ResearchPad - frailty https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Evaluation of Clinically Meaningful Changes in Measures of Frailty]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10128 To determine the clinically meaningful changes and responsiveness of widely used frailty measures.MethodsWe analyzed data from a prospective cohort study of 1,135 community-dwelling older adults who underwent assessments of frailty and health-related quality of life using the EuroQol-5D at baseline and 1 year later. Frailty measures included deficit-accumulation frailty index (FI); frailty phenotype; Fatigue, Resistance, Ambulation, Illness, and Loss of Weight scale; and the Study of Osteoporotic Fracture (SOF) index. We determined the clinically meaningful changes by the distribution-based method and the anchor-based method using the EuroQol-5D score and responsiveness indices.ResultsFrailty measures were available in 925 participants at 1 year (81.5%). Based on the distribution-based method, small and large clinically meaningful changes were 0.019 and 0.057 for FI, 0.249 and 0.623 for frailty phenotype, 0.235 and 0.587 for FRAIL scale, and 0.116 and 0.289 for SOF index, respectively. The anchor-based estimates of small and large changes were 0.028 and 0.076 for FI, 0.097 and 0.607 for frailty phenotype, 0.269 and 0.368 for FRAIL scale, and 0.023 and 0.287 for SOF index, respectively. Based on the responsiveness index, per-group sample sizes to achieve 80% power in clinical trials, ranged from 51 (FI) to 7,272 (SOF index) for a small change and 9 (FI) to 133 (FRAIL scale) for a large change.ConclusionsThe estimates of clinically meaningful change of frailty measures can inform the choice of frailty measures to track longitudinal changes of frailty in clinical trials and clinical care of community-dwelling older adults. ]]> <![CDATA[A NETWORK ANALYSIS OF FRAILTY USING DATA FROM THE MEXICAN HEALTH AND AGING STUDY]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbdc08e41-513e-4a11-b762-42bb599dcc35

Abstract

Frailty remains a challenge in the aging research area with a number of gaps in knowledge still to be filled. New approaches to its study have been proposed, including the one discussed in this article. We tested frailty as through the use of graphical probabilistic models (bayesian networks) with empirical data. Data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study (main data 2012, mortality 2015) was used. Frailty was operationalized with a 35-deficit frailty index (FI). Analyzed nodes were the deficits, plus death and the total score of the FI. The edges, or ties, linking those nodes (set E) were obtained through structural learning, and an undirected discrete graph G (V, E) associated with a discrete graphical probabilistic model (Markov network) was derived. Structural learning was possible through hill-climbing (hc) and PC algorithms. Analyses were performed for the whole population and tertiles of the total FI score. The number of connections within nodes increased according to the tertile level of the total FI score. Groups of interconnected deficits increased as the FI score raised. Almost all deficits related to mobility were interconnected and death was not the most connected node. Frailty behaves as a nonlinear system under the looks of a complex network. Further research should aim to identify the nature of the interactions observed. This could contribute to the development of a conceptual framework that would allow specific interventions to mitigate the consequences of frailty in older adults to be developed.

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<![CDATA[Prospective evaluation of a dynamic insulin infusion algorithm for non critically-ill diabetic patients: A before-after study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d61bd5eed0c48403163c

Introduction

Insulin infusion is recommended during management of diabetic patients in critical care units to rapidly achieve glycaemic stability and reduce the mortality. The application of an easy-to-use standardized protocol, compatible with the workload is preferred. Glycaemic target must quickly be reached, therefore static algorithms should be replaced by dynamic ones. The dynamic algorithm seems closer to the physiological situation and appreciates insulin sensitivity. However, the protocol must meet both safety and efficiency requirements. Indeed, apprehension from hypoglycaemia is the main deadlock with the dynamic algorithms, thus their application remains limited. In contrary to the critical care units, to date, no prospective study evaluated a dynamic algorithm of insulin infusion in non-critically ill patients.

Aim

This study primarily aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a dynamic algorithm of intravenous insulin therapy in non-critically-ill patients, and addressed its safety and feasibility in different departments of our university hospital.

Methods

A "before-after" study was conducted in five hospital departments (endocrinology and four “non-expert” units) comparing a dynamic algorithm (during the "after" period-P2) to the static protocol (the “before” period-P1). Static protocol is based on determining insulin infusion according to an instant blood glycaemia (BG) level at a given time. In the dynamic algorithm, insulin infusion rate is determined according to the rate of change of the BG (the previous and actual BG under a specific insulin infusion rate). Additionally, two distinct glycaemic targets were defined according to the patients’ profile: 100–180 mg/dl (5.5–10 mmol/l) for vigorous patients and 140–220 mg/dl (7.8–12.2 mmol/l) for frail ones. Different BG measurements for each patient were collected and recorded in a specific database (e-CRF) in order to analyse the rates of hypo- and hyperglycaemia. A satisfaction survey was also performed. A study approval was obtained from the institutional revision board before starting the study.

Results

Over 8 months, 72 and 66 patients during P1 and P2 were respectively included. The dynamic algorithm was more efficient, with reduced time to control hyperglycaemia (P1 vs P2:8.3 vs 5.3 hours; HR: 2.02 [1.27; 3.21]; p<0.01), increased the number of in-target BG measurements (P1 vs P2: 37.0% vs 41.8%; p<0.05), and reduced the glycaemic variability related to each patient (P1 vs P2, %CV: 40.9 vs 38.2;p<0.05, Index Correlation Class:0.30 vs 0.14; p<0.05). In patients after the first event of hypoglycemia after having started the infusion, new events were lower (P1 vs P2: 19.4 vs 11.4; p<0.001) thanks to an earlier reaction to hypoglycaemia (8.3% during P1 vs 44.3% during P2; p = 0.004). With the dynamic algorithm, the percentage of recurrence of mild hypoglycaemia was significantly lower in frail patients (20.5% vs 10.2%; p<0.001), and in patients managed in the non-expert units (18 vs 7.1%, p<0.001). The %CV was significantly improved in frail patients (36.9%). Mean BG measurements for each patient/day were 5.5±1.1 during P1 and 6.0±1.6 during P2 (p = 0.6). The threat from hypoglycaemia and the difficulty in using dynamic algorithm are barriers for nurses’ adherence.

Conclusions

This dynamic algorithm for non-critically-ill patients is more efficient and safe than the static protocol, and adapted for frail patients and non-expert units.

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<![CDATA[Decreased preoperative functional status is associated with increased mortality following coronary artery bypass graft surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0a88d5eed0c4844262f3

Objectives

Functional status prior to coronary artery bypass graft surgery may be a risk factor for post-operative adverse events. We sought to examine the association between functional status in the 3 months prior to coronary artery bypass graft surgery and subsequent 180 day mortality.

Design, setting, and participants

We performed a single center retrospective cohort study in 718 adults who received coronary artery bypass graft surgery from 2002 to 2014.

Exposures

The exposure of interest was functional status determined within the 3 months preceding coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Functional status was measured and rated by a licensed physical therapist based on qualitative categories adapted from the Functional Independence Measure.

Main outcomes and measures

The main outcome was 180-day all-cause mortality. A categorical risk prediction score was derived based on a logistic regression model of the function grades for each assessment.

Results

In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, New York Heart Association Class III/IV, chronic lung disease, hypertension, diabetes, cerebrovascular disease, and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons score, the lowest quartile of functional status was associated with an increased odds of 180-day mortality compared to patients with highest quartile of functional status [OR = 4.45 (95%CI 1.35, 14.69; P = 0.014)].

Conclusions

Lower functional status prior to coronary artery bypass graft surgery is associated with increased 180-day all-cause mortality.

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<![CDATA[Independent association between subjective cognitive decline and frailty in the elderly]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b6da1b7463d7e4dccc5faef

Background

The relationship between subjective cognitive decline and frailty, two components of the so-called reversible cognitive frailty, in the elderly remains unclear. This study aims to elucidate whether this association exists, independent of confounding factors such as nutritional status, kidney function, inflammation, and insulin resistance.

Methods

2386 participants (≥ 65 years of age) selected from the Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study in Taiwan (HALST) study. Fried frailty phenotype was adopted to quantify frailty status. We classified cognitive status into two categories—subjective cognitive decline (SCD), and normal cognition—and used polytomous logistic regressions to investigate the associations between SCD and frailty.

Results

There were 188 (7.88%), 1228 (51.47%), and 970 (40.65%) participants with frailty, pre-frailty, and robustness, respectively. Compared to those with normal cognition, elders with SCD were more likely to have pre-frailty (odds ratio [OR]: 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–1.67, p = 0.004) or frailty (OR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.23–2.58, p = 0.002) after adjusting for age, gender, education level, comorbidity, nutritional status, kidney function, and biochemical-related factors.

Conclusions

A significant association between subjective cognitive decline and frailty was revealed in this study. Subjective cognitive decline was positively associated with pre-frailty or frailty even after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Our results can provide useful references in understanding mechanisms and developing suitable preventive strategies for the elderly with reversible cognitive frailty.

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<![CDATA[Long Term Outcomes of a Geriatric Liaison Intervention in Frail Elderly Cancer Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db02ab0ee8fa60bc6e8f

Background

The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effects after discharge of a hospital-based geriatric liaison intervention to prevent postoperative delirium in frail elderly cancer patients treated with an elective surgical procedure for a solid tumour. In addition, the effect of a postoperative delirium on long term outcomes was examined.

Methods

A three month follow-up was performed in participants of the Liaison Intervention in Frail Elderly study, a multicentre, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Patients were randomized to standard treatment or a geriatric liaison intervention. The intervention consisted of a preoperative geriatric consultation, an individual treatment plan targeted at risk factors for delirium and daily visits by a geriatric nurse during the hospital stay. The long term outcomes included: mortality, rehospitalisation, Activities of Daily Living (ADL) functioning, return to the independent pre-operative living situation, use of supportive care, cognitive functioning and health related quality of life.

Results

Data of 260 patients (intervention n = 127, Control n = 133) were analysed. There were no differences between the intervention group and usual-care group for any of the outcomes three months after discharge. The presence of postoperative delirium was associated with: an increased risk of decline in ADL functioning (OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.02–6.88), an increased use of supportive assistance (OR: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.02–5.87) and a decreased chance to return to the independent preoperative living situation (OR: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.07–0.49).

Conclusions

A hospital-based geriatric liaison intervention for the prevention of postoperative delirium in frail elderly cancer patients undergoing elective surgery for a solid tumour did not improve outcomes 3 months after discharge from hospital. The negative effect of a postoperative delirium on late outcome was confirmed.

Trial Registration

Nederlands Trial Register, Trial ID NTR 823.

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<![CDATA[Tissue Depletion of Taurine Accelerates Skeletal Muscle Senescence and Leads to Early Death in Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da36ab0ee8fa60b86649

Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is found in milimolar concentrations in mammalian tissues. One of its main functions is osmoregulation; however, it also exhibits cytoprotective activity by diminishing injury caused by stress and disease. Taurine depletion is associated with several defects, many of which are found in the aging animal, suggesting that taurine might exert anti-aging actions. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the hypothesis that taurine depletion accelerates aging by reducing longevity and accelerating aging-associated tissue damage. Tissue taurine depletion in taurine transporter knockout (TauTKO) mouse was found to shorten lifespan and accelerate skeletal muscle histological and functional defects, including an increase in central nuclei containing myotubes, a reduction in mitochondrial complex 1 activity and an induction in an aging biomarker, Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor A (p16INK4a). Tissue taurine depletion also enhances unfolded protein response (UPR), which may be associated with an improvement in protein folding by taurine. Our data reveal that tissue taurine depletion affects longevity and cellular senescence; an effect possibly linked to a disturbance in protein folding.

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<![CDATA[Underweight, Markers of Cachexia, and Mortality in Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Prospective Cohort Study of Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da70ab0ee8fa60b94bc4

Background

Underweight patients are at higher risk of death after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) than normal weight patients; however, it is unclear whether this relationship is explained by confounding due to cachexia or other factors associated with low body mass index (BMI). This study aimed to answer two questions: (1) does comprehensive risk adjustment for comorbid illness and frailty measures explain the higher mortality after AMI in underweight patients, and (2) is the relationship between underweight and mortality also observed in patients with AMI who are otherwise without significant chronic illness and are presumably free of cachexia?

Methods and Findings

We analyzed data from the Cooperative Cardiovascular Project, a cohort-based study of Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for AMI between January 1994 and February 1996 with 17 y of follow-up and detailed clinical information to compare short- and long-term mortality in underweight and normal weight patients (n = 57,574). We used Cox proportional hazards regression to investigate the association of low BMI with 30-d, 1-y, 5-y, and 17-y mortality after AMI while adjusting for patient comorbidities, frailty measures, and laboratory markers of nutritional status. We also repeated the analyses in a subset of patients without significant comorbidity or frailty.

Of the 57,574 patients with AMI included in this cohort, 5,678 (9.8%) were underweight and 51,896 (90.2%) were normal weight at baseline. Underweight patients were older, on average, than normal weight patients and had a higher prevalence of most comorbidities and measures of frailty. Crude mortality was significantly higher for underweight patients than normal weight patients at 30 d (25.2% versus 16.4%, p < 0.001), 1 y (51.3% versus 33.8%, p < 0.001), 5 y (79.2% versus 59.4%, p < 0.001), and 17 y (98.3% versus 94.0%, p < 0.001). After adjustment, underweight patients had a 13% higher risk of 30-d death and a 26% higher risk of 17-y death than normal weight patients (30-d hazard ratio [HR] 1.13, 95% CI 1.07–1.20; 17-y HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.23–1.30). Survival curves for underweight and normal weight patients separated early and remained separate over 17 y, suggesting that underweight patients remained at a significant survival disadvantage over time. Similar findings were observed among the subset of patients without comorbidity at baseline. Underweight patients without comorbidity had a 30-d adjusted mortality similar to that of normal weight patients but a 21% higher risk of death over the long term (30-d HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.93–1.26; 17-y HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.14–1.29). The adverse effects of low BMI were greatest in patients with very low BMIs. The major limitation of this study was the use of surrogate markers of frailty and comorbid conditions to identify patients at highest risk for cachexia rather than clear diagnostic criteria for cachexia.

Conclusions

Underweight BMI is an important risk factor for mortality after AMI, independent of confounding by comorbidities, frailty measures, and laboratory markers of nutritional status. Strategies to promote weight gain in underweight patients after AMI are worthy of testing.

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<![CDATA[Frailty Markers and Treatment Decisions in Patients Seen in Oncogeriatric Clinics: Results from the ASRO Pilot Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daabab0ee8fa60ba9582

Background

Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) is the gold standard to help oncologists select the best cancer treatment for their older patients. Some authors have suggested that the concept of frailty could be a more useful approach in this population. We investigated whether frailty markers are associated with treatment recommendations in an oncogeriatric clinic.

Methods

This prospective study included 70 years and older patients with solid tumors and referred for an oncogeriatric assessment. The CGA included nine domains: autonomy, comorbidities, medication, cognition, nutrition, mood, neurosensory deficits, falls, and social status. Five frailty markers were assessed (nutrition, physical activity, energy, mobility, and strength). Patients were categorized as Frail (three or more frailty markers), pre-frail (one or two frailty markers), or not-frail (no frailty marker). Treatment recommendations were classified into two categories: standard treatment with and without any changes and supportive/palliative care. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyze factors associated with treatment recommendations.

Results

217 patients, mean age 83 years (± Standard deviation (SD) 5.3), were included. In the univariate analysis, number of frailty markers, grip strength, physical activity, mobility, nutrition, energy, autonomy, depression, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Scale of Performance Status (ECOG-PS), and falls were significantly associated with final treatment recommendations. In the multivariate analysis, the number of frailty markers and basic Activities of Daily Living (ADL) were significantly associated with final treatment recommendations (p<0.001 and p = 0.010, respectively).

Conclusion

Frailty markers are associated with final treatment recommendations in older cancer patients. Longitudinal studies are warranted to better determine their use in a geriatric oncology setting.

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<![CDATA[Comorbidities and Disease Severity as Risk Factors for Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Colonization: Report of an Experience in an Internal Medicine Unit]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db45ab0ee8fa60bd8507

Background

Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is an emerging multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen, spreading to hospitalized elderly patients. Risk factors in this setting are unclear. Our aims were to explore the contribution of multi-morbidity and disease severity in the onset of CRKP colonization/infection, and to describe changes in epidemiology after the institution of quarantine-ward managed by staff-cohorting.

Methods and Findings

With a case-control design, we evaluated 133 CRKP-positive patients (75 M, 58 F; mean age 79±10 years) and a control group of 400 CRKP-negative subjects (179 M, 221 F; mean age 79±12 years) admitted to Internal Medicine and Critical Subacute Care Unit of Parma University Hospital, Italy, during a 10-month period. Information about comorbidity type and severity, expressed through Cumulative Illness Rating Scale-CIRS, was collected in each patient. During an overall 5-month period, CRKP-positive patients were managed in an isolation ward with staff cohorting. A contact-bed isolation approach was established in the other 5 months. The effects of these strategies were evaluated with a cross-sectional study design. CRKP-positive subjects had higher CIRS comorbidity index (12.0±3.6 vs 9.1±3.5, p<0.0001) and CIRS severity index (3.2±0.4 vs 2.9±0.5, p<0.0001), along with higher cardiovascular, respiratory, renal and neurological disease burden than control group. CIRS severity index was associated with a higher risk for CRKP-colonization (OR 13.3, 95%CI6.88–25.93), independent of comorbidities. Isolation ward activation was associated with decreased monthly incidence of CRKP-positivity (from 16.9% to 1.2% of all admissions) and infection (from 36.6% to 22.5% of all positive cases; p = 0.04 derived by Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Mortality rate did not differ between cases and controls (21.8% vs 15.2%, p = 0.08). The main limitations of this study are observational design and lack of data about prior antibiotic exposure.

Conclusions

Comorbidities and disease severity are relevant risk factors for CRKP-colonization/infection in elderly frail patients. Sanitary measures may have contributed to limit epidemic spread and rate of infection also in internal medicine setting.

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<![CDATA[Physical activity and trajectories of frailty among older adults: Evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc3f6

Background

Frail older adults are heavy users of health and social care. In order to reduce the costs associated with frailty in older age groups, safe and cost-effective strategies are required that will reduce the incidence and severity of frailty.

Objective

We investigated whether self-reported intensity of physical activity (sedentary, mild, moderate or vigorous) performed at least once a week can significantly reduce trajectories of frailty in older adults who are classified as non-frail at baseline (Rockwood’s Frailty Index [FI] ≤ 0.25).

Methods

Multi-level growth curve modelling was used to assess trajectories of frailty in 8649 non-frail adults aged 50 and over and according to baseline self-reported intensity of physical activity. Frailty was measured in five-year age cohorts based on age at baseline (50–54; 55–59; 60–64; 65–69; 70–74; 75–79; 80+) on up to 6 occasions, providing an average of 10 years of follow-up. All models were adjusted for baseline sex, education, wealth, cohabitation, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

Results

Compared with the sedentary reference group, mild physical activity was insufficient to significantly slow the progression of frailty, moderate physical activity reduced the progression of frailty in some age groups (particularly ages 65 and above) and vigorous activity significantly reduced the trajectory of frailty progression in all older adults.

Conclusion

Healthy non-frail older adults require higher intensities of physical activity for continued improvement in frailty trajectories.

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<![CDATA[Screening for Vulnerability in Older Cancer Patients: The ONCODAGE Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3dab0ee8fa60b88a4e

Background

Geriatric Assessment is an appropriate method for identifying older cancer patients at risk of life-threatening events during therapy. Yet, it is underused in practice, mainly because it is time- and resource-consuming. This study aims to identify the best screening tool to identify older cancer patients requiring geriatric assessment by comparing the performance of two short assessment tools the G8 and the Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13).

Patients and Methods

The diagnostic accuracy of the G8 and the (VES-13) were evaluated in a prospective cohort study of 1674 cancer patients accrued before treatment in 23 health care facilities. 1435 were eligible and evaluable. Outcome measures were multidimensional geriatric assessment (MGA), sensitivity (primary), specificity, negative and positive predictive values and likelihood ratios of the G8 and VES-13, and predictive factors of 1-year survival rate.

Results

Patient median age was 78.2 years (70-98) with a majority of females (69.8%), various types of cancer including 53.9% breast, and 75.8% Performance Status 0-1. Impaired MGA, G8, and VES-13 were 80.2%, 68.4%, and 60.2%, respectively. Mean time to complete G8 or VES-13 was about five minutes. Reproducibility of the two questionnaires was good. G8 appeared more sensitive (76.5% versus 68.7%, P =  0.0046) whereas VES-13 was more specific (74.3% versus 64.4%, P<0.0001). Abnormal G8 score (HR = 2.72), advanced stage (HR = 3.30), male sex (HR = 2.69) and poor Performance Status (HR = 3.28) were independent prognostic factors of 1-year survival.

Conclusion

With good sensitivity and independent prognostic value on 1-year survival, the G8 questionnaire is currently one of the best screening tools available to identify older cancer patients requiring geriatric assessment, and we believe it should be implemented broadly in daily practice. Continuous research efforts should be pursued to refine the selection process of older cancer patients before potentially life-threatening therapy.

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<![CDATA[Ginsenoside Rb1 Prevents H2O2-Induced HUVEC Senescence by Stimulating Sirtuin-1 Pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db03ab0ee8fa60bc7401

Purposes

We have previously reported that Ginsenoside Rb1 may effectively prevent HUVECs from senescence, however, the detailed mechanism has not demonstrated up to now. Recent studies have shown that sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) plays an important role in the development of endothelial senescence. The purpose of this study was to explore whether Sirt1 is involved in the action of Ginsenoside Rb1 regarding protection against H2O2-induced HUVEC Senescence.

Methods and Results

Senescence induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was examined by analyzing plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression, cell morphology, and senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity. The results revealed that 42% of control-treated HUVECs were SA-β-gal positive after treatment by 60 µmol/L H2O2, however, this particular effect of H2O2 was decreased more than 2-fold (19%) in the HUVECs when pretreated with Rb1 (20 µmol/L) for 30 min. Additionally, Rb1 decreased eNOS acetylation, as well as promoted more NO production that was accompanied by an increase in Sirt1 expression. Furthermore, upon knocking down Sirt1, the effect of Rb1 on HUVEC senescence was blunted.

Conclusions

The present study indicated that Ginsenoside Rb1 acts through stimulating Sirt1 in order to protect against endothelial senescence and dysfunction. As such, Sirt1 appears to be of particular importance in maintaining endothelial functions and delaying vascular aging.

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<![CDATA[Metabolic Syndrome, Sarcopenia and Role of Sex and Age: Cross-Sectional Analysis of Kashiwa Cohort Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7cab0ee8fa60b98e59

Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that effects of cardiovascular risk factors may vary depending on sex and age. In this study, we assessed the associations of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with sarcopenia and its components in older adults, and examined whether the associations vary by sex and age. We also tested if any one of the MetS components could explain the associations. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from the cohort study conducted in Kashiwa city, Chiba, Japan in 2012 which included 1971 functionally-independent, community-dwelling Japanese adults aged 65 years or older (977 men, 994 women). Sarcopenia was defined based on appendicular skeletal muscle mass, grip strength and usual gait speed. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 14.2% in men and 22.1% in women, while the prevalence of MetS was 43.6% in men and 28.9% in women. After adjustment for potential confounders, MetS was positively associated with sarcopenia in men aged 65 to 74 years (odds ratio 5.5; 95% confidence interval 1.9–15.9) but not in older men or women. Among the sarcopenia components, MetS was associated with lower muscle mass and grip strength, particularly in men aged 65 to 74 years. The associations of MetS with sarcopenia and its components were mainly driven by abdominal obesity regardless of sex or age. In conclusion, MetS is positively associated with sarcopenia in older men. The association is modified by sex and age, but abdominal obesity is the main contributor to the association across sex and age.

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<![CDATA[Associations between body mass index, mid-arm circumference, calf circumference, and functional ability over time in an elderly Taiwanese population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcc7d

Background

Anthropometric measurements such as body mass index (BMI), mid-arm circumference (MAC), and calf-circumference (CC) are assessed with ease during regular health visits, but the associations between these anthropometric parameters and functional ability in elderly population over time has not been studied in detail. This study aimed to examine the associations between functional ability and the anthropometric parameters BMI, MAC, and CC in Taiwanese adults ≥ 65 years old.

Methods

Data were obtained from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study of Aging and analyzed retrospectively.

Results

Functional decline over a 4- and 8-year period was noted in approximately 14% and 21% of study participants, respectively. BMI was negatively associated with participants’ current Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scores, and was positively associated with 4-year ADL scores in adults ≥ 65 years old (β = -1.19 and 1.14, P = 0.0010 and 0.0420, respectively). MAC and CC were negatively associated with current ADL scores (β = -1.46, P < 0.0001 and β = -4.68, P < 0.0001, respectively). The association between CC and current ADL score was stronger than the association between current ADL score and either BMI or MAC. For adults ≥ 65 years old, a high BMI increased the risk of ADL decline over 4 and 8 years by 4-fold and 3-fold (adjusted odds ratio = 4.23 and 2.64, 95% confidential interval = 1.95–9.19 and 1.22–5.71, P = 0.0003 and 0.0141, respectively).

Conclusions

BMI is a significant predictor of decline of functional ability in Taiwanese adults ≥ 65 years old. CC is an important anthropometric indicator of current functional ability among older adults.

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<![CDATA[General Practitioners’ Decision Making about Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Older Adults: A Qualitative Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0cab0ee8fa60b77fb8

Background

Primary cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention in older people is challenging as they are a diverse group with varying needs, frequent presence of comorbidities, and are more susceptible to treatment harms. Moreover the potential benefits and harms of preventive medication for older people are uncertain. We explored GPs’ decision making about primary CVD prevention in patients aged 75 years and older.

Method

25 GPs participated in semi-structured interviews in New South Wales, Australia. Transcribed audio-recordings were thematically coded and Framework Analysis was used.

Results

Analysis identified factors that are likely to contribute to variation in the management of CVD risk in older people. Some GPs based CVD prevention on guidelines regardless of patient age. Others tailored management based on factors such as perceptions of prevention in older age, knowledge of limited evidence, comorbidities, polypharmacy, frailty, and life expectancy. GPs were more confident about: 1) medication and lifestyle change for fit/healthy older patients, and 2) stopping or avoiding medication for frail/nursing home patients. Decision making for older patients outside of these categories was less clear.

Conclusion

Older patients receive different care depending on their GP’s perceptions of ageing and CVD prevention, and their knowledge of available evidence. GPs consider CVD prevention for older patients challenging and would welcome more guidance in this area.

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<![CDATA[Frailty Index Predicts All-Cause Mortality for Middle-Aged and Older Taiwanese: Implications for Active-Aging Programs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f2ab0ee8fa60b6ec60

Background

Frailty Index, defined as an individual’s accumulated proportion of listed health-related deficits, is a well-established metric used to assess the health status of old adults; however, it has not yet been developed in Taiwan, and its local related structure factors remain unclear. The objectives were to construct a Taiwan Frailty Index to predict mortality risk, and to explore the structure of its factors.

Methods

Analytic data on 1,284 participants aged 53 and older were excerpted from the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (2006), in Taiwan. A consensus workgroup of geriatricians selected 159 items according to the standard procedure for creating a Frailty Index. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to explore the association between the Taiwan Frailty Index and mortality. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify structure factors and produce a shorter version–the Taiwan Frailty Index Short-Form.

Results

During an average follow-up of 4.3 ± 0.8 years, 140 (11%) subjects died. Compared to those in the lowest Taiwan Frailty Index tertile (< 0.18), those in the uppermost tertile (> 0.23) had significantly higher risk of death (Hazard ratio: 3.2; 95% CI 1.9–5.4). Thirty-five items of five structure factors identified by exploratory factor analysis, included: physical activities, life satisfaction and financial status, health status, cognitive function, and stresses. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (C-statistics) of the Taiwan Frailty Index and its Short-Form were 0.80 and 0.78, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between them.

Conclusion

Although both the Taiwan Frailty Index and Short-Form were associated with mortality, the Short-Form, which had similar accuracy in predicting mortality as the full Taiwan Frailty Index, would be more expedient in clinical practice and community settings to target frailty screening and intervention.

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<![CDATA[Frailty as a Predictor of Acute Kidney Injury in Hospitalized Elderly Patients: A Single Center, Retrospective Cohort Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da4dab0ee8fa60b8d1a7

Background

Elderly patients have an increased risk for acute kidney injury (AKI). However, few studies have reported on predictors for AKI in geriatric patients. Therefore, we aimed at determining the effect of frailty as a predictor of AKI.

Methods

We retrospectively enrolled 533 hospitalized elderly patients (aged ≥ 65 years) who had their creatinine levels measured (≥ 1 measurement) during admission for a period of 1 year (2013) and conducted a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) within 1 year before the index hospitalization. We examined five variables (activity of daily living [ADL] and instrumental ADL dependence, dementia, nutrition, and polypharmacy) from CGA. We categorized the patients into 3 groups according to the tertile of aggregate frailty scores: Group 1, score 1–2; Group 2, score 3–4; Group 3, score 5–8).

Results

Fifty-four patients (10.1%) developed AKI (median duration, 4 days). The frailest group (Group 3) showed an increased risk of AKI as compared to Group 1, (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.536, P = 0.002). We found that discriminatory accuracy for AKI improved with the addition of the tertile of aggregate frailty score to covariates (area under the receiver operator characteristics curves [AUROC] 0.641, AUROC 0.739, P = 0.004). Forty-six patients (8.6%) were transferred to nursing facilities and 477 patients (89.5%) were discharged home. The overall 90-day and 1-year mortality for elderly inpatients were 7.9% and 26.3%. The frailest group also demonstrated an increased risk of discharge to nursing facilities, and 90-day and 1-year mortality as compared to Group 1, independent of AKI severity (nursing facilities: odd ratio = 4.843, P = 0.002; 90-day mortality: HR = 6.555, P = 0.002; 1-year mortality: HR = 3.249, P = 0.001).

Conclusions

We found that frailty may independently predict the development of AKI and adverse outcomes in geriatric inpatients.

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<![CDATA[Circulating MicroRNAs as Easy-to-Measure Aging Biomarkers in Older Breast Cancer Patients: Correlation with Chronological Age but Not with Fitness/Frailty Status]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da73ab0ee8fa60b95d00

Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) hold great promise as easily accessible biomarkers for diverse (patho)physiological processes, including aging. We have compared miRNA expression profiles in cell-free blood from older versus young breast cancer patients, in order to identify “aging miRNAs” that can be used in the future to monitor the impact of chemotherapy on the patient’s biological age. First, we assessed 175 miRNAs that may possibly be present in serum/plasma in an exploratory screening in 10 young and 10 older patients. The top-15 ranking miRNAs showing differential expression between young and older subjects were further investigated in an independent cohort consisting of another 10 young and 20 older subjects. Plasma levels of miR-20a-3p, miR-30b-5p, miR106b, miR191 and miR-301a were confirmed to show significant age-related decreases (all p≤0.004). The remaining miRNAs included in the validation study (miR-21, miR-210, miR-320b, miR-378, miR-423-5p, let-7d, miR-140-5p, miR-200c, miR-374a, miR376a) all showed similar trends as observed in the exploratory screening but these differences did not reach statistical significance. Interestingly, the age-associated miRNAs did not show differential expression between fit/healthy and non-fit/frail subjects within the older breast cancer cohort of the validation study and thus merit further investigation as true aging markers that not merely reflect frailty.

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<![CDATA[Influenza Vaccination of Healthcare Workers Is an Important Approach for Reducing Transmission of Influenza from Staff to Vulnerable Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdca11 ]]>