co-trafficking and fusion with endosomal compartments in cells expressing fluorescent IFITM3. Three-color single virus and endosome tracking revealed that sensitive (IAV), but not resistant (LASV), viruses become trapped within IFITM3-positive endosomes where they underwent hemifusion but failed to release their content into the cytoplasm. IAV fusion with IFITM3-containing compartments could be rescued by amphotericin B treatment, which has been previously shown to antagonize the antiviral activity of this protein. By comparison, virtually all LASV particles trafficked and fused with endosomes lacking detectable levels of fluorescent IFITM3, implying that this virus escapes restriction by utilizing endocytic pathways that are distinct from the IAV entry pathways. The importance of virus uptake and transport pathways is further reinforced by the observation that LASV glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion is inhibited by IFITM3 and other members of the IFITM family expressed in target cells. Together, our results strongly support a model according to which IFITM3 accumulation at the sites of virus fusion is a prerequisite for its antiviral activity and that this protein traps viral fusion at a hemifusion stage by preventing the formation of fusion pores. We conclude that the ability to utilize alternative endocytic pathways for entry confers IFITM3-resistance to otherwise sensitive viruses.

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<![CDATA[<i>PLoS Genetics</i> Issue Image | Vol. 15(1) January 2019]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca275d5eed0c48441e41f

DNA repair during meiosis and chromosomal bridges.

Meiotic cells respond to DNA damage triggering diverse repair mechanisms in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Sequential activation of these mechanisms contribute to accurately maintain genome integrity. However, when spermatocytes are exposed to exogenous DNA damaging agents, like gamma radiation, repair homeostasis may be stressed and chromosomes sometimes engage in aberrant connections with non-homologous chromosomes. Super-resolution fluorescence image (STED) of two meiotic bivalents labelled with an antibody against the SYCP3 protein of the synaptonemal complex. Parallel lines represent the trajectory of homologous chromosomes within each bivalent. A protein filament bridges from one bivalent to the other, connecting two non-homologous chromosomes. See Enguita-Marruedo et al.

Download January's cover page.

Image Credit: Marta Martín-Ruiz

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<![CDATA[<i>PLoS Computational Biology</i> Issue Image | Vol. 15(1) January 2019]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca277d5eed0c48441e448

Spatial dependencies between influenza virus vRNPs.

In influenza virus infected cells, eight viral genomic RNPs are assembled into progeny virions, which predominantly contain one copy of each. Using sets of fluorescence microscope images of four vRNPs, the likelihood that the subcellular distribution of one vRNP can be predicted from the distribution of another was estimated for all pairs of vRNPs with significant relationships. The thick base of the bands indicates the vRNP whose location can be used to predict the location of the vRNP indicated by the thin base. These pairwise and higher order relationships were used to infer the assembly network for all eight vRNPs.

Image Credit: Timothy D. Majarian, Robert F. Murphy and Seema S. Lakdawala. © 2018, Carnegie Mellon University

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<![CDATA[Regulation of pollen lipid body biogenesis by MAP kinases and downstream WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2d2eb5d5eed0c484d9b346

Signaling pathways that control the activities in non-photosynthetic plastids, important sites of plant metabolism, are largely unknown. Previously, we demonstrated that WRKY2 and WRKY34 transcription factors play an essential role in pollen development downstream of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MPK3) and MPK6 in Arabidopsis. Here, we report that GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE/PHOSPHATE TRANSLOCATOR 1 (GPT1) is a key target gene of WRKY2/WRKY34. GPT1 transports glucose-6-phosphate (Glc6P) into plastids for starch and/or fatty acid biosynthesis depending on the plant species. Loss of function of WRKY2/WRKY34 results in reduced GPT1 expression, and concomitantly, reduced accumulation of lipid bodies in mature pollen, which leads to compromised pollen viability, germination, pollen tube growth, and male transmission in Arabidopsis. Pollen-specific overexpression of GPT1 rescues the pollen defects of wrky2 wrky34 double mutant. Furthermore, gain-of-function activation of MPK3/MPK6 enhances GPT1 expression; whereas GPT1 expression is reduced in mkk4 mkk5 double mutant. Together, this study revealed a cytoplasmic/nuclear signaling pathway capable of coordinating the metabolic activities in plastids. High-level expression of GPT1 at late stages of pollen development drives Glc6P from cytosol into plastids, where Glc6P is used for fatty acid biosynthesis, an important step of lipid body biogenesis. The accumulation of lipid bodies during pollen maturation is essential to pollen fitness and successful reproduction.

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