ResearchPad - food-consumption https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The association between national income and adult obesity prevalence: Empirical insights into temporal patterns and moderators of the association using 40 years of data across 147 countries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13857 At a country level, population obesity prevalence is often associated with economic affluence, reflecting a potential adverse outcome concomitant with economic growth. We estimated the pattern and strength of the empirically observed relationship between national income and adult obesity prevalence, and the moderating role of countries’ macro-environments on this relationship.MethodsWe assembled data on national obesity prevalence, income and a range of variables that characterize macro-environments related to 147 countries from multiple international organizations and databases. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate the relationship (elasticities) between national income (using Gross Domestic Product Per Capita, GDPPC) and adult obesity prevalence, and the moderating effects of five different dimensions (globalization orientation, demographic characteristics, economic environment, labor market characteristics, and strength of health policies) of countries’ macro-environments on the income elasticities. Using the latest (2019–2024) available national income growth projections from the International Monetary Fund, we forecast future global trends in obesity prevalence.FindingsOver the 40-years 1975–2014, adult obesity prevalence increased at a declining rate with GDPPC across the 147 countries. The mean income elasticity estimates were 1.23 (95% credible interval 1.04–1.42) for males and 1.01 (0.82–1.18) for females. The elasticities were positively associated with the extent of political globalization and negatively associated with urbanization and share of agriculture in the national GDP. Income based projections indicate that obesity prevalence would continue to grow at an average annual rate of 2.47% across the studied countries during 2019–2024.ConclusionsPopulation obesity prevalence exhibits a positive relationship with national income and there is no evidence that the relationship, while weakening, actually turns negative at higher income levels (“obesity Kuznets curve”). Based on current trends, global obesity prevalence will continue to increase during 2019–2024, with the rate of growth higher in low- and middle-income countries. As most people currently live in low- and middle-income countries with rising incomes, our findings underscore the urgent societal imperatives for effective policy initiatives, especially those that target the concomitant “nutrition transition” process with economic affluence, to break or at least further weaken the positive relationship of population obesity prevalence with national income. ]]> <![CDATA[Fruit and vegetable consumption in Europe according to gender, educational attainment and regional affiliation—A cross-sectional study in 21 European countries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13846 The purpose of the present study was to examine fruit and vegetable consumption according to gender, educational attainment and regional affiliation in Europe.DesignCross-sectional study.Setting21 European countries.Participants37 672 adults participating in the 7th round of the European Social Survey.Main outcome measuresFruit and vegetable consumption was measured using two single frequency questions. Responses were dichotomized into low (<once a day) and high (≥once a day) consumption. The association between consumption of fruit and vegetables and gender, educational level, regional affiliation was examined using logistic regression analyses.ResultsOverall, females showed increased odds of consuming fruit (OR 1.71 (95%CI:1.62, 1.79) and vegetable (1.59 (1.51, 1.67)) compared to males and high educated participants showed increased odds of consuming fruit (1.53 (1.43, 1.63)) and vegetables (1.86 (1.74, 2.00)) compared to low educated participants. Our results also showed that participants living in Eastern Europe had the lowest odds of consuming fruit and vegetables, whereas participants from Southern- and Northern Europe had the highest odds of consuming fruit and vegetables, respectively. Results from interaction analyses confirmed the positive association between fruit and vegetable consumption and educational level, although for some European regions, decreased odds of fruit and vegetables was observed among medium educated participants compared to those with low education.ConclusionsOverall, the present study showed that being female and having a high education were associated with increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. However, the direction and strength of these relationships depends on regional affiliations. ]]> <![CDATA[Brazilian vegetarians diet quality markers and comparison with the general population: A nationwide cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7851 Vegetarianism is an increasingly common practice worldwide. Despite good evidence from other countries regarding vegetarians’ diet quality, data from the Brazilian population is still scarce.ObjectiveTo characterize the vegetarian Brazilian population and evaluate their diet quality compared to the general Brazilian population.MethodsWe performed a nationwide cross-sectional study using an online self-administered questionnaire, previously validated for the Brazilian population, to evaluate diet quality markers of vegetarians. The invitation to participate in the survey was spread nationwide, aimed at vegetarian communities. Individuals who considered themselves vegetarians and were at least 18 years old were eligible to participate. The results on regular intake and intake adequacy were compared among vegetarians and between genders using the Pearson’s chi-square test. The body mass index (BMI) were analyzed by the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey post-hoc test. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test verified normality. All analyses considered bilateral hypotheses and a significance level of 5% (p <0.05).ResultsBrazilian vegetarians presented better diet quality markers, such as higher regular weekly intake and adequate daily intake of fruits and vegetables, and lower regular intake of soft drinks when compared to the general Brazilian population. Vegetarians also presented a proportionally higher consumption of natural foods and lower consumption of processed foods. Among vegetarians, a higher proportion of vegans showed positive results regarding diet markers analysis, when compared to vegetarians, pesco-vegetarians, and semi-vegetarians.ConclusionsVegetarians showed better results of diet adequacy when compared to the general population in Brazil, and vegans fared better when compared with other vegetarians. Despite the good results found, a large proportion of the participants still did not achieve the fruits and vegetables daily intake, according to the World Health Organization recommendations. ]]> <![CDATA[Long-term effect of the Brazilian Workers’ Food Program on the nutritional status of manufacturing workers: A population-based prospective cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N23375fc9-a89d-407e-9d06-75f348bd7d78

Background

The Brazilian Workers Food Program (WFP) is a public policy program of nutritional assistance to workers, with the main objective of improving nutritional conditions, which was implemented 40 years ago and serves over 21.4 million workers.

Objectives

To compare the long-term change in anthropometric indicators of the nutritional status and dietary intake between workers of manufacturing industries adherent to and non-adherent to the WFP.

Methods

A prospective cohort study, based on a combined stratified and multistage probability sampling, was carried out, with two waves with a 4-year interval. The change in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and dietary intake at lunch by the 24-hour recall method were compared between groups with analysis of covariance.

Results

A total of 273 workers in 16 industries from an initial cohort of 1069 workers in 26 industries of the State of Rio Grande do Norte in Brazil were evaluated in the two waves. The mean age was 37±10 years and 53.1% were male, with no differences between groups in age and sex distribution. BMI increased in both groups (0.44 kg/m2 in non-WFP, p = 0.003, and 0.56 kg/m2 in WFP, p = 0.0006) and WC increased in the WFP group (1.50 cm, p = 0.0006). BMI change over time did not show statistical differences between groups (p = 0.54) but WC had a greater increase in the WFP group (difference 1.37 cm, p = 0.047). There were no differences between groups in the change over time of the dietary intake.

Conclusion

BMI and WC increased over time in manufacturing workers of industries both adherent and non-adherent to the WFP, but with a greater increase of WC in the WFP group. In order to achieve the objectives of the WFP, there will be a need for periodic evaluation and monitoring of nutritional indicators in these workers and implementation of monitoring and enforcement actions of the WFP.

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<![CDATA[Do parents counter-balance the carbon emissions of their children?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nea582d41-f072-4a93-882b-8bb6cca64243

It is well understood that adding to the population increases CO2 emissions. At the same time, having children is a transformative experience, such that it might profoundly change adult (i.e., parents’) preferences and consumption. How it might change is, however, unknown. Depending on if becoming a parent makes a person “greener” or “browner,” parents may either balance or exacerbate the added CO2 emissions from their children. Parents might think more about the future, compared to childless adults, including risks posed to their children from environmental events like climate change. But parenthood also adds needs and more intensive competition on your scarce time. Carbon-intensive goods can add convenience and help save time, e.g., driving may facilitate being in more places in one day, compared to public transportation or biking. Pre-prepared food that contain red meat may save time and satisfy more household preferences, relative to vegetarian food. We provide the first rigorous test of whether parents are greener or browner than other adults. We create a unique dataset by combining detailed micro data on household expenditures of all expenditure groups particularly important for CO2 emissions (transportation, food, and heating/electricity) with CO2 emissions, and compare emissions from Swedish adults with and without children. We find that parents emit more CO2 than childless adults. Only a small fraction of adults permanently choose not to have children, which means any meaningful self-selection into parenthood based on green preferences is unlikely. Our findings suggest that having children might increase CO2 emissions both by adding to the population and by increasing CO2 emissions from those choosing to have children.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence and correlates of anemia among children aged 6-23 months in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c193ad5eed0c484b4d207

Background

Anemia, the world’s most common micro-nutrient deficiency disorder, can affect a person at any time and at all stages of life. Though all members of the community may face the problem, children aged 6–23 months are particularly at higher risk. If left untreated, it adversely affects the health, cognitive development, school achievement, and work performance. However, little was investigated among young children in Sub-Saharan countries including Ethiopia. This research aimed to investigate its magnitude and correlates to address the gap and guide design of evidence based intervention.

Methods

A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from May -June 2016 in rural districts of Wolaita Zone. Multi-stage sampling technique was applied and 990 mother-child pairs were selected. Socio-demography, health and nutritional characteristics were collected by administering interview questionnaire to mothers/care-givers. Blood samples were taken to diagnose anemia by using HemoCue device, and the status was determined using cut-offs used for children aged 6–59 months. Hemoglobin concentration below 11.0 g/dl was considered anemic. Data were analyzed with Stata V14. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were applied to identify candidates and predictor variables respectively. Statistical significance was determined at p-value < 0.05 at 95% confidence interval.

Results

The mean hemoglobin level of children was 10.44±1.3g/dl, and 65.7% of them were anemic. Among anemic children, 0.4% were severely anemic (<7.0g/dl), while 28.1% and 37.2% were mildly (10.0–10.9g/dl) and moderately (7.0–9.9g/dl) anemic, respectively. In the multivariable analysis, having maternal age of 35 years and above (AOR = 1.96), being government employee (AOR = 0.29), being merchant (AOR = 0.43) and ‘other’ occupation (AOR = 3.17) were correlated with anemia in children in rural Wolaita. Similarly, receiving anti-helminthic drugs (AOR = 0.39), being female child (AOR = 1.76), consuming poor dietary diversity (AOR = 1.40), and having moderate household food insecurity (AOR = 1.72) were associated with anemia in rural Wolaita.

Conclusion

A large majority of children in the rural Wolaita were anemic and the need for proven public health interventions such as food diversification, provision of anti-helminthic drugs and ensuring household food security is crucial. In addition, educating women on nutrition and diet diversification, as well as engaging them with alternative sources of income might be interventions in the study area.

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<![CDATA[Quantitation of 5-methyltetraydrofolic acid in plasma for determination of folate status and clinical studies by stable isotope dilution assays]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c785012d5eed0c484007c22

Folates play a key role in the prevention of neural tube defects in newborns. Thus, it is important to reliably determine the bioavailability of folates from various foods. Accurate analytical methods are essential for quantifying blood-folates, especially in human studies. Here, we present the development and validation of a sensitive method using stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for determining various folates in plasma. Moreover, this study reports the applicability of the developed method to a human pilot study using strawberries as a test food. Validation of the assay revealed the precision, sensitivity, and accuracy of the method in determining the predominant 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in plasma. This method was also applicable for the screening of individual folate status using finger prick blood and for monitoring the post-absorptive plasma-concentration curve. Moreover, the human study revealed a high recovery of strawberry folates with a calculated relative bioavailability of 96.2%. Thus, the developed method enables prospective bioavailability studies. This work also confirmed, via human studies, that strawberries are a rich and natural source of folates that are available for human metabolism.

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<![CDATA[Association between social jetlag food consumption and meal times in patients with obesity-related chronic diseases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75d4d5eed0c4843d0285

Chronic disruption of the synchronous relationship between endogenous and exogenous circadian timing is associated with the development of obesity and metabolic disease. Social jetlag is a measure of circadian misalignment and has been identified as a risk factor for overweight and related diseases. However, the mechanisms involved in this relationship remain underexplored. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between social jetlag and food consumption at late meal timing in patients with obesity-related chronic diseases. This study included 792 individuals (73% female; age 55.9 ± 12.4 years) in which the prevalence of social jetlag (>1h) was 24.4% (n = 194). Participants with social jetlag reported late meal timing for breakfast, early afternoon snack and dinner. Individuals with social jetlag also reported a higher intake of total calories (kcal), protein, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and servings of meat and eggs and sweets in relation to those without social jetlag. Regarding the consumption during each meal of the day, participants with social jetlag had consumed more calories, saturated fat and cholesterol during dinner; more protein, total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol during lunch; and more total fat and saturated fat during morning snack. In addition, individuals with social jetlag had a higher risk of inadequate consumption of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol intake when compared with those without social jetlag. We conclude that social jetlag is associated with a poor diet and later meal times, which should be avoided in individuals with obesity-related chronic diseases. More studies are needed to confirm these findings.

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<![CDATA[Does aerobic exercise associated with tryptophan supplementation attenuates hyperalgesia and inflammation in female rats with experimental fibromyalgia?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fddfd5eed0c484e5afa2

The objective of this study was to verify the effects of aerobic exercise associated with tryptophan (TRP) supplementation on hyperalgesia, as well as on cortisol, IL-6 and TNF concentrations in female rats with experimental fibromyalgia (FM). Female Wistar rats (initial body weight: ~ 350 g; age: 12 months) were randomly divided into 5 groups: CON (Control); F (Fibromyalgia induced); FE (Fibromyalgia induced plus exercise); FES (Fibromyalgia induced plus exercise and TRP supplementation) and FS (Fibromyalgia induced plus TRP supplementation). Fibromyalgia was induced with two injections (20 μL) of acidic saline (pH 4.0) into the right gastrocnemius muscle with a 3-day interval. Control animals received the same doses of neutral saline (pH 7.4). The exercised animals underwent progressive low-intensity aerobic exercise (LIAE) on a treadmill (10–12 m/min, 30–45 min/day, 5 days/week) for three weeks. During this period, the supplemented animals received a TRP supplemented diet (210 g/week), while the others received a control diet. Mechanical hyperalgesia was evaluated weekly and serum cortisol and muscle IL-6 and TNF concentrations were assessed after three weeks of interventions. Experimental FM caused bilateral hind paw hyperalgesia and augmented serum cortisol and muscle IL-6 concentrations. After 3 weeks of interventions, LIAE alone reduced hyperalgesia (151%) and reduced serum cortisol concentrations (72%). Tryptophan supplementation itself diminished hyperalgesia (57%) and reduced serum cortisol concentrations (67%). Adding TRP supplementation to LIAE did not further reduce hyperalgesia significantly (11%), which was followed by an important decrease in muscle IL-6 concentrations (68%), though reduction in serum cortisol pulled back to 45%. Muscle TNF concentrations were not affected. In conclusion, the association of TRP supplementation to LIAE does not potentiate significantly the reduction of bilateral mechanical hyperalgesia promoted by LIAE in female rats with experimental FM, however an important decrease in IL-6 is evident.

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<![CDATA[The distributional impact of a green payment policy for organic fruit]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c65dcf0d5eed0c484dec5ff

Consumer spending on organic food products has grown rapidly. Some claim that organics have ecological, equity, and health advantages over conventional food and therefore should be subsidized. Here we explore the distributive impacts of an organic fruit subsidy that reduces the retail price of organic fruit in the US by 10 percent. We estimate the impact of the subsidy on organic fruit demand in a representative poor, middle income, and rich US household using three analytical methods; including two econometric and one machine learning. We do not find strong evidence of regressive redistribution due to our simulated organic fruit subsidy; the poor household’s relative reaction to the subsidy is not much different than the reaction at the other two households. However, the infra-marginal savings from the subsidy tend to be larger in richer households.

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<![CDATA[Strengths and limitations of computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI) for nutrition data collection in rural Kenya]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52ddd5eed0c4842bd16b

Despite progress in fighting undernutrition, Africa has the highest rates of undernutrition globally, exacerbated by drought and conflict. Mobile phones are emerging as a tool for rapid, cost effective data collection at scale in Africa, as mobile phone subscriptions and phone ownership increase at the highest rates globally. To assess the feasibility and biases of collecting nutrition data via computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI) to mobile phones, we measured Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) and Minimum Acceptable Diet for Infants and Young Children (MAD) using a one-week test-retest study on 1,821 households in Kenya. Accuracy and bias were assessed by comparing individual scores and population prevalence of undernutrition collected via CATI with data collected via traditional face-to-face (F2F) surveys. We were able to reach 75% (n = 1366) of study participants via CATI. Women’s reported nutrition scores did not change with mode for MDD-W, but children’s nutrition scores were significantly higher when measured via CATI for both the dietary diversity (mean increase of 0.45 food groups, 95% confidence interval 0.34–0.56) and meal frequency (mean increase of 0.75 meals per day, 95% confidence interval 0.53–0.96) components of MAD. This resulted in a 17% higher inferred prevalence of adequate diets for infants and young children via CATI. Women without mobile-phone access were younger and had fewer assets than women with access, but only marginally lower dietary diversity, resulting in a small non-coverage bias of 1–7% due to exclusion of participants without mobile phones. Thus, collecting nutrition data from rural women in Africa with mobile phones may result in 0% (no change) to as much as 25% higher nutrition estimates than collecting that information in face-to-face interviews.

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<![CDATA[Perceived impact of community kitchens on the food security of Syrian refugees and kitchen workers in Lebanon: Qualitative evidence in a displacement context]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e670d5eed0c484ef31b2

Community kitchens (CKs) have been recommended as public health strategies with social and nutritional health benefits for low-income participants and their families in different settings. The benefit of CKs in improving the food security status of participants in the context of conflict and displacement is less conclusive. This study aimed to qualitatively explore the impact of CKs on the food security status of community kitchen workers (CWs) and Syrian refugee (SR) families in Lebanon. An exploratory qualitative descriptive approach was adopted. Focus group discussions were conducted with 15 CWs and 49 SRs, and transcripts were analyzed thematically. Emerging themes included: motivation to join the CKs (CWs only), perception towards CKs, impact of these CKs, and their sustainability (both groups). Motivating factors for CWs included financial, internal and societal drivers, and the favorable type of work in kitchens. The perception towards CKs was overall positive among CWs and SR beneficiaries. Both groups reported the positive impact of CKs on their food security and financial status, which in turn affected positively their psychological health. At the social level, CWs indicated that the kitchen’s friendly atmosphere increased social cohesion and companionship between Syrians and Lebanese within the kitchen. In addition, CWs reported increased sense of empathy towards SRs benefiting from the CK services. According to study participants, the positive impact of the CKs was almost completely reversed when their operation and services were interrupted for two months. Both CWs and SRs identified facilitators and barriers that can affect the sustainability of the kitchens, including financial and entrepreneurial skills. In conclusion, findings from this study highlight that CKs can be promising programs to improve the food security and livelihoods of participants, while also increasing social cohesion and integration of refugees within host communities in protracted crisis contexts.

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<![CDATA[Association of attitudes towards genetically modified food among young adults and their referent persons]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e900d5eed0c48496f613

Most research on consumer attitudes does not consider that attitudes are likely influenced by people with whom we have some relationship even though socioeconomic, psychological and political theories recognize the importance of referent individuals’ opinions in attitude formation. Knowledge on the role of referent individuals’ opinions in attitude formation could improve the understanding of consumer acceptance of foods frequently associated with health or other concerns. This article examines the association of attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) crops and foods between young adults and their referent individuals using data collected in 2016 via surveys from the Czech Republic, Russia and Ukraine. Loglinear models of cell counts in contingency tables reveal a positive association of GM food attitudes between young adults and their referent individuals. This association was stronger in Russia and the Czech Republic than it was in Ukraine and stronger between female young adults and their referent individuals than between males and their referent individuals. Concordance in GM food attitudes with mothers is significantly stronger than concordance with best friends but not significantly different from concordance with fathers.

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<![CDATA[Socio-economic status and behavioural and cardiovascular risk factors in Papua New Guinea: A cross-sectional survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c521856d5eed0c484797c80

Background

Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are negatively correlated with socio-economic status (SES) in high-income countries (HIC) but there has been little research on their distribution by household SES within low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). Considering the limited data from LMICs, this paper examines the association between behavioural and cardiovascular risk factors and household SES in Papua New Guinea (PNG).

Methods

Reported here are results of 671 participants from the 900 randomly selected adults aged 15–65 years. These adults were recruited from three socioeconomically and geographically diverse surveillance sites (peri-urban community, rural Highland and an Island community) in PNG in 2013–2014. We measured their CVD risk factors (behavioural and metabolic) using a modified WHO STEPS risk factor survey and analysis of blood samples. We assessed SES by education, occupation and creating a household wealth index based on household assets. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a generalized linear model to assess the associations between risks and SES.

Findings

Elevated CVD risk factors were common in all SES groups but the CVD metabolic risk factors were most prevalent among homemakers, peri-urban and rural highlands, and the highest (4th and 5th) wealth quintile population. Adults in the highest wealth quintile had high risks of obesity, elevated HbA1c and metabolic syndrome (MetS) that were greater than those in the lowest quintile although those in the highest wealth quintiles were less likely to smoke tobacco. Compared to people from the Island community, peri-urban residents had increased risks of increased waist circumference (WC) (RR: 1.67, 95%CI: 1.21–2.31), hypertension (RR: 2∙29, 95%CI: 1∙89–4.56), high cholesterol (RR: 2∙22, 95%CI: 1∙20–4∙10), high triglycerides (RR: 1∙49, 95%CI: 1∙17–1∙91), elevated HbA1c (RR: 5∙54, 95%CI: 1∙36–21∙56), and Metabolic syndrome (MetS) (RR: 2∙04, 95%CI: 1∙25–3∙32). Similarly, Rural Highland residents had increased risk of obesity (Waist Circumference RR: 1∙70, 95%CI: 1∙21–3∙38, Waist-Hip-Ratio RR:1∙48, 95%CI: 1∙28–1∙70), hypertension (RR: 2∙60, 95%CI: 1∙71–3∙95), high triglycerides (RR: 1∙34, 95%CI: 1∙06–1∙70) and MetS (RR: 1∙88, 95%CI: 1∙12–3∙16) compared to those in the rural Island site.

Interpretation

CVD risk factors are common in PNG adults but their association with SES varies markedly and by location. Our findings show that all community members are at risk of CVD weather they are part of high or low SES groups. These results support the notion that the association between CVD risk factors and SES differ greatly accordingly to the type of SES measure used, risk factors and the population studied. In addition, our findings contribute further to the limited literature in LMIC. Longitudinal studies are needed to monitor changes in rapidly changing societies such as PNG to inform public health policy for control and prevention of NCDs in the country.

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<![CDATA[Consumer attitudes towards production diseases in intensive production systems]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f816d5eed0c484387037

Many members of the public and important stakeholders operating at the upper end of the food chain, may be unfamiliar with how food is produced, including within modern animal production systems. The intensification of production is becoming increasingly common in modern farming. However, intensive systems are particularly susceptible to production diseases, with potentially negative consequences for farm animal welfare (FAW). Previous research has demonstrated that the public are concerned about FAW, yet there has been little research into attitudes towards production diseases, and their approval of interventions to reduce these. This research explores the public’s attitudes towards, and preferences for, FAW interventions in five European countries (Finland, Germany, Poland, Spain and the UK). An online survey was conducted for broilers (n = 789), layers (n = 790) and pigs (n = 751). Data were analysed by means of Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The results suggest that the public have concerns regarding intensive production systems, in relation to FAW, naturalness and the use of antibiotics. The most preferred interventions were the most “proactive” interventions, namely improved housing and hygiene measures. The least preferred interventions were medicine-based, which raised humane animal care and food safety concerns amongst respondents. The results highlighted the influence of the identified concerns, perceived risks and benefits on attitudes and subsequent behavioural intention, and the importance of supply chain stakeholders addressing these concerns in the subsequent communications with the public.

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<![CDATA[Effectiveness of micronutrient-fortified rice consumption on anaemia and zinc status among vulnerable women in Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f790d5eed0c4843863b9

Micronutrient deficiency is one of the biggest public health concerns in Bangladesh. As per World Health Organisation (WHO) in the 2016 report, 40% women of reproductive age suffer from anaemia. According to the National Micronutrient Survey 2011–2012, 57% women suffer from zinc deficiency. The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of fortified rice (FFR in addressing anaemia and zinc deficiency among vulnerable women. Baseline and endline surveys were conducted among female Vulnerable Group Development (VDG) beneficiaries in five districts in Bangladesh before and after 12 months of FFR distribution. The intervention group received 30 kg FFR; the control group received 30 kg non-FFR for every month from January 2013 to December 2013. The sample sizes were 870 women (435/group) at baseline and 800 (400/group) at endline. Difference-in-difference (DID) was estimated to measure the effect of FFR on anaemia and serum zinc. In the baseline survey, 39% of the FFR group and 34% of the non-FFR group had anaemia. At endline, 34% of women in the FFR group were anaemic compared to 40.7% in the non-FFR group. At endline, prevalence of anaemia was reduced in the FFR group by 4.8% but increased in the non-FFR group by 6.7%. The DID estimation showed the reduction in anaemia after 12 months of FFR consumption was significant (p = 0.035). The DID in mean haemoglobin level after 12 months of FFR consumption was also statistically significant (p = 0.002). Zinc deficiency decreased by 6% in the FFR group at endline, though the DID was not significant. Most of the respondents of the FFR group reported that they received their entitled rice on a regular basis however only half of the non-FFR respondents received every month in 12 months. Anaemia was significantly associated with not consuming fortified rice, geographical region, older age and heavy menstrual bleeding (P<0.05). FFR reduced anaemia and zinc deficiency prevalence. Replacement of regular rice with FFR in the VGD programme is recommended to reduce anaemia among vulnerable groups.

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<![CDATA[Empirically derived dietary patterns through latent profile analysis among Brazilian children and adolescents from Southern Brazil, 2013-2015]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e4fc2d5eed0c484d78c64

The aims of this study were to identify dietary patterns (DPs) of children and adolescents participating in three cross-sectional surveys (2013–2015) and to test their associations with sociodemographic variables, physical activity (PAS), screen-based sedentary activity (SA), and weight status. One-day data were obtained from 5,364 schoolchildren (7–12 years) from public schools of Florianopolis (South of Brazil), using the validated questionnaire Web-CAAFE (Food Intake and Physical Activity of Schoolchildren). DPs were derived from the frequency of daily consumption of 32 foods/beverages by latent profile analysis. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association of the DPs with sociodemographic variables, physical activity, screen activity and weight status. ‘Traditional’, ‘Monotonous’, and ‘Mixed’ DPs were identified. The percentages of children and adolescents within these profiles were 41.3, 36.3, and 22.4%, respectively. Children and adolescents in the highest tertiles of both PAS and daily frequency of SA had a higher probability to present a ‘Mixed’ DP compared to peers with less PAS and SA. Children and adolescents who reported having a school meal were significantly more likely to present the ‘Traditional’DP, while boys who did not report having a school meal had a higher probability to present the ‘Monotonous’ DP. The DPs were not associated with the year of survey, age, family income, or weight status.

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<![CDATA[Feeding practices and nutritional status of children age 6-23 months in Myanmar: A secondary analysis of the 2015-16 Demographic and Health Survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3667a3d5eed0c4841a5e7d

Nutritional deficiencies are a major problem among developing countries including Myanmar. They can occur in all age groups, but the impact is more severe among children age 6–23 months as this period is critical for child development, and irreversible damages can occur due to nutritional deficiencies. Proper infant and young child feeding practices are pivotal to tackle nutritional problems and to prevent irreversible consequences among children. To assess the current feeding practices and associations with nutritional status, we conducted a secondary data analysis using the 2015–16 Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done adjusting for covariates and the results were presented by adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. A total of 1,222 children age 6–23 months were included in this analysis. Twenty percent were stunted and 43% were moderately anemic. Only 16% of children received a minimum acceptable diet, 25% received diverse food groups, 58% were fed with minimum meal frequency, 85% currently breastfed, and 59% consumed iron-rich foods. Breastfeeding reduced the odds of being stunted. Male sex, perceived small birth size, mother with short stature, and working mother were significant predictors of stunting. Iron-rich food consumption was inversely associated with moderate anemia. Male sex and maternal anemia were also significant predictors of moderate anemia. The study concluded that stunting and anemia among young children in Myanmar are major public health challenges that need urgent action. While further prospective research is needed to determine the effect of feeding practice on linear growth, interventions such as iron supplementation, and nutritional education programs according to the World Health Organization complementary feeding guidelines could help prevent stunting and childhood anemia and might reduce their prevalence in Myanmar.

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<![CDATA[Coastal complexity: Ancient human diets inferred from Bayesian stable isotope mixing models and a primate analogue]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2544e3d5eed0c48442baa9

An extensive ecological literature applies stable isotope mixing models to derive quantitative dietary reconstructions from isotope ratios of consumer tissues. While this approach works well for some organisms, it is challenging for consumers with complex, varied diets, including humans; indeed, many archaeologists have avoided the use of mixing models because uncertainties in model outputs are sufficiently large that the findings are not helpful in understanding ancient lifeways. Here, we exploit an unparalleled opportunity to evaluate the feasibility of dietary quantification in a nutritionally and isotopically complex context on the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. Delta values (δ13C and δ15N) of 213 indigenous food samples enable us to characterise four food groups: terrestrial plants, terrestrial vertebrates, marine invertebrates and marine vertebrates. A recent study of baboons that consumed marine and terrestrial foods provides insight into the relationship between such foods and consumer tissue isotopes. We use this information to refine our interpretation of δ15N and especially δ13C in bone collagen from 35 archaeological hunter-gatherers, achieving better estimates of the relative importance of marine and terrestrial foods in the diet than has hitherto been possible. Based on Bayesian stable isotope mixing model (SIMM) outputs, we infer that the trophic enrichment factor (TEF) for δ13Cbone collagen in these coastal humans is closer to +3 than +5‰. In the most 13C- and 15N-rich individuals, 65–98% of bone collagen (95% credible intervals) derived from marine foods. Conversely, in 13C and 15N-poor individuals, 7–44% of bone collagen derived from marine foods. The uncertainties discussed here highlight the need for caution when implementing SIMMs in studies of consumers with complex diets. To our knowledge, this work constitutes the most detailed and most tightly constrained study of this problem to date.

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<![CDATA[Feeding responses of the golden jackal after reduction of anthropogenic food subsidies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141eced5eed0c484d28582

Little is known of the resources that limit or promote the rapidly expanding golden jackal (Canis aureus) population in Europe. We hypothesised that in an area of intensive big game hunting, a reduction of the main food resource (human subsidised big game viscera) would result in dietary switching. We used multivariate analyses to test whether the dietary composition of 200 jackal stomachs varied between two 2-yearly survey occasions, the first without big game viscera removal (availability of 68 kg viscera/year/km2) followed by a period with viscera removal (minimum of 50 kg of viscera/year/km2 removed). The proportion of empty stomachs and the stomach wet content weight did not differ between the two periods. Even after the reduction of food subsidies, the primary food of jackals was viscera and carrion from wild ungulates (frequency of occurrence: 45% vs. 30%; wet weight: 55% vs. 29%, respectively), and scavenging was not affected by season or sex. Log-linear analysis of frequency data revealed no significant differences between survey occasions in consumption of either food type. MANCOVA of wet weight data revealed that in the first period with food subsidies jackals consumed a higher proportion of adult wild boar (11.6% vs. 1.3%; from predation or scavenging), while juvenile wild boar (0 vs. 11.8%; from predation or scavenging), domestic animals (0.8% vs. 6.2%; mostly from scavenging) and invertebrates (2.6% vs. 4.1%) increased in the second period. The stomachs in the second survey occasion contained more varied food items, but the trophic niche was not significantly wider. The feeding responses of this mesopredator to the reduction of food subsidies were less pronounced than expected. Because in high big game density areas, wild ungulate carrion from different mortality causes are available in high quantities throughout the year, predator populations can be maintained despite the high amount of viscera removal.

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