ResearchPad - france https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The association between cervical cancer screening participation and the deprivation index of the location of the family doctor’s office]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14737 Cervical cancer screening rates are known to be strongly associated with socioeconomic status. Our objective was to assess whether the rate is also associated with an aggregated deprivation marker, defined by the location of family doctors’ offices.MethodsTo access this association, we 1) collected data from the claim database of the French Health Insurance Fund about the registered family doctors and their enlisted female patients eligible for cervical screening; 2) carried out a telephone survey with all registered doctors to establish if they were carrying out Pap-smears in their practices; 3) geotracked all the doctors’ offices in the smallest existing blocks of socioeconomic homogenous populations (IRIS census units) that were assigned a census derived marker of deprivation, the European Deprivation Index (EDI), and a binary variable of urbanization; and 4) we used a multivariable linear mixed model with IRIS as a random effect.ResultsOf 348 eligible doctors, 343 responded to the telephone survey (98.6%) and were included in the analysis, encompassing 88,152 female enlisted patients aged 25–65 years old. In the multivariable analysis (adjusted by the gender of the family doctor, the practice of Pap-smears by the doctor and the urbanization of the office location), the EDI of the doctor’s office was strongly associated with the cervical cancer screening participation rate of eligible patients (p<0.001).ConclusionThe EDI linked to the location of the family doctor’s office seems to be a robust marker to predict female patients’ participation in cervical cancer screening. ]]> <![CDATA[Time-to-Death approach in revealing Chronicity and Severity of COVID-19 across the World]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13808 The outbreak of coronavirus disease, 2019 (COVID-19), which started from Wuhan, China, in late 2019, have spread worldwide. A total of 5,91,971 cases and 2,70,90 deaths were registered till 28th March, 2020. We aimed to predict the impact of duration of exposure to COVID-19 on the mortality rates increment.MethodsIn the present study, data on COVID-19 infected top seven countries viz., Germany, China, France, United Kingdom, Iran, Italy and Spain, and World as a whole, were used for modeling. The analytical procedure of generalized linear model followed by Gompertz link function was used to predict the impact lethal duration of exposure on the mortality rates.FindingsOf the selected countries and World as whole, the projection based on 21st March, 2020 cases, suggest that a total (95% Cl) of 76 (65–151) days of exposure in Germany, mortality rate will increase by 5 times to 1%. In countries like France and United Kingdom, our projection suggests that additional exposure of 48 days and 7 days, respectively, will raise the mortality rates to10%. Regarding Iran, Italy and Spain, mortality rate will rise to 10% with an additional 3–10 days of exposure. World’s mortality rates will continue increase by 1% in every three weeks. The predicted interval of lethal duration corresponding to each country has found to be consistent with the mortality rates observed on 28th March, 2020.ConclusionThe prediction of lethal duration was found to have apparently effective in predicting mortality, and shows concordance with prevailing rates. In absence of any vaccine against COVID-19 infection, the present study adds information about the quantum of the severity and time elapsed to death will help the Government to take necessary and appropriate steps to control this pandemic. ]]> <![CDATA[Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Antibodies among Livestock on Corsica, France, 2014–2016]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N34a68705-8275-45d4-8d88-f472a5e7282e

We conducted a serologic survey for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus antibodies in livestock (cattle, sheep, and goats; N = 3,890) on Corsica (island of France) during 2014–2016. Overall, 9.1% of animals were seropositive, suggesting this virus circulates on Corsica. However, virus identification is needed to confirm these results.

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<![CDATA[Rift Valley Fever Outbreak, Mayotte, France, 2018–2019]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na5a5ca10-6cec-449f-9962-33fc5c1c1b4e

From November 2018 through July 2019, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever in humans occurred in Mayotte, France; 142 cases were confirmed. Exposure to animals or their biological fluid was reported by 73% of patients. Health authorities have been implementing control measures, including veterinary surveys, vector control interventions, and prevention measures.

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<![CDATA[Prospective Whole-Genome Sequencing in Tuberculosis Outbreak Investigation, France, 2017–2018]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c94e81dd5eed0c484655516

During June 2017–April 2018, active tuberculosis with Beijing SIT1 isolates was diagnosed in 14 persons living in 4 distant cities in France. Whole-genome sequencing indicated that these patients belonged to a single transmission chain. Whole-genome sequencing–based laboratory investigations enabled prompt tracing of linked cases to improve tuberculosis control.

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<![CDATA[Mycobacterium chimaera Pulmonary Disease in Cystic Fibrosis Patients, France, 2010–2017]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c94e822d5eed0c4846555b8

We report Mycobacterium chimaera pulmonary disease in 4 patients given a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in a university hospital in Montpellier, France. All patients had M. chimaera–positive expectorated sputum specimens, clinical symptoms of pulmonary exacerbation, or a decrease in spirometry test results that improved after specific treatment.

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<![CDATA[Population dynamics and socio-spatial organization of the Aurignacian: Scalable quantitative demographic data for western and central Europe]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc991d5eed0c484529e40

Demographic estimates are presented for the Aurignacian techno-complex (~42,000 to 33,000 y calBP) and discussed in the context of socio-spatial organization of hunter-gatherer populations. Results of the analytical approach applied estimate a mean of 1,500 persons (upper limit: 3,300; lower limit: 800) for western and central Europe. The temporal and spatial analysis indicates an increase of the population during the Aurignacian as well as marked regional differences in population size and density. Demographic increase and patterns of socio-spatial organization continue during the subsequent early Gravettian period. We introduce the concept of Core Areas and Extended Areas as informed analytical spatial scales, which are evaluated against additional chronological and archaeological data. Lithic raw material transport and personal ornaments serve as correlates for human mobility and connectedness in the interpretative framework of this study. Observed regional differences are set in relation with the new demographic data. Our large-scale approach on Aurignacian population dynamics in Europe suggests that past socio-spatial organization followed socially inherent rules to establish and maintain a functioning social network of extremely low population densities. The data suggest that the network was fully established across Europe during the early phase of the Gravettian, when demographic as well as cultural developments peaked.

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<![CDATA[A simple method to estimate the number of doses to include in a bank of vaccines. The case of Lumpy Skin Disease in France]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e6d7d5eed0c484ef3f58

A simple method to estimate the size of the vaccine bank needed to control an epidemic of an exotic infectious disease in case of introduction into a country is presented. The method was applied to the case of a Lumpy Skin disease (LSD) epidemic in France. The size of the stock of vaccines needed was calculated based on a series of simple equations that use some trigonometric functions and take into account the spread of the disease, the time required to obtain good vaccination coverage and the cattle density in the affected region. Assuming a 7-weeks period to vaccinate all the animals and a spread of the disease of 7.3 km/week, the vaccination of 740 716 cattle would be enough to control an epidemic of LSD in France in 90% of the simulations (608 196 cattle would cover 75% of the simulations). The results of this simple method were then validated using a dynamic simulation model, which served as reference for the calculation of the vaccine stock required. The differences between both models in different scenarios, related with the time needed to vaccinate the animals, ranged from 7% to 10.5% more vaccines using the simple method to cover 90% of the simulations, and from 9.0% to 13.8% for 75% of the simulations. The model is easy to use and may be adapted for the control of different diseases in different countries, just by using some simple formulas and few input data.

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<![CDATA[Resisting hostility generated by terror: An agent-based study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c466585d5eed0c484519942

We propose an agent-based model leading to a decrease or an increase of hostility between agents after a major cultural threat such as a terrorist attack. The model is inspired from the Terror Management Theory and the Social Judgement Theory. An agent has a cultural identity defined through its acceptance segments about each of three different cultural worldviews (i.e., Atheist, Muslim, Christian) of the considered society. An agent’s acceptance segment is composed from its acceptable positions toward a cultural worldview, including its most acceptable position. An agent forms an attitude about another agent depending on the similarity between their cultural identities. When a terrorist attack is perpetrated in the name of an extreme cultural identity, the negatively perceived agents from this extreme cultural identity point of view tend to decrease the width of their acceptance segments in order to differentiate themselves more from the threatening cultural identity. We generated a set of populations with cultural identities compatible with data from a survey on attitudes among a large sample representative of the population of France; we then simulated the reaction of these agents facing a terrorist attack from Muslim extremists. For most populations, the average attitude toward Muslims becomes more negative. However, for some specific populations, we noticed the opposite effect as the average attitude of the population toward Muslims becomes less negative. In these populations, the Muslim agents strongly differentiate themselves from the terrorists’ extreme cultural identity, and the other agents are aware of these changes. These reactions are due to particular properties of their cultural identities that are identified in this paper.

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<![CDATA[Depression and obesity, data from a national administrative database study: Geographic evidence for an epidemiological overlap]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e506ad5eed0c484d8177e

Background

Depression and obesity are two major conditions with both psychological and somatic burdens. Some data suggest strong connections between depression and obesity and more particularly associated prevalence of both disorders. However, little is known about the geographical distribution of these two diseases. This study aimed to determine if there is spatial overlap between obesity and depression using data from the entire French territory.

Methods

Data for 5,627 geographic codes for metropolitan France were collected from the two national hospital databases (PMSI-MCO and RIM-P) for the year 2016. We identified people who were depressed, obese or both registered in the two public medico-administrative databases, and we assessed their location. In addition, a multivariable analysis was performed in order to determine geographic interactions between obesity and depression after controlling for age, sex, environmental and socio-economic factors (social/material deprivation, urbanicity/rurality).

Results

1,045,682 people aged 18 years and older were identified. The mapping analysis showed several cold and hot regional clusters of coinciding obesity and depression. The multivariable analysis demonstrated significant geographic interactions, with an increasing probability of finding a high prevalence of obesity in regions with major depression (OR 1.29 95% CI 1.13–1.49, p = 0.0002) and an increased probability of finding a high prevalence of depression in regions with a high ration of obesity (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.15–1.52, p<0.0001).

Conclusion

Our study confirms the significant bidirectional relationships between obesity and depression at a group level. French geographic patterns reveal a partial overlap between obesity and depression, suggesting these two diseases can be included in a common approach. Further studies should be done to increase the understanding of this complex comorbidity.

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<![CDATA[Puumala Hantavirus Genotypes in Humans, France, 2012–2016]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c354d23d5eed0c484dd3eb7

The analysis of the nucleoprotein gene of 77 Puumala hantavirus strains detected in human samples in France during 2012–2016 showed that all belonged to the Central European lineage. We observed 2 main clusters, geographically structured; one included strains with the Q64 signature and the other strains with the R64 signature.

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<![CDATA[Hepatitis E prevalence in French Polynesian blood donors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141ee4d5eed0c484d28b0e

The HEV seroprevalence in mainland France is elevated (22.4%). In contrast, anti-HEV seroprevalence appears to be lower in Oceania. However, none is available for French Polynesia. We assessed the anti-HEV IgG and IgM prevalence on samples from 300 consecutive blood donors living on Tahiti and Moorea islands. Epidemiological information was collected using a specific questionnaire. Overall IgM seroprevalence was 0.6% and overall IgG seroprevalence was 7.7%. The presence of anti-HEV IgG was associated with increasing age (p = 0.01), eating chicken offal (p = 0.01) and cooked rabbit (p = 0.02). Conversely, eating fafaru—traditional Polynesian condiment—was associated with a lower rate of anti-HEV IgG (p<0.01).). All donors who surfed or practiced va’a (traditional outrigger canoë) were HEV seronegative. The Polynesian lifestyle and the particular food consumption patterns—especially the very well cooked pork—may be the key to understand the low HEV seroprevalence in French Polynesia.

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<![CDATA[Disseminated Spiroplasma apis Infection in Patient with Agammaglobulinemia, France]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1686cbd5eed0c484444b67

We report a disseminated infection caused by Spiroplasma apis, a honeybee pathogen, in a patient in France who had X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Identification was challenging because initial bacterial cultures and direct examination by Gram staining were negative. Unexplained sepsis in patients with agammaglobulinemia warrants specific investigation to identify fastidious bacteria such as Spiroplasma spp.

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<![CDATA[Improving forecasting accuracy for stock market data using EMD-HW bagging]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b600f8a463d7e3af00e5a8f

Many researchers documented that the stock market data are nonstationary and nonlinear time series data. In this study, we use EMD-HW bagging method for nonstationary and nonlinear time series forecasting. The EMD-HW bagging method is based on the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), the moving block bootstrap and the Holt-Winter. The stock market time series of six countries are used to compare EMD-HW bagging method. This comparison is based on five forecasting error measurements. The comparison shows that the forecasting results of EMD-HW bagging are more accurate than the forecasting results of the fourteen selected methods.

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<![CDATA[Does mammogram attendance influence participation in cervical and colorectal cancer screening? A prospective study among 1856 French women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b49cacc463d7e33e4eac05e

Background

We aimed to determine participation rates and factors associated with participation in colorectal (fecal occul blood test) and cervical cancer (Pap-smear) screening among a population of women participating in breast cancer screening.

Methods

From August to October 2015, a self-administered questionnaire was sent by post to 2 900 women aged 50–65, living in Côte-d’Or, France, and who were up to date with mammogram screening. Polytomic logistic regression was used to identify correlates of participation in both cervical and colorectal cancer screenings. Participation in all 3 screenings was chosen as the reference.

Results

Study participation rate was 66.3% (n = 1856). Besides being compliant with mammogram, respectively 78.3% and 56.6% of respondents were up to date for cervical and colorectal cancer screenings, while 46.2% were compliant with the 3 screenings. Consultation with a gynecologist in the past year was associated with higher chance of undergoing the 3 screenings or female cancer screenings (p<10–4), when consultation with a GP was associated with higher chance of undergoing the 3 screenings or organized cancer screenings (p<0.05). Unemployment, obesity, age>59 and yearly flu vaccine were associated with a lower involvement in cervical cancer screening. Women from high socio-economic classes were more likely to attend only female cancer screenings (p = 0.009). Finally, a low level of physical activity and tobacco use were associated with higher risk of no additional screening participation (p<10–3 and p = 0.027).

Conclusions

Among women participating in breast screening, colorectal and cervical cancer screening rates could be improved. Including communication about these 2 cancer screenings in the mammogram invitation could be worth to explore.

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<![CDATA[Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Red Fox, France]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c03c04bd5eed0c4845d7abf

Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild red foxes was found in southern France, where livestock and other wildlife species are infected. Foxes frequently interact with cattle but have been underestimated as a reservoir of M. bovis. Our results suggest a possible role of the red fox in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.

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<![CDATA[Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in South African, French and Argentinian Angora Goats from Genome-Wide SNP Data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e4ab0ee8fa60b6ab6e

The Angora goat populations in Argentina (AR), France (FR) and South Africa (SA) have been kept geographically and genetically distinct. Due to country-specific selection and breeding strategies, there is a need to characterize the populations on a genetic level. In this study we analysed genetic variability of Angora goats from three distinct geographical regions using the standardized 50k Goat SNP Chip. A total of 104 goats (AR: 30; FR: 26; SA: 48) were genotyped. Heterozygosity values as well as inbreeding coefficients across all autosomes per population were calculated. Diversity, as measured by expected heterozygosity (HE) ranged from 0.371 in the SA population to 0.397 in the AR population. The SA goats were the only population with a positive average inbreeding coefficient value of 0.009. After merging the three datasets, standard QC and LD-pruning, 15 105 SNPs remained for further analyses. Principal component and clustering analyses were used to visualize individual relationships within and between populations. All SA Angora goats were separated from the others and formed a well-defined, unique cluster, while outliers were identified in the FR and AR breeds. Apparent admixture between the AR and FR populations was observed, while both these populations showed signs of having some common ancestry with the SA goats. LD averaged over adjacent loci within the three populations per chromosome were calculated. The highest LD values estimated across populations were observed in the shorter intervals across populations. The Ne for the Angora breed was estimated to be 149 animals ten generations ago indicating a declining trend. Results confirmed that geographic isolation and different selection strategies caused genetic distinctiveness between the populations.

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<![CDATA[Transcriptional Priming of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-2 Precedes Cellular Invasion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da6fab0ee8fa60b94560

Invasive salmonellosis caused by Salmonella enterica involves an enteric stage of infection where the bacteria colonize mucosal epithelial cells, followed by systemic infection with intracellular replication in immune cells. The type III secretion system encoded in Salmonella Pathogenicity Island (SPI)-2 is essential for intracellular replication and the regulators governing high-level expression of SPI-2 genes within the macrophage phagosome and in inducing media thought to mimic this environment have been well characterized. However, low-level expression of SPI-2 genes is detectable in media thought to mimic the extracellular environment suggesting that additional regulatory pathways are involved in SPI-2 gene expression prior to cellular invasion. The regulators involved in this activity are not known and the extracellular transcriptional activity of the entire SPI-2 island in vivo has not been studied. We show that low-level, SsrB-independent promoter activity for the ssrA-ssrB two-component regulatory system and the ssaG structural operon encoded in SPI-2 is dependent on transcriptional input by OmpR and Fis under non-inducing conditions. Monitoring the activity of all SPI-2 promoters in real-time following oral infection of mice revealed invasion-independent transcriptional activity of the SPI2 T3SS in the lumen of the gut, which we suggest is a priming activity with functional relevance for the subsequent intracellular host-pathogen interaction.

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<![CDATA[Early Medieval Muslim Graves in France: First Archaeological, Anthropological and Palaeogenomic Evidence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf5ab0ee8fa60bc2901

The rapid Arab-Islamic conquest during the early Middle Ages led to major political and cultural changes in the Mediterranean world. Although the early medieval Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula is now well documented, based in the evaluation of archeological and historical sources, the Muslim expansion in the area north of the Pyrenees has only been documented so far through textual sources or rare archaeological data. Our study provides the first archaeo-anthropological testimony of the Muslim establishment in South of France through the multidisciplinary analysis of three graves excavated at Nimes. First, we argue in favor of burials that followed Islamic rites and then note the presence of a community practicing Muslim traditions in Nimes. Second, the radiometric dates obtained from all three human skeletons (between the 7th and the 9th centuries AD) echo historical sources documenting an early Muslim presence in southern Gaul (i.e., the first half of 8th century AD). Finally, palaeogenomic analyses conducted on the human remains provide arguments in favor of a North African ancestry of the three individuals, at least considering the paternal lineages. Given all of these data, we propose that the skeletons from the Nimes burials belonged to Berbers integrated into the Umayyad army during the Arab expansion in North Africa. Our discovery not only discusses the first anthropological and genetic data concerning the Muslim occupation of the Visigothic territory of Septimania but also highlights the complexity of the relationship between the two communities during this period.

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<![CDATA[Generational analysis of trends in unprotected sex in France among men who have sex with men: The major role of context-driven evolving patterns]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdb8ad

Objective

Using a generational approach, this study analyses how unprotected anal intercourse has evolved since 1991 in France across different generations of men who have sex with men (MSM) whose sexual lives began at different periods in the history of the HIV epidemic.

Design

Data were collected from 18–59 year-old respondents to the French Gay Press surveys Enquêtes Presse Gay, conducted repeatedly between 1991 and 2011 (N = 32,196) using self-administered questionnaires distributed in gay magazines and over the internet.

Methods

Trends in unprotected anal intercourse (i.e. condomless anal sex) with casual partners of unknown or different HIV serostatus (hereafter “UAId” in this manuscript) were studied. Responses were analysed according to year and then reorganised for age-cohort analyses by generation, based on the year respondents turned 18.

Results

UAId rates fell from 1991 to 1997, and then rose from 13.4% in 1997 to 25.5% in 2011 among seronegative respondents, and from 24.8% to 63.3%, respectively, among seropositive respondents. Both in seropositive and seronegative respondents, UAId increased over time for all generations, indicative of a strong period effect.

Conclusion

Analyses of data from several generations of MSM who started their sexual lives at different time points in the HIV epidemic, revealed very similar trends in UAId between generations, among both seropositive and seronegative respondents. This strong period effect suggests that sexual behaviours in MSM are influenced more by contextual than generational factors. The fact that prevention practices are simultaneously observed in different generations and that there are most likely underlying prevention norms among MSM, suggests that PrEP could become widely accepted by all generations of MSM exposed to the risk of HIV.

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