ResearchPad - food https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The association between national income and adult obesity prevalence: Empirical insights into temporal patterns and moderators of the association using 40 years of data across 147 countries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13857 At a country level, population obesity prevalence is often associated with economic affluence, reflecting a potential adverse outcome concomitant with economic growth. We estimated the pattern and strength of the empirically observed relationship between national income and adult obesity prevalence, and the moderating role of countries’ macro-environments on this relationship.MethodsWe assembled data on national obesity prevalence, income and a range of variables that characterize macro-environments related to 147 countries from multiple international organizations and databases. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate the relationship (elasticities) between national income (using Gross Domestic Product Per Capita, GDPPC) and adult obesity prevalence, and the moderating effects of five different dimensions (globalization orientation, demographic characteristics, economic environment, labor market characteristics, and strength of health policies) of countries’ macro-environments on the income elasticities. Using the latest (2019–2024) available national income growth projections from the International Monetary Fund, we forecast future global trends in obesity prevalence.FindingsOver the 40-years 1975–2014, adult obesity prevalence increased at a declining rate with GDPPC across the 147 countries. The mean income elasticity estimates were 1.23 (95% credible interval 1.04–1.42) for males and 1.01 (0.82–1.18) for females. The elasticities were positively associated with the extent of political globalization and negatively associated with urbanization and share of agriculture in the national GDP. Income based projections indicate that obesity prevalence would continue to grow at an average annual rate of 2.47% across the studied countries during 2019–2024.ConclusionsPopulation obesity prevalence exhibits a positive relationship with national income and there is no evidence that the relationship, while weakening, actually turns negative at higher income levels (“obesity Kuznets curve”). Based on current trends, global obesity prevalence will continue to increase during 2019–2024, with the rate of growth higher in low- and middle-income countries. As most people currently live in low- and middle-income countries with rising incomes, our findings underscore the urgent societal imperatives for effective policy initiatives, especially those that target the concomitant “nutrition transition” process with economic affluence, to break or at least further weaken the positive relationship of population obesity prevalence with national income. ]]> <![CDATA[Likely questionnaire-diagnosed food allergy in 78, 890 adults from the northern Netherlands]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13854 It is challenging to define likely food allergy (FA) in large populations which limited the number of large studies regarding risk factors for FA.ObjectiveWe studied the prevalence and characteristics of self-reported FA (s-rFA) in the large, population-based Dutch Lifelines cohort and identified associated risk factors.MethodsLikely food allergic cases (LikelyFA) were classified based on questionnaire reported characteristics consistent with FA. Subjects with atypical characteristics were classified as Indeterminate. We investigated 13 potential risk factors for LikelyFA such as birth mode and living on a farm and addressed health-related quality of life (H-RQOL).ResultsOf the 78, 890 subjects, 12.1% had s-rFA of which 4.0% and 8.1% were classified as LikelyFA and Indeterminate, respectively. Younger age, female sex, asthma, eczema and nasal allergy increased the risk of LikelyFA (p-value range <1.00*10−250–1.29*10−7). Living in a small city/large village or suburb during childhood was associated with a higher risk of LikelyFA than living on a farm (p-value = 7.81*10−4 and p = 4.84*10−4, respectively). Subjects classified as Indeterminate more often reported depression and burn-out compared to those without FA (p-value = 1.46*10−4 and p = 8.39*10−13, respectively). No association was found with ethnicity, (duration of) breastfeeding, birth mode and reported eating disorder. Mental and physical component scores measuring H-RQOL were lower in both those classified as LikelyFA and Indeterminate compared to those without FA.ConclusionThe prevalence of s-rFA among adults is considerable and one-third reports characteristics consistent with LikelyFA. Living on a farm decreased the risk of LikelyFA. The association of poorer H-RQOL as well as depression and burn-out with questionable self-perceived FA is striking and a priority for future study. ]]> <![CDATA[Fruit and vegetable consumption in Europe according to gender, educational attainment and regional affiliation—A cross-sectional study in 21 European countries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13846 The purpose of the present study was to examine fruit and vegetable consumption according to gender, educational attainment and regional affiliation in Europe.DesignCross-sectional study.Setting21 European countries.Participants37 672 adults participating in the 7th round of the European Social Survey.Main outcome measuresFruit and vegetable consumption was measured using two single frequency questions. Responses were dichotomized into low (<once a day) and high (≥once a day) consumption. The association between consumption of fruit and vegetables and gender, educational level, regional affiliation was examined using logistic regression analyses.ResultsOverall, females showed increased odds of consuming fruit (OR 1.71 (95%CI:1.62, 1.79) and vegetable (1.59 (1.51, 1.67)) compared to males and high educated participants showed increased odds of consuming fruit (1.53 (1.43, 1.63)) and vegetables (1.86 (1.74, 2.00)) compared to low educated participants. Our results also showed that participants living in Eastern Europe had the lowest odds of consuming fruit and vegetables, whereas participants from Southern- and Northern Europe had the highest odds of consuming fruit and vegetables, respectively. Results from interaction analyses confirmed the positive association between fruit and vegetable consumption and educational level, although for some European regions, decreased odds of fruit and vegetables was observed among medium educated participants compared to those with low education.ConclusionsOverall, the present study showed that being female and having a high education were associated with increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. However, the direction and strength of these relationships depends on regional affiliations. ]]> <![CDATA[SNP markers for low molecular glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) at the <i>Glu-A3</i> and <i>Glu-B3</i> loci in bread wheat]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13817 The content and composition of seed storage proteins is largely responsible for wheat end-use quality. They mainly consist of polymeric glutenins and monomeric gliadins. According to their electrophoretic mobility, gliadins and glutenins are subdivided into several fractions. Glutenins are classified as high molecular weight or low molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs and LMW-GSs, respectively). LMW-GSs are encoded by multigene families located at the orthologous Glu-3 loci. We designed a set of 16 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers that are able to detect SDS-PAGE alleles at the Glu-A3 and Glu-B3 loci. The SNP markers captured the diversity of alleles in 88 international reference lines and 27 Mexican cultivars, when compared to SDS-PAGE and STS markers, however, showed a slightly larger percent of multiple alleles, mainly for Glu-B3. SNP markers were then used to determine the Glu-1 and Glu-3 allele composition in 54 CIMMYT historical lines and demonstrated to be useful tool for breeding programs to improve wheat end product properties.

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<![CDATA[Supplementation with Sea Vegetables <i>Palmaria mollis</i> and <i>Undaria pinnatifida</i> Exerts Metabolic Benefits in Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10250 Sea vegetable Pacific dulse and wakame supplementation exhibits protective effects against obesity-associated metabolic complications in C57BL/6J mice by increasing lipid excretion, reducing systemic inflammatory markers, and mitigating gut microbiome alteration.

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<![CDATA[Resetting the Narrative in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition Research]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10006 As the oldest continuous living civilizations in the world, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have strength, tenacity, and resilience. Initial colonization of the landscape included violent dispossession and removal of people from Country to expand European land tenure and production systems, loss of knowledge holders through frontier violence, and formal government policies of segregation and assimilation designed to destroy ontological relationships with Country and kin. The ongoing manifestations of colonialism continue to affect food systems and food knowledges of Aboriginal peoples, and have led to severe health inequities and disproportionate rates of nutrition-related health conditions. There is an urgent need to collaborate with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples to address nutrition and its underlying determinants in a way that integrates Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ understandings of food and food systems, health, healing, and well-being. We use the existing literature to discuss current ways that Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are portrayed in the literature in relation to nutrition, identify knowledge gaps that require further research, and propose a new way forward.

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<![CDATA[Brazilian vegetarians diet quality markers and comparison with the general population: A nationwide cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7851 Vegetarianism is an increasingly common practice worldwide. Despite good evidence from other countries regarding vegetarians’ diet quality, data from the Brazilian population is still scarce.ObjectiveTo characterize the vegetarian Brazilian population and evaluate their diet quality compared to the general Brazilian population.MethodsWe performed a nationwide cross-sectional study using an online self-administered questionnaire, previously validated for the Brazilian population, to evaluate diet quality markers of vegetarians. The invitation to participate in the survey was spread nationwide, aimed at vegetarian communities. Individuals who considered themselves vegetarians and were at least 18 years old were eligible to participate. The results on regular intake and intake adequacy were compared among vegetarians and between genders using the Pearson’s chi-square test. The body mass index (BMI) were analyzed by the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey post-hoc test. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test verified normality. All analyses considered bilateral hypotheses and a significance level of 5% (p <0.05).ResultsBrazilian vegetarians presented better diet quality markers, such as higher regular weekly intake and adequate daily intake of fruits and vegetables, and lower regular intake of soft drinks when compared to the general Brazilian population. Vegetarians also presented a proportionally higher consumption of natural foods and lower consumption of processed foods. Among vegetarians, a higher proportion of vegans showed positive results regarding diet markers analysis, when compared to vegetarians, pesco-vegetarians, and semi-vegetarians.ConclusionsVegetarians showed better results of diet adequacy when compared to the general population in Brazil, and vegans fared better when compared with other vegetarians. Despite the good results found, a large proportion of the participants still did not achieve the fruits and vegetables daily intake, according to the World Health Organization recommendations. ]]> <![CDATA[Analytic Framework to Determine Proximity in Relationship Coffee Models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7143 In conventional food systems, there are often large social and geographical distances between production and consumption. Alternative food networks (AFNs) like relationship coffee models aim to shorten these distances through direct contacts, communication, trust, transparency or commitment to improve farmers’ livelihoods. These relationship coffee models appear in diverse shapes with various implications for producers. Therefore, we deductively develop a framework to conceptualise proximity in four dimensions (organisational, institutional, cognitive and social) with subdimensions and three transversal dimensions ((temporary) geographical proximity, power, and communication). The analytic framework is complemented by an illustrative case to empirically test it, showing high geographical, organisational, institutional and cognitive proximity but low social proximity between coffee producer and restaurant owner. For future research, the framework can help to conceptualise proximity or to distinguish different types of relationship coffee models and to unpack conditions under which relationship coffees can increase proximity between coffee producers and buyers, often located far apart.

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<![CDATA[Proximate composition, functional properties and quantitative analysis of benzoyl peroxide and benzoic acid in wheat flour samples: effect on wheat flour quality]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0736ec7d-e38f-4e4c-ab71-fcfab2852b5d

Background

Extensive milling processes have deprived wheat flour from essential nutrients. The objective of the current study was to assess the nutritive quality of commercial wheat flour (soft flour (SF)) through analyses of proximate composition and functional properties as well as quantification of benzoyl peroxide (BPO; added as bleaching agent in the SF) by comparing the results with whole wheat flour (WF; never received any additives).

Methods

The samples included commercial SF purchased from the local supplier of different flour mills (who use BPO as additive) and a control sample without additives was prepared by grinding the seeds harvested from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.; Inqulab 91) crop grown in the experimental field of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, under optimized field conditions without any fertilizers and insecticides. Functional properties (including bulk density, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, emulsifying activity, foaming capacity, least gelatinization concentration and gelatinization temperature) and proximate composition (including moisture content, ash contents, crude protein, gluten and starch contents) were determined and compared for all the samples. Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and Benzoic Acid (BA) quantification was performed through High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Finally dietary intake was estimated for BPO and BA.

Results

Results showed that SF had lesser fiber, protein and ash contents, whereas, higher damaged starch, fat, gluten and bulk density. A parallel experiment under selected conditions (temperature, time and solute concentration) showed dissociation of BPO into BA soon after the exposure. Observed BA range (13.77 mg/g after 16 h) in SF and exposure level assessment (44.3 ± 1.36 mg/kg/BW) showed higher intake of BA on the consumption of SF. The results revealed the superiority of WF over SF in nutritive qualities as well as free of toxicants such as BA.

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<![CDATA[Abomasitis in calves: A retrospective cohort study of 23 cases (2006‐2016)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4f1c3d22-ec3c-4baf-bcff-ab29288ae182

Abstract

Background

Abomasitis is a syndrome affecting young milk‐fed calves. The current veterinary literature describes mainly its necropsy findings.

Objectives

To describe the clinical presentation, complementary tests, treatments, and case‐fatality rate of calves with a clinical diagnosis of abomasitis and to identify potential factors associated with outcome.

Methods

Observational retrospective cohort study (2006‐2016). Review of the medical records of calves <3 months of age presented with abdominal and abomasal distension for <7 days that were clinically diagnosed with abomasitis at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the Université de Montréal. A follow‐up examination was conducted by telephone interview.

Animals

Twenty‐three calves clinically diagnosed with abomasitis.

Results

Median age of presentation was 3 days (range, 0‐62 days). The typical duration of the clinical course was <24 hours (15/23). On admission, the 2 most common clinical signs were anorexia (13/14) and positive succussion (13/14). Hyper‐l‐lactatemia (15/16) and increased γ‐glutamyl‐transferase activity (13/14) were the most common laboratory abnormalities. Hypoproteinemia (19/22) and a left shift (15/18) of the neutrophils also were observed. The short‐term case‐fatality rate was 52% (12/23). The clinical diagnosis was confirmed on all necropsied calves. Clostridium spp. and Escherichia coli were the most frequently isolated bacteria. Based on univariate statistical analysis, the surviving calves were significantly (P < .05) less hypothermic, less acidemic, less hyper‐l‐lactatemic, and had lower serum creatinine concentrations on admission than did the deceased calves.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

In our study, abomasitis was associated with a guarded prognosis.

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<![CDATA[Dental disease in alpacas. Part 2: Risk factors associated with diastemata, periodontitis, occlusal pulp exposure, wear abnormalities, and malpositioned teeth]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndcbc1a05-0f92-4e4d-9083-9d70931b3961

Abstract

Background

Dental disorders, of which tooth root abscesses are best documented, are highly prevalent in alpacas. Identification of risk factors can be valuable for prevention of dental disorders in this species.

Hypothesis/Objectives

To identify risk factors associated with wear abnormalities, malpositioning, diastemata, periodontal disease (PD), and occlusal pulp exposure at the level of the cheek teeth.

Animals

Two hundred twenty‐eight alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from 25 farms.

Methods

Cross‐sectional study. Dental examinations were performed on sedated animals. Risk factors were determined by clinical examination and interview. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for wear abnormalities, malpositioned teeth, diastemata, PD, and occlusal pulp exposure.

Results

Mandibular swelling was significantly associated with PD (odds ratio [OR], 11.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.27‐48.81; P < .001). Nearly 73% of included animals with mandibular swelling concurrently had PD. For every increase in herd size of 1 animal, the risk for PD increased by 2% (95% CI, 1‐4%; P = .01). The association between severe stages of PD and body condition score (BCS) indicates a painful situation, impairing animal welfare (P < .001). For each 1‐day increase in interval between pasture cleanings, the odds of finding pulp exposure for a single animal was estimated to increase by 1% (95% CI, 0‐2%; P = .05).

Conclusion and Clinical Importance

Simple management tools such as measuring BCS, palpating the mandible for bony swellings, removing feces from pasture on a regular basis and decreasing herd size might help identify animals at risk for dental disorders or prevent their development.

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<![CDATA[Altering the availability or proximity of food, alcohol, and tobacco products to change their selection and consumption]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbceebc93-f281-4f5e-aff6-e96f6bccd8cc

Abstract

Background

Overconsumption of food, alcohol, and tobacco products increases the risk of non‐communicable diseases. Interventions to change characteristics of physical micro‐environments where people may select or consume these products ‐ including shops, restaurants, workplaces, and schools – are of considerable public health policy and research interest. This review addresses two types of intervention within such environments: altering the availability (the range and/or amount of options) of these products, or their proximity (the distance at which they are positioned) to potential consumers.

Objectives

1. To assess the impact on selection and consumption of altering the availability or proximity of (a) food (including non‐alcoholic beverages), (b) alcohol, and (c) tobacco products.

2. To assess the extent to which the impact of these interventions is modified by characteristics of: i. studies, ii. interventions, and iii. participants.

Search methods

We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and seven other published or grey literature databases, as well as trial registries and key websites, up to 23 July 2018, followed by citation searches.

Selection criteria

We included randomised controlled trials with between‐participants (parallel group) or within‐participants (cross‐over) designs. Eligible studies compared effects of exposure to at least two different levels of availability of a product or its proximity, and included a measure of selection or consumption of the manipulated product.

Data collection and analysis

We used a novel semi‐automated screening workflow and applied standard Cochrane methods to select eligible studies, collect data, and assess risk of bias. In separate analyses for availability interventions and proximity interventions, we combined results using random‐effects meta‐analysis and meta‐regression models to estimate summary effect sizes (as standardised mean differences (SMDs)) and to investigate associations between summary effect sizes and selected study, intervention, or participant characteristics. We rated the certainty of evidence for each outcome using GRADE.

Main results

We included 24 studies, with the majority (20/24) giving concerns about risk of bias. All of the included studies investigated food products; none investigated alcohol or tobacco. The majority were conducted in laboratory settings (14/24), with adult participants (17/24), and used between‐participants designs (19/24). All studies were conducted in high‐income countries, predominantly in the USA (14/24).

Six studies investigated availability interventions, of which two changed the absolute number of different options available, and four altered the relative proportion of less‐healthy (to healthier) options. Most studies (4/6) manipulated snack foods or drinks. For selection outcomes, meta‐analysis of three comparisons from three studies (n = 154) found that exposure to fewer options resulted in a large reduction in selection of the targeted food(s): SMD −1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI) −1.90 to −0.37) (low certainty evidence). For consumption outcomes, meta‐analysis of three comparisons from two studies (n = 150) found that exposure to fewer options resulted in a moderate reduction in consumption of those foods, but with considerable uncertainty: SMD −0.55 (95% CI −1.27 to 0.18) (low certainty evidence).

Eighteen studies investigated proximity interventions. Most (14/18) changed the distance at which a snack food or drink was placed from the participants, whilst four studies changed the order of meal components encountered along a line. For selection outcomes, only one study with one comparison (n = 41) was identified, which found that food placed farther away resulted in a moderate reduction in its selection: SMD −0.65 (95% CI −1.29 to −0.01) (very low certainty evidence). For consumption outcomes, meta‐analysis of 15 comparisons from 12 studies (n = 1098) found that exposure to food placed farther away resulted in a moderate reduction in its consumption: SMD −0.60 (95% CI −0.84 to −0.36) (low certainty evidence). Meta‐regression analyses indicated that this effect was greater: the farther away the product was placed; when only the targeted product(s) was available; when participants were of low deprivation status; and when the study was at high risk of bias.

Authors' conclusions

The current evidence suggests that changing the number of available food options or altering the positioning of foods could contribute to meaningful changes in behaviour, justifying policy actions to promote such changes within food environments. However, the certainty of this evidence as assessed by GRADE is low or very low. To enable more certain and generalisable conclusions about these potentially important effects, further research is warranted in real‐world settings, intervening across a wider range of foods ‐ as well as alcohol and tobacco products ‐ and over sustained time periods.

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<![CDATA[Dental disease in alpacas. Part 1: Prevalence of dental disorders and their mutual relationships]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N119c7b6f-ed3a-493b-8cd6-5bcc37258d90

Abstract

Background

Dental disease is a troublesome health concern in alpacas. Specifically, the occurrence of tooth root abscesses has been described in veterinary literature. Nevertheless, no objective prevalence data are available for dental disorders in alpacas.

Hypothesis/objectives

To determine the prevalence of dental disorders in alpaca herds in Belgium and the Netherlands. To study the associations between the different dental disorders encountered in alpacas.

Animals

A total of 228 alpacas (Vicugna pacos) originating from 25 farms.

Methods

This is a cross‐sectional study. Dental disorders were diagnosed by dental examination of sedated animals using a dental mirror or a portable rigid oroscope.

Results

At the animal level, 82% (n = 187) had dental disorders of which 74.6, 41.7, and 3.9% were cheek teeth, incisor disorders, and canine disorders, respectively. At the level of the cheek teeth, diastemata (43.1%) were most common, followed by wear abnormalities (WA; 39.6%) and periodontal disease (PD; 33.3%). A significant association was detected between the presence of diastemata and PD (odds ratio [OR], 13.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.6‐27.7; P < .001). Pulp exposure was significantly associated with the presence of diastemata (OR, 11.8; 95% CI, 3.8‐51.5; P < .001), PD (OR, 8.2; 95% CI, 3.1‐25.3; P < .001) and WA (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.2‐7.4; P = .002).

Conclusion and Clinical Importance

Dental disorders are highly prevalent in alpacas in Belgium and the Netherlands. Several dental disorders in alpacas had significant associations. To prevent the development of advanced stages of dental disease, routine dental examinations are advised to allow early detection and prompt treatment.

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<![CDATA[Long-term effect of the Brazilian Workers’ Food Program on the nutritional status of manufacturing workers: A population-based prospective cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N23375fc9-a89d-407e-9d06-75f348bd7d78

Background

The Brazilian Workers Food Program (WFP) is a public policy program of nutritional assistance to workers, with the main objective of improving nutritional conditions, which was implemented 40 years ago and serves over 21.4 million workers.

Objectives

To compare the long-term change in anthropometric indicators of the nutritional status and dietary intake between workers of manufacturing industries adherent to and non-adherent to the WFP.

Methods

A prospective cohort study, based on a combined stratified and multistage probability sampling, was carried out, with two waves with a 4-year interval. The change in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and dietary intake at lunch by the 24-hour recall method were compared between groups with analysis of covariance.

Results

A total of 273 workers in 16 industries from an initial cohort of 1069 workers in 26 industries of the State of Rio Grande do Norte in Brazil were evaluated in the two waves. The mean age was 37±10 years and 53.1% were male, with no differences between groups in age and sex distribution. BMI increased in both groups (0.44 kg/m2 in non-WFP, p = 0.003, and 0.56 kg/m2 in WFP, p = 0.0006) and WC increased in the WFP group (1.50 cm, p = 0.0006). BMI change over time did not show statistical differences between groups (p = 0.54) but WC had a greater increase in the WFP group (difference 1.37 cm, p = 0.047). There were no differences between groups in the change over time of the dietary intake.

Conclusion

BMI and WC increased over time in manufacturing workers of industries both adherent and non-adherent to the WFP, but with a greater increase of WC in the WFP group. In order to achieve the objectives of the WFP, there will be a need for periodic evaluation and monitoring of nutritional indicators in these workers and implementation of monitoring and enforcement actions of the WFP.

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<![CDATA[Beware of vested interests: Epistemic vigilance improves reasoning about scientific evidence (for some people)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na4c1a7a8-d330-434e-b120-e60e98785391

In public disputes, stakeholders sometimes misrepresent statistics or other types of scientific evidence to support their claims. One of the reasons this is problematic is that citizens often do not have the motivation nor the cognitive skills to accurately judge the meaning of statistics and thus run the risk of being misinformed. This study reports an experiment investigating the conditions under which people become vigilant towards a source’s claim and thus reason more carefully about the supporting evidence. For this, participants were presented with a claim by a vested-interest or a neutral source and with statistical evidence which was cited by the source as being in support of the claim. However, this statistical evidence actually contradicted the source’s claim but was presented as a contingency table, which are typically difficult for people to interpret correctly. When the source was a lobbyist arguing for his company’s product people were better at interpreting the evidence compared to when the same source argued against the product. This was not the case for a different vested-interests source nor for the neutral source. Further, while all sources were rated as less trustworthy when participants realized that the source had misrepresented the evidence, only for the lobbyist source was this seen as a deliberate attempt at deception. Implications for research on epistemic trust, source credibility effects and science communication are discussed.

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<![CDATA[Do parents counter-balance the carbon emissions of their children?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nea582d41-f072-4a93-882b-8bb6cca64243

It is well understood that adding to the population increases CO2 emissions. At the same time, having children is a transformative experience, such that it might profoundly change adult (i.e., parents’) preferences and consumption. How it might change is, however, unknown. Depending on if becoming a parent makes a person “greener” or “browner,” parents may either balance or exacerbate the added CO2 emissions from their children. Parents might think more about the future, compared to childless adults, including risks posed to their children from environmental events like climate change. But parenthood also adds needs and more intensive competition on your scarce time. Carbon-intensive goods can add convenience and help save time, e.g., driving may facilitate being in more places in one day, compared to public transportation or biking. Pre-prepared food that contain red meat may save time and satisfy more household preferences, relative to vegetarian food. We provide the first rigorous test of whether parents are greener or browner than other adults. We create a unique dataset by combining detailed micro data on household expenditures of all expenditure groups particularly important for CO2 emissions (transportation, food, and heating/electricity) with CO2 emissions, and compare emissions from Swedish adults with and without children. We find that parents emit more CO2 than childless adults. Only a small fraction of adults permanently choose not to have children, which means any meaningful self-selection into parenthood based on green preferences is unlikely. Our findings suggest that having children might increase CO2 emissions both by adding to the population and by increasing CO2 emissions from those choosing to have children.

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<![CDATA[Metabolic Syndrome Is Reduced in C57BL/6J Mice Fed High-Fat Diets Supplemented with Oak Tannins]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbfb4caab-92d8-472b-a01e-30fc6851f2b6

ABSTRACT

Background

Wine aged in oak barrels will incorporate polyphenols inherent in the staves, suggesting that wine stored in these wooden containers will introduce oak compounds into the human body after consumption.

Objective

The purpose of the present study is to test whether consumption of these oak compounds could favorably influence metabolism in mice fed an obesogenic diet.

Methods

C57BL/6  male mice (n = 8) were fed diets for 10 wk as follows: low-fat (LF), high-fat (HF), and HF containing 0.17% of oak tannin (HF+OT). A second 10-wk study was completed; mice were provided LF, HF, and HF diets supplemented with 7.0% of concentrates made from oaked wine (HF+OWC) or unoaked wine (HF+UWC). Physiological parameters were measured during the feeding trial and serum markers and hepatic gene expression measured from samples obtained at necropsy.

Results

Intake of HF+OT significantly reduced body-weight gain (18.4 ± 1.2 g in HF vs. 13.2 ± 1.4 g in HF+OT, P < 0.05). Serum resistin concentrations were lower in HF+OT mice compared with HF mice (301 ± 10.1 pg/mL in HF+OT vs. 374 ± 10.9 pg/mL in HF; P < 0.05). Hepatic lipid accumulation and expression of glutathione-S-transferase-m2 (Gstm2) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (Nqo1) mRNAs were significantly decreased in HF+OT compared with HF mice (P < 0.05). When compared with HF-fed mice, intake of both OWC and UWC decreased body-weight gain (P < 0.05), with no significant impact on food consumption. Fasting glucose concentrations, serum insulin, and hepatic lipid accumulation were reduced in HF+OWC-fed mice compared with HF+UWC-fed mice (P < 0.05). Furthermore, hepatic glutathione-S-transferase-a1 (Gsta1) mRNA levels were significantly reduced in OWC-supplemented (0.25 ± 0.08) compared with UWC-supplemented (1.71 ± 0.24) mice (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

In this mouse model of metabolic disease, intake of OTs and a concentrate made from an oaked wine had a potent impact on alleviating HF-induced metabolic syndrome. Thus, intake of OTs, provided passively in oaked wine or as a dietary supplement, may act as an agent to attenuate the markers of metabolic syndrome.

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<![CDATA[ Escherichia coli, cattle and the propagation of disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6efceab8-318a-4427-831e-f54eaf4c9be4

Abstract

Several early models describing host–pathogen interaction have assumed that each individual host has approximately the same likelihood of becoming infected or of infecting others. More recently, a concept that has been increasingly emphasized in many studies is that for many infectious diseases, transmission is not homogeneous but highly skewed at the level of populations. In what became known as the ‘20/80 rule’, about 20% of the hosts in a population were found to contribute to about 80% of the transmission potential. These heterogeneities have been described for the interaction between many microorganisms and their human or animal hosts. Several epidemiological studies have reported transmission heterogeneities for Escherichia coli by cattle, a phenomenon with far-reaching agricultural, medical and public health implications. Focusing on E. coli as a case study, this paper will describe super-spreading and super-shedding by cattle, review the main factors that shape these transmission heterogeneities and examine the interface with human health. Escherichia coli super-shedding and super-spreading by cattle are shaped by microorganism-specific, cattle-specific and environmental factors. Understanding the factors that shape heterogeneities in E. coli dispersion by cattle and the implications for human health represent key components that are critical for targeted infection control initiatives.

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<![CDATA[Competitive Exclusion Is a Major Bioprotective Mechanism of Lactobacilli against Fungal Spoilage in Fermented Milk Products]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1f1cc765-09bd-43b3-8246-c40a5a4d104d

In societies that have food choices, conscious consumers demand natural solutions to keep their food healthy and fresh during storage, simultaneously reducing food waste. The use of “good bacteria” to protect food against spoilage organisms has a long, successful history, even though the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we show that the depletion of free manganese is a major bioprotective mechanism of lactobacilli in dairy products. High manganese uptake and intracellular storage provide a link to the distinct, nonenzymatic, manganese-catalyzed oxidative stress defense mechanism, previously described for certain lactobacilli. The evaluation of representative Lactobacillus species in our study identifies multiple relevant species groups for fungal growth inhibition via manganese depletion. Hence, through the natural mechanism of nutrient depletion, the use of dedicated bioprotective lactobacilli constitutes an attractive alternative to artificial preservation.

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<![CDATA[Secretion of M2e:HBc fusion protein by Lactobacillus casei using Cwh signal peptide]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbca377d5-dc57-486f-828c-704a23970efa

The ability to serve as a delivery vehicle for various interesting biomolecules makes lactic acid bacteria (LAB) very useful in several applications. In the medical field, recombinant LAB expressing pathogenic antigens at different cellular locations have been used to elicit both mucosal and systemic immune responses. Expression–secretion vectors (ESVs) with a signal peptide (SP) are pivotal for protein expression and secretion. In this study, the genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei ATCC334 was explored for new SPs using bioinformatics tools. Three new SPs of the proteins Cwh, SurA and SP6565 were identified and used to construct an ESV based on our Escherichia coli–L. casei shuttle vector, pRCEID-LC13.9. Functional testing of these constructs with the green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene showed that they could secrete the GFP. The construct with CwhSP showed the highest GFP secretion. Consequently, CwhSP was selected to develop an ESV construct carrying a synthetic gene encoding the extracellular domain of the matrix 2 protein fused with the hepatitis B core antigen (M2e:HBc). This ESV was shown to efficiently express and secrete the M2e:HBc fusion protein. The identified SPs and the developed ESVs can be exploited for expression and secretion of homologous and heterologous proteins in L. casei.

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