ResearchPad - from-the-field https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on HIV Testing and Assisted Partner Notification Services, Western Kenya]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16968 <![CDATA[COVID-19 Lockdowns: Impact on Facility-Based HIV Testing and the Case for the Scaling Up of Home-Based Testing Services in Sub-Saharan Africa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16909 <![CDATA[Telemedicine and COVID‐19: 6 tips to ace your first visit]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16722 The COVID‐19 crisis has seen some dramatic changes to health care as we know it. In particular, one area that has seen rapid changes is the area of telemedicine. Telemedicine is not a new phenomenon. Quite the opposite. For some time now, telemedicine has been used to connect those in rural areas to providers for both medical care and behavioral health care services. Unfortunately, the conditions surrounding it have been fairly stringent and have even gone so far as to require that specific audiovisual equipment be used in order for it to qualify for reimbursement from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) and other health insurers.

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<![CDATA[Adapting Substance Use Treatment for HIV Affected Communities During COVID-19: Comparisons Between a Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) Clinic and a Local Community Based Organization]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12813 <![CDATA[Timely delivery of laboratory efficiency information, Part I: Developing an interactive turnaround time dashboard at a high-volume laboratory]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11904 Mean turn-around time (TAT) reporting for testing laboratories in a national network is typically static and not immediately available for meaningful corrective action and does not allow for test-by-test or site-by-site interrogation of individual laboratory performance.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to develop an easy-to-use, visual dashboard to report interactive graphical TAT data to provide a weekly snapshot of TAT efficiency.MethodsAn interactive dashboard was developed by staff from the National Priority Programme and Central Data Warehouse of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa, during 2018. Steps required to develop the dashboard were summarised in a flowchart. To illustrate the dashboard, one week of data from a busy laboratory for a specific set of tests was analysed using annual performance plan TAT cut-offs. Data were extracted and prepared to deliver an aggregate extract, with statistical measures provided, including test volumes, global percentage of tests that were within TAT cut-offs and percentile statistics.ResultsNine steps were used to develop the dashboard iteratively with continuous feedback for each step. The data warehouse environment conformed and stored laboratory information system data in two formats: (1) fact and (2) dimension. Queries were developed to generate an aggregate TAT data extract to create the dashboard. The dashboard successfully delivered weekly TAT reports.ConclusionImplementation of a TAT dashboard can successfully enable the delivery of near real-time information and provide a weekly snapshot of efficiency in the form of TAT performance to identify and quantitate bottlenecks in service delivery. ]]> <![CDATA[“Keep It Going if You Can”: HIV Service Provision for Priority Populations During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Seattle, WA]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na8926f87-b574-4968-8076-1f1ceeaeff40 <![CDATA[HIV Care Continuum and COVID-19 Outcomes Among People Living with HIV During the COVID-19 Pandemic, Chicago, IL]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N36b31a3a-fb0b-4f59-aec8-b61e5864aad4 <![CDATA[Challenges to HIV Care and Psychological Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic Among People Living with HIV in China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nee615d6c-0d9d-4c80-96fd-218682d3505b <![CDATA[A Trip through Southeast Asian Airports in Times of COVID-19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2d03fd28-e4ba-47b3-a281-2d49f7e5140b <![CDATA[Timely delivery of laboratory efficiency information, Part II: Assessing the impact of a turn-around time dashboard at a high-volume laboratory]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb4fc04f5-3eb9-477e-97f0-14bdb34d8ad1 In South Africa’s National Health Laboratory Service, ad hoc mean turn-around time (TAT) reporting is an important indicator of performance. However, historic static TAT reporting did not assess very long or very short times. An interactive TAT dashboard was developed using the following TAT measures; (1) median, (2) 75th percentile and (3) percentage of within cut-off TAT to allow for improved differentiation of TAT performance.ObjectivesThe objective of our study was to demonstrate increased efficiency achieved by using an interactive TAT dashboard.MethodsA retrospective descriptive study design was used. Creatinine TAT outcomes were reported over 122 weeks from a high-volume laboratory in Gauteng, South Africa. The percentage of within cut-off and 75th percentile TAT were analysed and reported using Microsoft Excel. A focus group session was used to populate a cause and effect diagram.ResultsThe percentage of within cut-off TAT increased from 10% in week 4 to 90% and higher from week 81. The 75th percentile decreased from 10 hours in week 4 to under 5 h from week 71. Component TAT analysis revealed that the 75th percentile testing was 5 h or longer for weeks 4, 5 and 48. The 75th percentile review TAT ranged from 1 h to 15 h. From week 41, the review TAT was under 1 h.ConclusionOur study demonstrated that the use of an interactive TAT dashboard coupled with good management can dramatically improve TAT and efficiency in a high-volume laboratory. ]]> <![CDATA[HIV and Food Insecurity: A Syndemic Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N310a52fe-b8db-43f2-ac17-75bb020a384b <![CDATA[<i>Notes from the Field:</i> Multiple Cruise Ship Outbreaks of Norovirus Associated with Frozen Fruits and Berries — United States, 2019]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1fb29192-8d3c-4f3d-95a4-6bc617581e78 <![CDATA[<i>Notes from the Field:</i> Outbreak of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Among Persons Who Inject Drugs — Cabell County, West Virginia, 2018–2019]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N71862e81-7d26-485a-b6ff-caf284fde2c9 <![CDATA[Management of COVID-19 Outbreak in Argentina: The Beginning]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N333a65bb-4c35-4126-b74d-db30b8009f2a The aim of this study was to analyze the impact coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had in Argentina during its initial stage, identify the measures taken to try to mitigate its impact, and briefly compare it with the influenza A H1N1 pandemic in 2009. This is a descriptive study. Pandemics constitute a serious problem to global health with a major impact on the affected countries’ populations. The recent COVID-19 outbreak represents one of the most important viral pandemics lately. It reached Argentina 64 days after the first case was identified in China. Since then, several measures were taken by the Argentinian government to try to mitigate its impact in this initial stage. An updated report of the current situation and its management in different countries is of vital importance regarding global health issues and may serve for feedback and decision-making.

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<![CDATA[AGING IN PLACE: EFFECTIVE INTERPROFESSIONAL COLLABORATION AND ENGAGEMENT WITH OLDER ADULTS]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6f366761-5be3-4fe2-b8f3-999a5939a1ba

Abstract

Background: An innovative educational program addresses two gaps in health professions education: lack of an emerging workforce comfortable caring for older adults and proficiency in working in an interprofessional (IP) setting. We sought to explore whether AIP provides grounding in pillars of IPE and geriatric competencies through experiential learning in IP teams with older adults in a community setting. Methods: Early health profession students n=37 (MD, MSN, PA, SW), working in teams of 3, made monthly visits to older adults’ residences over a one-year period. Workshops on core geriatric and IPE principles defined expected learning goals for client visits. Visits were followed by: 1) written field notes; 2) reflections based on pre-determined learning prompts; and 3) debriefing sessions with faculty members. Students completed pre and post program questionnaires including Attitudes Towards Social Issues in Medicine, Geriatrics Attitude Scale, ICCAS, and RIPLS. Pre-post results were analyzed using t-tests and qualitative analysis of comments. Results: 25 (68%) students completed pre-post questionnaires. Responses on the interprofessional collaboration scale significantly increased following the program (t=2.09; p = 0.047) and 94% responded that they could “well” or “very well” describe issues that impact older adults’ health, quality of life, and convey appreciation toward older adults. Discussion: Students, engaging with older adults longitudinally in a community setting learned pillars of IPE, geriatric care competencies, and gained insights into this population. An interprofessional, experiential learning program is feasible and effective way to increase interest and self-efficacy in working with older adult populations.

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<![CDATA[Adaptation of the National Plan for the Prevention and Fight Against Pandemic Influenza to the 2020 COVID-19 Epidemic in France]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2e40881f-64bf-4f25-831d-cda100fb6ed5

On Tuesday, March 17, 2020, at noon, France became the third European country to impose a nationwide containment policy in the fight against epidemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) viral infection. Announcing that the country was at “war,” President Macron called upon all to play a role in mitigating against further development of contagion. This extreme measure never seen before during peace time was the result of adapting not only the French Pandemic Influenza Plan (PIP) being applied to the national context but also real-time clinical, epidemiological, and scientific information about the evolution of COVID-19 infection in the country. The situation was further complicated by local municipal elections and political agendas by populist opinions. Despite mass communication about the importance of individual behavioral attitudes to counter disease propagation, few heeded government advice. Consequently, the situation rapidly deteriorated with increasing number of cases that started to overwhelm health services. As a result, decisive and immediate action was taken by the State for the national public health interest. This report from the field details the timely events that contributed to this extreme policy decision taken by France. A policy decision that other Western democracies have since applied as the pandemic disseminated across the globe.

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<![CDATA[The challenges and considerations of community-based preparedness at the onset of COVID-19 outbreak in Iran, 2020]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne2e326fa-cc6f-4d15-8325-8b1eb97453df

COVID-19 as an emerging disease has spread to 183 countries and territories worldwide as of 20 March 2020. The first COVID-19 case (i.e. the index case) in Iran was observed in the city of Qom on 19 February 2020. One of the cities of Markazi Province is Delijan, which shares a border with Qom. Consequently, COVID-19 has quickly spread in this city because a large population commutes daily between the two cities. This study aimed to report the challenges and considerations of community-based preparedness at the onset of COVID-19 outbreak in a city of Iran in 2020.

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<![CDATA[How Is COVID-19 Affecting South Korea? What Is Our Current Strategy?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N648e68ac-2bab-4e3e-a16e-7b44ddcc4bcc

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2 is expanding globally. South Korea is one of the countries most affected by COVID-19 from the very early stages of this pandemic. Explosive outbreaks occurred across South Korea in the first two months, and efforts to control this new virus have involved everyone across the country. To curb the transmission of the virus, health-care professionals, committees, and governments have combined many approaches, such as extensive COVID-19 screening, effective patient triage, the transparent provision of information, and the use of information technology. This experience could provide some valuable ideas and lessons to others who are fighting against COVID-19.

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<![CDATA[Implementation of adverse event reporting for medical devices, India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf4c990ae-92e9-4c84-9fef-652bb3387f18

Abstract

Problem

Rapid growth in the use of medical devices has drawn attention to gaps in the systematic monitoring of medical device-associated adverse events in India.

Approach

Implementation of national regulations on medical devices started in January 2018. Supported by a nationwide network of monitoring centres, the Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission coordinates adverse event reports from manufacturers, legal representatives and patients or users. The commission follows-up and reviews reports with subject expert groups and sends recommendations on necessary action to the national regulatory authority.

Local setting

Before 2015, no systematic structure was in place to collate adverse events associated with medical devices. Several reports of deaths and hospitalization due to faulty hip implants, cardiac stents and poor-quality devices prompted the health ministry to launch the materiovigilance programme.

Relevant changes

From July 2015 to October 2019, the commission received 1931 adverse event reports, mostly from marketing authorization holders; 1277 were serious events. Reporting increased markedly after 2017. Cardiac stents were the most reported device (926 events; 47.95%). To encourage a culture of reporting, the commission has raised awareness about the programme among stakeholders, developed user-friendly reporting tools and guidelines, and conducted training for hospital personnel on medical device adverse event reporting.

Lessons learnt

Regular training to stakeholders develops a sense of responsibility towards reporting medical device adverse events and ensures quality data reporting. Reporters must be assured that reporting adverse events does not have any legal implications for them and given acknowledgement of their role in high-quality device associated adverse event reporting.

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<![CDATA[Political economy of Thailand's tax-financed universal coverage scheme]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncab6e6b1-99b8-472a-9c8e-92eecb150695

Abstract

Problem

The challenge of implementing contributory health insurance among populations in the informal sector was a barrier to achieving universal health coverage (UHC) in Thailand.

Approach

UHC was a political manifesto of the 2001 election campaign. A contributory system was not a feasible option to honour the political commitment. Given Thailand’s fiscal capacity and the moderate amount of additional resources required, the government legislated to use general taxation as the sole source of financing for the universal coverage scheme.

Local setting

Before 2001, four public health insurance schemes covered only 70% (44.5 million) of the 63.5 million population. The health ministry received the budget and provided medical welfare services for low-income households and publicly subsidized voluntary insurance for the informal sector. The budgets for supply-side financing of these schemes were based on historical figures which were inadequate to respond to health needs. The finance ministry used its discretionary power in budget allocation decisions.

Relevant changes

Tax became the sole source of financing the universal coverage scheme. Transparency, multistakeholder engagement and use of evidence informed budgetary negotiations. Adequate funding for UHC was achieved, providing access to services and financial protection for vulnerable populations. Out-of-pocket expenditure, medical impoverishment and catastrophic health spending among households decreased between 2000 and 2015.

Lessons learnt

Domestic government health expenditure, strong political commitment and historical precedence of the tax-financed medical welfare scheme were key to achieving UHC in Thailand. Using evidence secures adequate resources, promotes transparency and limits discretionary decision-making in budget allocation.

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