ResearchPad - fossil-fuels https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Instigation of indigenous thermophilic bacterial consortia for enhanced oil recovery from high temperature oil reservoirs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13812 The purpose of the study involves the development of an anaerobic, thermophilic microbial consortium TERIK from the high temperature reservoir of Gujarat for enhance oil recovery. To isolate indigenous microbial consortia, anaerobic baltch media were prepared and inoculated with the formation water; incubated at 65°C for 10 days. Further, the microbial metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography, FTIR and surface tension. The efficiency of isolated consortia towards enhancing oil recovery was analyzed through core flood assay. The novelty of studied consortia was that, it produces biomass (600 mg/l), bio-surfactant (325 mg/l), and volatile fatty acids (250 mg/l) at 65°C in the span of 10 days, that are adequate to alter the surface tension (70 to 34 mNm -1) and sweep efficiency of zones facilitating the displacement of oil. TERIK was identified as Clostridium sp. The FTIR spectra of biosurfactant indicate the presence of N-H stretch, amides and polysaccharide. A core flooding assay was designed to explore the potential of TERIK towards enhancing oil recovery. The results showed an effective reduction in permeability at residual oil saturation from 2.14 ± 0.1 to 1.39 ± 0.05 mD and 19% incremental oil recovery.

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<![CDATA[Do parents counter-balance the carbon emissions of their children?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nea582d41-f072-4a93-882b-8bb6cca64243

It is well understood that adding to the population increases CO2 emissions. At the same time, having children is a transformative experience, such that it might profoundly change adult (i.e., parents’) preferences and consumption. How it might change is, however, unknown. Depending on if becoming a parent makes a person “greener” or “browner,” parents may either balance or exacerbate the added CO2 emissions from their children. Parents might think more about the future, compared to childless adults, including risks posed to their children from environmental events like climate change. But parenthood also adds needs and more intensive competition on your scarce time. Carbon-intensive goods can add convenience and help save time, e.g., driving may facilitate being in more places in one day, compared to public transportation or biking. Pre-prepared food that contain red meat may save time and satisfy more household preferences, relative to vegetarian food. We provide the first rigorous test of whether parents are greener or browner than other adults. We create a unique dataset by combining detailed micro data on household expenditures of all expenditure groups particularly important for CO2 emissions (transportation, food, and heating/electricity) with CO2 emissions, and compare emissions from Swedish adults with and without children. We find that parents emit more CO2 than childless adults. Only a small fraction of adults permanently choose not to have children, which means any meaningful self-selection into parenthood based on green preferences is unlikely. Our findings suggest that having children might increase CO2 emissions both by adding to the population and by increasing CO2 emissions from those choosing to have children.

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<![CDATA[The effect of NaOH pretreatment on coal structure and biomethane production]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nec5b1db1-34f5-4425-bec1-1f1e431a6eb6

Biogenic CBM is an important component of detected CBM, which is formed by coal biodegradation and can be regenerated by anaerobic microorganisms. One of the rate-limiting factors for microbial degradation is the bioavailability of coal molecules, especially for anthracite which is more condense and has higher aromaticity compared with low-rank coal. In this paper, NaOH solution with different concentrations and treating time was employed to pretreat anthracite from Qinshui Basin to alter the coal structure and facilitate the biodegradation. The results showed that the optimal pretreatment conditions were 1.5 M NaOH treating for 12 h, under which the biomethane production was increased by 17.65% compared with untreated coal. The results of FTIR and XRD showed that NaOH pretreatment mainly reduced the multi-substituted aromatics, increased the C-O in alcohols and aromatic ethers and the branching degree of aliphatic chain, and decreased the aromatic ring structure, resulting in the improvement of coal bioavailability and enhancement of biomethane yield. And some organics with potential to generate methane were released to filtrate as revealed by GC-MS. Our results suggested that NaOH was an effective solution for pretreating coal to enhance biogenic methane production, and anthracite after treating with NaOH could be the better substrate for methanogenesis.

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<![CDATA[Height of overburden fracture based on key strata theory in longwall face]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb6c965ed-0040-4b7a-b381-dffd2122531d

Among the three overburden zones (the caving zone, the fracture zone, and the continuous deformation zone) in longwall coal mining, the continuous deformation zone is often considered to be continuous without cracks, so continuum mechanics can be used to calculate the subsidence of overburden strata. Longwall coal mining, however, will induce the generation of wide cracks in the surface and thus may cause the continuous deformation zone to fracture. In this paper, whether there are cracks in the continuous deformation zone as well as the height of overburden fracture in longwall face and the subsidence and deformation of strata of different fracture penetration ratios were studied by means of physical simulation, theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The results show that: (1) Rock stratum starts to fracture as long as it has slightly subsided for only tens of millimeters, and the height of fracture development is the height of working face overburden. (2) With the increase of fracture penetration ratio, the subsidence of key strata remains basically unchanged; the surface deformation range and the maximum compression deformation decrease, while the maximum horizontal movement and maximum horizontal tensile deformation increase. Therefore, the subsidence of overburden strata which have fractured but have not broken can be calculated through the continuum mechanics method.

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<![CDATA[An open source algorithm to detect natural gas leaks from mobile methane survey data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9e7d5eed0c48452a459

The data collected by mobile methane (CH4) sensors can be used to find natural gas (NG) leaks in urban distribution systems. Extracting actionable insights from the large volumes of data collected by these sensors requires several data processing steps. While these survey platforms are commercially available, the associated data processing software largely constitute a black box due to their proprietary nature. In this paper we describe a step-by-step algorithm for developing leak indications using data from mobile CH4 surveys, providing an under-the-hood look at the choices and challenges associated with data analysis. We also describe how our algorithm has evolved over time, and the data-driven insights that have prompted these changes. Applying our algorithm to data collected in 15 cities produced more than 6100 leak indications and estimates of the leaks’ size. We use these results to characterize the distribution of leak sizes in local NG distribution systems. Mobile surveys are already an effective and necessary tool for managing NG distribution systems, but improvements in the technology and software will continue to increase its value.

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<![CDATA[Features and drivers for energy-related carbon emissions in mega city: The case of Guangzhou, China based on an extended LMDI model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b2653d5eed0c484289825

Based on the apparent energy consumption data, a systematic and comprehensive city-level total carbon accounting approach was established and applied in Guangzhou, China. A newly extended LMDI method based on the Kaya identity was adopted to examine the main drivers for the carbon emissions increments both at the industrial sector and the residential sector. Research results are listed as follow: (1) Carbon emissions embodied in the imported electricity played a significant important role in emissions mitigation in Guangzhou. (2) The influences and impacts of various driving factors on industrial and residential carbon emissions are different in the three different development periods, namely, the 10th five-year plan period (2003–2005), the 11th five-year plan period (2005–2010), and the 12th five-year plan period (2010–2013). The main reasons underlying these influencing mechanisms were different policy measures announced by the central and local government during the different five-year plan periods. (3) The affluence effect (g-effect) was the dominant positive effect in driving emissions increase, while the energy intensity effect of production (e-effect-Production), the economic structure effect (s-effect) and the carbon intensity effect of production (f-effect-Production) were the main contributing factors suppressing emissions growth at the industrial sector. (4) The affluence effect of urban (g-effect-AUI) was the most dominant positive driving factor on emissions increment, while the energy intensity effect of urban (e-effect-Urban) played the most important role in curbing emissions growth at the residential sector.

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<![CDATA[Study on dielectric properties of high organic sulfur coking coal and modeling sulfur compounds]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b795d5eed0c48449054b

Coking coal is geologically scarce resource and most of them cannot be directly used in steel making due to their higher sulfur content. One desulfurization method that has great potential for massive application is microwave desulfurization, which removes the relatively stubborn organic sulfur under mild conditions. The dielectric properties of coals determine the efficiency of the microwave energy absorption. The key to describing the mechanism of microwave desulfurization and further improvement of the desulfurization efficiency is the dielectric response of organic sulfur compounds in coal to microwave. This study focuses on existing formand microwave response of organic sulfur components of three typical coking coal in China. Resultsshowed that the major organic sulfur in selected coals is thiophene which has a stable structure and is the most difficult to be removed. Several dielectric peaks (dielectric loss)andsignificant differencesofeach selected coal samples are observed. The microwave absorption peaks of the model sulfur compounds are identified to be within 9-11GHz. The real parts of the relative dielectric constants (hereinafter referred to as ε′) shows a decreasing trend as: diphenyl sulfoxide > diphenyl sulfone > diphenyl sulfide > dibenzothiophene > Octadecane thiol. Response to microwaveare observed to be distinctively different between sulfur-containing and sulfur-free model compounds. The dielectric polarization of mixture (coal mixed with model sulfur compounds) is greater than pure coal. Meanwhile the higher the sulfur content of the coal, the greater the ε′ is. Sulfur componentsin coal can significantly influence its polarization.

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<![CDATA[Asymmetric relationship of urbanization and CO2 emissions in less developed countries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141f15d5eed0c484d29959

Understanding the relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and the urbanization of national populations has been a key concern for environmental scholars for several decades. Although sophisticated modeling techniques have been developed to explore the connection between increases in urban populations and CO2 emissions, none has attempted to assess whether declines in urbanization have an effect on emissions that is not symmetrical with that of growth in urbanization. The present study uses panel data on CO2 emissions and the percentage of individuals living in urban areas, as well as a variety of other structural factors, for less-developed countries from 1960–2010, to empirically assess whether the effect of growth in urban populations on emissions is symmetrical with the effect of decline. Findings indicate that the effect of growth/decline in urban populations on CO2 emissions is asymmetrical, where a decline in urbanization reduces emissions to a much greater degree than urbanization increases emissions. We hypothesize that this is at least in part because deurbanization is connected with disruptions to the production and distribution of goods and services and/or access to electricity and other energy sources. Our finding suggests that not only the absolute level of urbanization of nations matters for emissions, but also how the patterns of migration between rural and urban areas change over time. Future research should be mindful of the processes behind deurbanization when exploring socioeconomic drivers of CO2 emissions.

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<![CDATA[Gas injection and brine discharge in rock salt gas storage studied via numerical simulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0841c3d5eed0c484fcaabd

Underground gas storage in rock salt is of great importance for peak-shaving and emergency gas supply. This paper addressed an actual rock salt underground gas storage facility in Jiangsu province, China, as the research project and carried out the following research centered on a detailed geological model, a salt cavern model and the process of gas injection and brine discharge. First, based on the theory of gas-liquid two-phase flow, the authors established a relationship between brine flow and natural gas bubbles under high pressure in the process of brine discharge. Second, the effect of pipe depth on the gas injection and brine discharge was simulated. The objective was mainly to choose the best combination of pipe depth and rate of brine discharge flow based on analysis of the relationship between the brine discharge pipe depth and the flow rate of the residual brine, and the optimal rate was given according to different distances. Third, the effect of residual brine on the gas injection and brine discharge was analyzed. The relationship curves between the maximum velocity on the surface of brine and the distance from the lower end of the brine discharge pipe to the bottom of the gas storage were obtained, and reasonable rates were suggested under different actual working conditions.

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<![CDATA[An Effective Method to Detect Volatile Intermediates Generated in the Bioconversion of Coal to Methane by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry after In-Situ Extraction Using Headspace Solid-Phase Micro-Extraction under Strict Anaerobic Conditions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafcab0ee8fa60bc52db

Bioconversion of coal to methane has gained increased attention in recent decades because of its economic and environmental advantages. However, the mechanism of this process is difficult to study in depth, partly because of difficulties associated with the analysis of intermediates generated in coal bioconversion. In this investigation, we report on an effective method to analyze volatile intermediates generated in the bioconversion of coal under strict anaerobic conditions. We conduct in-situ extraction of intermediates using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction followed by detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bioconversion simulation equipment was modified and combined with a solid-phase micro-extraction device. In-situ extraction could be achieved by using the combined units, to avoid a breakdown in anaerobic conditions and to maintain the experiment continuity. More than 30 intermediates were identified qualitatively in the conversion process, and the variation in trends of some typical intermediates has been discussed. Volatile organic acids (C2–C7) were chosen for a quantitative study of the intermediates because of their importance during coal bioconversion to methane. Fiber coating, extraction time, and solution acidity were optimized in the solid-phase micro-extraction procedure. The pressure was enhanced during the bioconversion process to investigate the influence of headspace pressure on analyte extraction. The detection limits of the method ranged from 0.0006 to 0.02 mmol/L for the volatile organic acids and the relative standard deviations were between 4.6% and 11.5%. The volatile organic acids (C2–C7) generated in the bioconversion process were 0.01–1.15 mmol/L with a recovery range from 80% to 105%. The developed method is useful for further in-depth research on the bioconversion of coal to methane.

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<![CDATA[Collaborative Emission Reduction Model Based on Multi-Objective Optimization for Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9ecab0ee8fa60b6caf5

CO2 emission influences not only global climate change but also international economic and political situations. Thus, reducing the emission of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, has become a major issue in China and around the world as regards preserving the environmental ecology. Energy consumption from coal, oil, and natural gas is primarily responsible for the production of greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as SO2 and NOX, which are the main air pollutants in China. In this study, a mathematical multi-objective optimization method was adopted to analyze the collaborative emission reduction of three kinds of gases on the basis of their common restraints in different ways of energy consumption to develop an economic, clean, and efficient scheme for energy distribution. The first part introduces the background research, the collaborative emission reduction for three kinds of gases, the multi-objective optimization, the main mathematical modeling, and the optimization method. The second part discusses the four mathematical tools utilized in this study, which include the Granger causality test to analyze the causality between air quality and pollutant emission, a function analysis to determine the quantitative relation between energy consumption and pollutant emission, a multi-objective optimization to set up the collaborative optimization model that considers energy consumption, and an optimality condition analysis for the multi-objective optimization model to design the optimal-pole algorithm and obtain an efficient collaborative reduction scheme. In the empirical analysis, the data of pollutant emission and final consumption of energies of Tianjin in 1996–2012 was employed to verify the effectiveness of the model and analyze the efficient solution and the corresponding dominant set. In the last part, several suggestions for collaborative reduction are recommended and the drawn conclusions are stated.

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<![CDATA[A Novel Analysis Method for Paired-Sample Microbial Ecology Experiments]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad0ab0ee8fa60bb6040

Many microbial ecology experiments use sequencing data to measure a community’s response to an experimental treatment. In a common experimental design, two units, one control and one experimental, are sampled before and after the treatment is applied to the experimental unit. The four resulting samples contain information about the dynamics of organisms that respond to the treatment, but there are no analytical methods designed to extract exactly this type of information from this configuration of samples. Here we present an analytical method specifically designed to visualize and generate hypotheses about microbial community dynamics in experiments that have paired samples and few or no replicates. The method is based on the Poisson lognormal distribution, long studied in macroecology, which we found accurately models the abundance distribution of taxa counts from 16S rRNA surveys. To demonstrate the method’s validity and potential, we analyzed an experiment that measured the effect of crude oil on ocean microbial communities in microcosm. Our method identified known oil degraders as well as two clades, Maricurvus and Rhodobacteraceae, that responded to amendment with oil but do not include known oil degraders. Our approach is sensitive to organisms that increased in abundance only in the experimental unit but less sensitive to organisms that increased in both control and experimental units, thus mitigating the role of “bottle effects”.

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<![CDATA[Bi-Objective Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Problem Considering Energy Consumption under Stochastic Processing Times]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da80ab0ee8fa60b9a67c

This paper presents a novel method on the optimization of bi-objective Flexible Job-shop Scheduling Problem (FJSP) under stochastic processing times. The robust counterpart model and the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) are used to solve the bi-objective FJSP with consideration of the completion time and the total energy consumption under stochastic processing times. The case study on GM Corporation verifies that the NSGA-II used in this paper is effective and has advantages to solve the proposed model comparing with HPSO and PSO+SA. The idea and method of the paper can be generalized widely in the manufacturing industry, because it can reduce the energy consumption of the energy-intensive manufacturing enterprise with less investment when the new approach is applied in existing systems.

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<![CDATA[Causes of Stranding and Mortality, and Final Disposition of Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta) Admitted to a Wildlife Rehabilitation Center in Gran Canaria Island, Spain (1998-2014): A Long-Term Retrospective Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da07ab0ee8fa60b7646e

Aims

The aims of this study were to analyze the causes of stranding of 1,860 loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) admitted at the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center in Gran Canaria Island, Spain, from 1998 to 2014, and to analyze the outcomes of the rehabilitation process to allow meaningful auditing of its quality.

Methods

Primary causes of morbidity were classified into seven categories: entanglement in fishing gear and/or plastics, ingestion of hooks and monofilament lines, trauma, infectious disease, crude oil, other causes, and unknown/undetermined. Final dispositions were calculated as euthanasia (Er), unassisted mortality (Mr), and release (Rr) rates. Time to death (Td) for euthanized and dead turtles, and length of stay for released (Tr) turtles were evaluated.

Results

The most frequent causes of morbidity were entanglement in fishing gear and/or plastics (50.81%), unknown/undetermined (20.37%), and ingestion of hooks (11.88%). The final disposition of the 1,634 loggerhead turtles admitted alive were: Er = 3.37%, Mr = 10.34%, and Rr = 86.29%. Er was significantly higher in the trauma category (18.67%) compared to the other causes of admission. The highest Mr was observed for turtles admitted due to trauma (30.67%). The highest Rr was observed in the crude oil (93.87%) and entanglement (92.38%) categories. The median Tr ranged from 12 days (unknown) to 70 days (trauma).

Conclusions

This survey is the first large-scale epidemiological study on causes of stranding and mortality of Eastern Atlantic loggerheads and demonstrates that at least 71.72% of turtles stranded due to anthropogenic causes. The high Rr (86.29%) emphasizes the importance of marine rehabilitation centers for conservation purposes. The stratified analysis by causes of admission of the three final disposition rates, and the parameters Td and Tr should be included in the outcome research of the rehabilitation process of sea turtles in order to allow comparative studies between marine rehabilitation centers around the world.

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<![CDATA[A pilot study to assess residential noise exposure near natural gas compressor stations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc1ce

Background

U.S. natural gas production increased 40% from 2000 to 2015. This growth is largely related to technological advances in horizontal drilling and high-volume hydraulic fracturing. Environmental exposures upon impacted communities are a significant public health concern. Noise associated with natural gas compressor stations has been identified as a major concern for nearby residents, though limited studies exist.

Objectives

We conducted a pilot study to characterize noise levels in 11 homes located in Doddridge County, West Virginia, and determined whether these levels differed based on time of day, indoors vs. outdoors, and proximity of homes to natural gas compressor stations. We also compared noise levels at increasing distances from compressor stations to available noise guidelines, and evaluated low frequency noise presence.

Methods

We collected indoor and outdoor 24-hour measurements (Leq, 24hr) in eight homes located within 750 meters (m) of the nearest compressor station and three control homes located >1000m. We then evaluated how A-weighted decibel (dBA) exposure levels differed based on factors outlined above.

Results

The geometric mean (GM) for 24-hour outdoor noise levels at homes located <300m (Leq,24hr: 60.3 dBA; geometric standard deviation (GSD): 1.0) from the nearest compressor station was nearly 9 dBA higher than control homes (Leq,24hr: 51.6 dBA; GSD: 1.1). GM for 24 hour indoor noise for homes <300m (Leq,24hr: 53.4 dBA; GSD: 1.2) from the nearest compressor station was 11.2 dBA higher than control homes (Leq,24hr: 42.2 dBA; GSD: 1.1). Indoor average daytime noise for homes <300m of the nearest compressor stations were 13.1 dBA higher than control homes, while indoor nighttime readings were 9.4 dBA higher.

Conclusions

Findings indicate that living near a natural gas compressor station could potentially result in high environmental noise exposures. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings and evaluate potential health impacts and protection measures.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence and risk factors of airflow limitation in a Mongolian population in Ulaanbaatar: Cross-sectional studies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcca7

The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is expected to increase in the coming decades. In Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, air pollution, which has been suggested to correlate with COPD, is a growing concern. However, the COPD prevalence in Ulaanbaatar is currently unknown. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of airflow limitation and investigate the association between airflow limitation and putative risk factors in the Mongolian population. Five cross-sectional studies were carried out in Ulaanbaatar. Administration of a self-completed questionnaire, body measurements, and medical examination including spirometry were performed in 746 subjects aged 40 to 79 years living in Ulaanbaatar. The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of airflow limitation in Ulaanbaatar varied widely from 4.0 to 10.9% depending on the criteria for asthma. Age, body mass index (BMI), and smoking habit were independent predictors for airflow limitation while residential area and household fuel type were not significant. In conclusion, prevalence of putative COPD was 10.0% when subjects with physician-diagnosed asthma were excluded from COPD. Older age, lower BMI, and current smoking status were putative risk factors for airflow limitation. This prevalence was consistent with reports from Asian countries.

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<![CDATA[Household Air Pollution and Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in Adults: A Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da24ab0ee8fa60b801dd

Introduction

Household air pollution from solid fuel burning kills over 4 million people every year including half a million children from acute lower respiratory infections. Although biologically plausible, it is not clear whether household air pollution is also associated with acute lower respiratory infections in adults. We systematically reviewed the literature on household air pollution and acute lower respiratory infection in adults to identify knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

Methods

Ten bibliographic databases were searched to identify studies of household air pollution and adult acute lower respiratory infection. Data were extracted from eligible studies using standardised forms.

Results

From 4617 titles, 513 abstracts and 72 full-text articles were reviewed. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria of which 2 found a significant adjusted increased risk of acute lower respiratory infection, 2 identified a univariate association whilst 4 found no significant association. Study quality was generally limited. Heterogeneity in methods and findings precluded meta-analysis.

Discussion

A systematic review of the literature found limited evidence for an association between household air pollution and risk of acute lower respiratory infection in adults. Additional research, with carefully defined exposure and outcome measures, is required to complete the risk profile caused by household air pollution in adults.

Registration number

CRD42015028042.

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<![CDATA[Examining drivers of the emissions embodied in trade]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc34b

Emissions embodied in provincial trade (EEPT) have important effects on provinces’ responsibilities for carbon emission reductions. Based on a multi-regional input-output model, we calculated EEPT for China’s 30 provinces in 2002, 2007 and 2010, and we attempted to determine the drivers of EEPT. The results showed that, during this period, the ratio of EEPT to production-based emissions increased over time, reaching 40.24% in 2010. In consideration of its important role in carbon emissions, we analyzed the factors attributable to EEPT through structure decomposition analysis. The decomposition results showed that final demand and carbon emission intensity were two major factors in EEPT, while the final demand in other provinces and the carbon emission intensity in the local province were major factors for Emissions embodied in provincial exports and the final demand in the local province and the carbon emission intensity in other provinces were major factors for Emissions embodied in provincial imports. Regarding the differences among the EEPT of different provinces, changes in the structure of trade were the primary reason.

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<![CDATA[Forecasting electric vehicles sales with univariate and multivariate time series models: The case of China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db59ab0ee8fa60bdf1ac

The market demand for electric vehicles (EVs) has increased in recent years. Suitable models are necessary to understand and forecast EV sales. This study presents a singular spectrum analysis (SSA) as a univariate time-series model and vector autoregressive model (VAR) as a multivariate model. Empirical results suggest that SSA satisfactorily indicates the evolving trend and provides reasonable results. The VAR model, which comprised exogenous parameters related to the market on a monthly basis, can significantly improve the prediction accuracy. The EV sales in China, which are categorized into battery and plug-in EVs, are predicted in both short term (up to December 2017) and long term (up to 2020), as statistical proofs of the growth of the Chinese EV industry.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of Microbial Community Compositions of Injection and Production Well Samples in a Long-Term Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoir]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f7ab0ee8fa60b707b0

Water flooding plays an important role in recovering oil from depleted petroleum reservoirs. Exactly how the microbial communities of production wells are affected by microorganisms introduced with injected water has previously not been adequately studied. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the comparison of microbial communities is carried out between one injection water and two production waters collected from a working block of the water-flooded Gudao petroleum reservoir located in the Yellow River Delta. DGGE fingerprints showed that the similarities of the bacterial communities between the injection water and production waters were lower than between the two production waters. It was also observed that the archaeal composition among these three samples showed no significant difference. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the dominant groups within the injection water were Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia, while the dominant groups in the production waters were Gammaproteobacteria and Methanobacteria. Only 2 out of 54 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 5 out of 17 archaeal OTUs in the injection water were detected in the production waters, indicating that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection water may not survive to be detected in the production waters. Additionally, there were 55.6% and 82.6% unique OTUs in the two production waters respectively, suggesting that each production well has its specific microbial composition, despite both wells being flooded with the same injection water.

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