ResearchPad - foodborne-trematodiases https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Familial assimilation in transmission of raw-freshwater fish-eating practice leading to clonorchiasis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15763 Clonorchiasis is caused by the ingestion of raw freshwater fish, which contains the infective larvae of Clonorchis sinensis. It is highly endemic in Asia, where about 15 million people are afflicted. To establish sustainable control strategy, the transmission of raw-eating practice needs to be illuminated. In this study, we conducted a survey in school students from four clonorchiasis endemic provinces in China, covering 23,222 students aged 9–18. The characteristics of raw-eating practice, impact of parents’ raw-eating practice on children, interaction of spouses’ practice was explored. It is demonstrated that raw-eating practice presents familial clustering, which is higher in those families with older children and with boys. Raw-eating practice in children is highly influenced by their parents’ raw-eating practice especially when both parents do. Additionally, there exists interaction between spouses’ raw-eating practice. The impact of husband’s raw-eating practice on his wife is higher than that of wife’s raw-eating practice on her husband. Familial assimilation dominates the transmission of raw-freshwater eating-practice, including the assimilation from parents to their children and that between spouses. This finding indicates the adoption of sustainable strategy against clonorchiasis through blocking raw-freshwater fish-eating practice.

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<![CDATA[Amino acids serve as an important energy source for adult flukes of <i>Clonorchis sinensis</i>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13829 Clonorchiasis, closely related to cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma, has led to a negative socioeconomic impact in global areas especially some Asian endemic regions. Owing to the emergence of drug resistance and hypersensitivity reactions after the massive and repeated use of praziquantel as well as the lack of effective vaccines, searching for new strategies that prevent and treat clonorchiasis has become an urgent matter. Clonorchis sinensis, the causative agent of clonorchiasis, long-term inhabits the microaerobic and limited-glucose environment of the bile ducts. Adequate nutrients are essential for adult flukes to resist the adverse condition and survive in the crowed habitat. Studies on energy metabolism of adult flukes are beneficial for further exploring host-parasite interactions and developing novel anti-parasitic drugs. Our results suggest that gluconeogenesis probably plays a vital role in energy metabolism of Clonorchis sinensis and exogenous amino acids might be an essential energy source for adult flukes to successfully survive in the host. Our foundational study opens a new avenue for explaining energy metabolism of Clonorchis sinensis and provides a valuable strategy that the gluconeogenesis pathway will be a potential and novel target for the prevention and treatment of clonorchiasis.

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<![CDATA[Comparing the performance of urine and copro-antigen detection in evaluating Opisthorchis viverrini infection in communities with different transmission levels in Northeast Thailand]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6730b3d5eed0c484f37f31

To combat and eventually eliminate the transmission of the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, an accurate and practical diagnostic test is required. A recently established urine antigen detection test using monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (mAb-ELISA) has shown promise due to its high diagnostic accuracy and the use of urine in place of fecal samples. To further test the utility of this urine assay, we performed a cross sectional study of 1,043 people in 3 opisthorchiasis endemic communities in northeast Thailand by applying urine antigen detection together with copro-antigen detection methods. The quantitative formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique (FECT) was concurrently performed as a reference method. The prevalence of O. viverrini determined by urine antigen detection correlated well with that by copro-antigen detection and both methods showed 10–15% higher prevalence than FECT. Within the fecal negative cases by FECT, 29% and 43% were positive by urine and copro-antigen detection, respectively. The prevalence and intensity profiles determined by antigen detection and FECT showed similar patterns of increasing trends of infection with age. The concentration of antigen measured in urine showed a positive relationship with the concentration of copro-antigen, both of which were positively correlated with fecal egg counts. The data observed in this study indicate that urine antigen detection had high diagnostic accuracy and was in concordance with copro-antigen detection. Due to the ease and noninvasiveness of sample collection, the urine assay has high potential for clinical diagnosis as well as population screening in the program for the control and elimination of opisthorchiasis.

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<![CDATA[The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010: Interpretation and Implications for the Neglected Tropical Diseases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7eab0ee8fa60b999d9 ]]> <![CDATA[Biliary Microbiota, Gallstone Disease and Infection with Opisthorchis felineus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da8fab0ee8fa60b9f44c

Background

There is increasing interest in the microbiome of the hepatobiliary system. This study investigated the influence of infection with the fish-borne liver fluke, Opisthorchis felineus on the biliary microbiome of residents of the Tomsk region of western Siberia.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Samples of bile were provided by 56 study participants, half of who were infected with O. felineus, and all of who were diagnosed with gallstone disease. The microbiota of the bile was investigated using high throughput, Illumina-based sequencing targeting the prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene. About 2,797, discrete phylotypes of prokaryotes were detected. At the level of phylum, bile from participants with opisthorchiasis showed greater numbers of Synergistetes, Spirochaetes, Planctomycetes, TM7 and Verrucomicrobia. Numbers of > 20 phylotypes differed in bile of the O. felineus-infected compared to non-infected participants, including presence of species of the genera Mycoplana, Cellulosimicrobium, Microlunatus and Phycicoccus, and the Archaeans genus, Halogeometricum, and increased numbers of Selenomonas, Bacteroides, Rothia, Leptotrichia, Lactobacillus, Treponema and Klebsiella.

Conclusions/Significance

Overall, infection with the liver fluke O. felineus modified the biliary microbiome, increasing abundance of bacterial and archaeal phylotypes.

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<![CDATA[A Comprehensive Public Health Conceptual Framework and Strategy to Effectively Combat Cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7fab0ee8fa60b99ed2 ]]> <![CDATA[Uncovering the Pathogenic Landscape of Helminth (Opisthorchis viverrini) Infections: A Cross-Sectional Study on Contributions of Physical and Social Environment and Healthcare Interventions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da4bab0ee8fa60b8ce1c

Background

Helminth infections have proven recalcitrant to control by chemotherapy in many parts of Southeast Asia and indeed farther afield. This study isolates and examines the influence of different aspects of the physical and social environment, and uneven intervention effort contributing to the pathogenic landscape of human Opisthorchis viverrini infections.

Methodology

A cross-sectional survey, involving 632 participants, was conducted in four villages in northeast Thailand to examine the impact on prevalence and parasite burden of the reservoir dam environment, socio-economic, demographic, and behavioral factors, and health center intervention efforts. Formalin-ether concentration technique was used for diagnoses, and multivariate models were used for analyses.

Principal Findings

The importance attributed to O. viverrini infections varied among health centers in the four study villages. Villages where O. viverrini infections were not prioritized by the health centers as the healthcare focus were at a higher risk of infection (prevalence) with odds ratio (risk factor) of 5.73 (3.32–10.27) and p-value < 0.01. Priority of healthcare focus, however, did not appear to influence behavior, as the consumption of raw fish, the main source of O. viverrini infections in the study area, was 11.4% higher in villages that prioritized O. viverrini infections than those that did not (p-value = 0.01). Landscape variation, notably proximity to reservoir, affects vulnerability of local population to infection. Infection intensity was higher in population located closer to the reservoir with risk ratio of 2.09 (1.12–4.02) and p-value < 0.01. Patterns of infection intensities among humans were found to match fish infection intensity, where higher infection intensities were associated with fish obtained from the reservoir waterbody type (p-value = 0.023).

Conclusions/Significance

This study demonstrated the importance of environmental influence and healthcare focus as risk factors of infections in addition to the socio-economic, demographic, and behavioral factors commonly explored in existing studies. The reservoir was identified as a crucial source to target for opisthorchiasis intervention efforts and the need to consider infection intensity in disease control efforts was highlighted. The holistic approach in this study, which underscores the close relationship between the environment, animals, and humans in development of human infections or diseases, is an important contribution to the framework of One Health approach, where consideration of helminth diseases has largely been overlooked.

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<![CDATA[Efficacy and Safety of Praziquantel, Tribendimidine and Mebendazole in Patients with Co-infection of Clonorchis sinensis and Other Helminths]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadaab0ee8fa60bb9748

Background

Both tribendimidine and mebendazole are broad-spectrum drugs for anti-intestinal nematodes. We aim to assess the efficacy and safety of tribendimidine and mebendazole in patients with co-infection of Clonorchis sinensis and other helminths.

Method

We performed a randomized open-label trial in Qiyang, People's Republic of China. Eligible participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (i) a single dose of 400 mg tribendimidine, (ii) 200 mg tribendimidine twice daily, (iii) 75 mg/kg praziquantel divided in four doses within 2 days, and (iv) a single dose of 400 mg mebendazole. Cure rates and egg reduction rates were assessed, and adverse events were monitored after treatments. Uncured patients accepted the second treatment with the same drugs after the first treatment.

Results

156 patients were eligible for the study. Results from the first treatment showed that the cure rates of single-dose tribendimidine and praziquantel against C. sinensis were 50% and 56.8%, respectively; the single-dose tribendimidine achieved the cure rate of 77.8% in the treatment for hookworm, which was significantly higher than that of praziquantel; Low cure rates were obtained in the treatment of single-dose tribendimidine against Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura (28.6% and 23.1%). Results of the second treatment illustrated the cure rates of tribendimidine and praziquantel against C. sinensis were 78.1% and 75%, respectively. Most adverse events were mild and transient. Adverse events caused by tribendimidine were significantly less than praziquantel.

Conclusion

Single-dose tribendimidine showed similar efficacy against C. sinensis as praziquantel with less adverse events, and achieved significantly higher cure rate in the treatment for hookworm than those of praziquantel and mebendazole. Low cure rates, which were still higher than other drugs, were obtained in the treatment of single-dose tribendimidine against Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura.

Trial Registration

Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN55086560

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<![CDATA[Application of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting cox1 gene for the detection of Clonorchis sinensis in human fecal samples]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ab08489463d7e2faeab8ab7

Background

Clonorchiasis is prevalent in the Far East, and a major health problem in endemic areas. Infected persons may experience, if not treated, serious complications such as bile stone formation, pyogenic cholangitis, and even cholangiocarcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent serious complications and, therefore, the simple and reliable diagnostic method is necessary to control clonorchiasis in endemic areas, where resources for the diagnosis are limited.

Methodology/Principle findings

The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay has been applied for the detection of Clonorchis sinensis DNA. Six primers targeting eight locations on the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of C. sinensis were designed for species-specific amplification using the LAMP assay. The LAMP assay was sensitive enough to detect as little as 100 fg of C. sinensis genomic DNA and the detection limit in 100 mg of stool was as low as one egg. The assay was highly specific because no cross-reactivity was observed with the DNA of other helminths, protozoa or Escherichia coli. Then, LAMP assay was applied to human fecal samples collected from an endemic area of clonorchiasis in Korea. Using samples showing consistent results by both Kato-Katz method and real-time PCR as reference standards, the LAMP assay showed 97.1% (95% CI, 90.1–99.2) of sensitivity and 100% (95% CI, 92.9–100) of specificity. In stool samples with more than 100 eggs per gram of feces, the sensitivity achieved 100%.

Conclusions

To detect C. sinensis in human fecal samples, the LAMP assay was applied and achieved high sensitivity and specificity. The LAMP assay can be utilized in field laboratories as a powerful tool for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of clonorchiasis.

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<![CDATA[Risk mapping of clonorchiasis in the People’s Republic of China: A systematic review and Bayesian geostatistical analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db54ab0ee8fa60bdd10f

Background

Clonorchiasis, one of the most important food-borne trematodiases, affects more than 12 million people in the People’s Republic of China (P.R. China). Spatially explicit risk estimates of Clonorchis sinensis infection are needed in order to target control interventions.

Methodology

Georeferenced survey data pertaining to infection prevalence of C. sinensis in P.R. China from 2000 onwards were obtained via a systematic review in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Internet, and Wanfang Data from January 1, 2000 until January 10, 2016, with no restriction of language or study design. Additional disease data were provided by the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Diseases Control and Prevention in Shanghai. Environmental and socioeconomic proxies were extracted from remote-sensing and other data sources. Bayesian variable selection was carried out to identify the most important predictors of C. sinensis risk. Geostatistical models were applied to quantify the association between infection risk and the predictors of the disease, and to predict the risk of infection across P.R. China at high spatial resolution (over a grid with grid cell size of 5×5 km).

Principal findings

We obtained clonorchiasis survey data at 633 unique locations in P.R. China. We observed that the risk of C. sinensis infection increased over time, particularly from 2005 onwards. We estimate that around 14.8 million (95% Bayesian credible interval 13.8–15.8 million) people in P.R. China were infected with C. sinensis in 2010. Highly endemic areas (≥ 20%) were concentrated in southern and northeastern parts of the country. The provinces with the highest risk of infection and the largest number of infected people were Guangdong, Guangxi, and Heilongjiang.

Conclusions/Significance

Our results provide spatially relevant information for guiding clonorchiasis control interventions in P.R. China. The trend toward higher risk of C. sinensis infection in the recent past urges the Chinese government to pay more attention to the public health importance of clonorchiasis and to target interventions to high-risk areas.

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<![CDATA[Pharmacokinetic Study of Praziquantel Enantiomers and Its Main Metabolite R-trans-4-OH-PZQ in Plasma, Blood and Dried Blood Spots in Opisthorchis viverrini-Infected Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da94ab0ee8fa60ba11f0

Background

Praziquantel (PZQ) is the treatment of choice for infections with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, a major health problem in Southeast Asia. However, pharmacokinetic (PK) studies investigating the disposition of PZQ enantiomers (R- and S-PZQ) and its main metabolite, R-trans-4-OH-PZQ, in diseased patients are lacking. The implementation of a dried blood spot (DBS) sampling technique would ease the performance of PK studies in remote areas without clinical facilities. The aim of the present study is to provide data on the disposition of PZQ enantiomers and R-trans-4-OH-PZQ in opisthorchiasis patients and to validate the use of DBS compared to plasma and blood sampling.

Methodology/Principal Findings

PZQ was administered to nine O. viverrini-infected patients at 3 oral doses of 25 mg/kg in 4 h intervals. Plasma, blood and DBS were simultaneously collected at selected time points from 0 to 24 h post-treatment. PK parameters were determined using non-compartmental analysis. Drug concentrations and areas under the curve (AUC0–24h) measured in the 3 matrices were compared using Bland-Altman analysis. We observed plasma AUC0–24hs of 1.1, 9.0 and 188.7 μg/ml*h and half-lives of 1.1, 3.3 and 6.4 h for R-PZQ, S-PZQ and R-trans-4-OH, respectively. Maximal plasma concentrations (Cmax) of 0.2, 0.9 and 13.9 μg/ml for R-PZQ, S-PQZ and R-trans-4-OH peaked at 7 h for PZQ enantiomers and at 8.7 h for the metabolite. Individual drug concentration measurements and patient AUC0–24hs displayed ratios of blood or DBS versus plasma between 79–94% for R- and S-PZQ, and between 108–122% for R-trans-4-OH.

Conclusions/Significance

Pharmacodynamic (PD) in vitro studies on PZQ enantiomers and R-trans-4-OH-PZQ are necessary to be able to correlate PK parameters with efficacy. DBS appears to be a valid alternative to conventional venous sampling for PK studies in PZQ-treated patients.

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<![CDATA[First report and molecular identification of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in human communities from Lower Myanmar]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf5d9

Opisthorchis viverrini is endemic in the South East Asian region, especially in Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Vietnam and Thailand, but there have been no previous records from Myanmar. During stool surveys of rural populations in three regions of Lower Myanmar, Opisthorchis-like eggs were found in 34 out of 364 (9.3%) participants by stool microscopy after using the modified formalin-ether concentration technique. DNA was extracted from these positive stool samples and a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced. DNA sequences, successfully obtained from 18 of 34 positive samples (Bago Region, n = 13; Mon State, n = 3; Yangon Region, n = 2), confirmed that the eggs were of O. viverrini. Sequences showed 99.7% identity with O. viverrini mitochondrial cox1 (GenBank accession no. JF739555) but 95%, 88.7%, 82.6% and 81.4% identities with those of Opisthorchis lobatus from Lao People's Democratic Republic (GenBank accession nos. HQ328539-HQ328541), Metorchis orientalis from China (KT239342), Clonorchis sinensis from China (JF729303) and Opisthorchis felineus from Russia (EU921260), respectively. When alignement with other Opisthorchiidae trematodes, 81% similarity with Metorchis bilis from Czech Republic (GenBank accession nos. KT740966, KT740969, KT740970) and Slovakia (GenBank accession nos. KT740971-KT740973), 84.6% similarity with Metorchis xanthosomus from Czech Republic (GenBank accession no. KT740974), 78.6% similarity with M. xanthosomus from Poland (GenBank accession no. KT740968) and 82.2% similarity with Euamphimerus pancreaticus from Czech Republic (GenBank accession no. KT740975) were revealed. This study demonstrated, for the first time, O. viverrini from rural people in Myanmar using molecular methods and is an urgent call for surveillance and control activities against opisthorchiasis in Myanmar.

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<![CDATA[Systems Biology Studies of Adult Paragonimus Lung Flukes Facilitate the Identification of Immunodominant Parasite Antigens]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da40ab0ee8fa60b89964

Background

Paragonimiasis is a food-borne trematode infection acquired by eating raw or undercooked crustaceans. It is a major public health problem in the far East, but it also occurs in South Asia, Africa, and in the Americas. Paragonimus worms cause chronic lung disease with cough, fever and hemoptysis that can be confused with tuberculosis or other non-parasitic diseases. Treatment is straightforward, but diagnosis is often delayed due to a lack of reliable parasitological or serodiagnostic tests. Hence, the purpose of this study was to use a systems biology approach to identify key parasite proteins that may be useful for development of improved diagnostic tests.

Methodology/Principal Findings

The transcriptome of adult Paragonimus kellicotti was sequenced with Illumina technology. Raw reads were pre-processed and assembled into 78,674 unique transcripts derived from 54,622 genetic loci, and 77,123 unique protein translations were predicted. A total of 2,555 predicted proteins (from 1,863 genetic loci) were verified by mass spectrometric analysis of total worm homogenate, including 63 proteins lacking homology to previously characterized sequences. Parasite proteins encoded by 321 transcripts (227 genetic loci) were reactive with antibodies from infected patients, as demonstrated by immunoaffinity purification and high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Serodiagnostic candidates were prioritized based on several criteria, especially low conservation with proteins in other trematodes. Cysteine proteases, MFP6 proteins and myoglobins were abundant among the immunoreactive proteins, and these warrant further study as diagnostic candidates.

Conclusions

The transcriptome, proteome and immunolome of adult P. kellicotti represent a major advance in the study of Paragonimus species. These data provide a powerful foundation for translational research to develop improved diagnostic tests. Similar integrated approaches may be useful for identifying novel targets for drugs and vaccines in the future.

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<![CDATA[Chronic Opisthorchis viverrini Infection Changes the Liver Microbiome and Promotes Helicobacter Growth]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4dab0ee8fa60bdacb4

Adults of Opisthorchis viverrini reside in the biliary system, inducing inflammation of bile ducts and cholangitis, leading to hepatobiliary disease (HBD) including cholangiocarcinoma. O. viverrini infection also has major implications for the bacterial community in bile ducts and liver. To investigate this in chronic O. viverrini infection (≥ 8 months p.i.), bacterial genomic DNA from livers of hamsters and from worms was investigated using culture techniques, PCR for Helicobacter spp. and high-throughput next-generation sequencing targeting the V3-V4 hypervariable regions of prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene. Of a total of 855,046 DNA sequence reads, 417,953 were useable after filtering. Metagenomic analyses assigned these to 93 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) consisting of 80 OTUs of bacteria, including 6 phyla and 42 genera. In the chronic O. viverrini-infected group, bacterial community composition and diversity were significantly increased compared to controls. Sequences of Fusobacterium spp. were the most common (13.81%), followed by Streptococcus luteciae (10.76%), Escherichia coli (10.18%), and Bifidobacterium spp. (0.58%). In addition, Helicobacter pylori (0.17% of sequences) was also identified in the liver of chronic O. viverrini infections, but not in normal liver. The presence of H. pylori was confirmed by PCR and by use of an antibody against bacterial antigen, supporting the metagenomics data. The identities of bacteria cultured for enrichment suggested that chronic O. viverrini infection changes the liver microbiome and promotes Helicobacter spp. growth. There may be synergy between O. viverrini and the liver microbiome in enhancing immune response-mediated hepatobiliary diseases.

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