ResearchPad - frontiers https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[COVID‐19: A threat to educated Muslim women's negotiated identity in Pakistan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16754 This study attempts to explore how the lockdown/containment measures taken by the government during the COVID‐19 pandemic have threatened educated Muslim women's negotiated identity regarding wifehood and motherhood in urban Pakistan and how they struggle to reposition to reconstruct it. Through semi‐structured interviews, making an in‐depth comparative study of three differently situated cases (Muslim women), this study argues that the abnormal situation that has ensued from the pandemic has reinforced the vulnerability of women's nascent negotiated identity by landing them in a space where they are supposed by the normative structures to step back to carrying out their traditional responsibilities as ‘good’ wife and mother during the crisis. It has found that the pandemic has similarity in its impacts for the women in their familial lives, despite their being variously situated and resistive, due to the general religio‐culturally defined patriarchal social behaviour of the place (Pakistan) toward women and lack of action on the part of the state for implementing its laws of women's empowerment.

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<![CDATA[The impact of COVID-19 pandemic upon stability and sequential irregularity of equity and cryptocurrency markets]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13410 We explore the evolution of the informational efficiency in 45 cryptocurrency markets and 16 international stock markets before and during COVID-19 pandemic. The measures of Largest Lyapunov Exponent (LLE) based on the Rosenstein's method and Approximate Entropy (ApEn), which are robust to small samples, are applied to price time series in order to estimate degrees of stability and irregularity in cryptocurrency and international stock markets. The amount of regularity infers on the unpredictability of fluctuations. The t-test and F-test are performed on estimated LLE and ApEn. In total, 36 statistical tests are performed to check for differences between time periods (pre- versus during COVID-19 pandemic samples) on the one hand, as well as check for differences between markets (cryptocurrencies versus stocks), on the other hand. During the COVID-19 pandemic period it was found that (a) the level of stability in cryptocurrency markets has significantly diminished while the irregularity level significantly augmented, (b) the level of stability in international equity markets has not changed but gained more irregularity, (c) cryptocurrencies became more volatile, (d) the variability in stability and irregularity in equities has not been affected, (e) cryptocurrency and stock markets exhibit a similar degree of stability in price dynamics, whilst finally (f) cryptocurrency exhibit a low level of regularity compared to international equity markets. We find that cryptos showed more instability and more irregularity during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to international stock markets. Thus, from an informational efficiency perspective, investing in digital assets during big crises as the COVID-19 pandemic, could be considered riskier as opposed to equities.

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<![CDATA[Insights into the dynamics and control of COVID-19 infection rates]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13387 This work aims to model, simulate and provide insights into the dynamics and control of COVID-19 infection rates. Using an established epidemiological model augmented with a time-varying disease transmission rate allows daily model calibration using COVID-19 case data from countries around the world. This hybrid model provides predictive forecasts of the cumulative number of infected cases. It also reveals the dynamics associated with disease suppression, demonstrating the time to reduce the effective, time-dependent, reproduction number. Model simulations provide insights into the outcomes of disease suppression measures and the predicted duration of the pandemic. Visualisation of reported data provides up-to-date condition monitoring, while daily model calibration allows for a continued and updated forecast of the current state of the pandemic.

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<![CDATA[Quality &amp; Safety in the time of Coronavirus—Design Better, Learn Faster]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12273 The COVID-19 pandemic has required health systems to change much faster than normal. Many staff have experienced training in quality improvement and patient safety methods which can be used to support the design of new systems and to accelerate learning about new and adapted practices. This article sets out the principles of quality improvement and patient safety science, applying them in a selection of approaches, methods and tools which may be useful in crisis situations such as the current pandemic. The article also makes reference to several resources which may be of use to those keen to advance their knowledge.

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<![CDATA[OR29-03 The Effects of Hormone Therapy on Premature Ovarian Failure Following Allogenic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Single-Center Experience]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6299 Background: With increasing survival rates after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), it has become important to evaluate methods of improving patients’ quality of life. Most female patients of childbearing age experience premature ovarian failure after transplantation, which results in decreased quality of life and an increase in fracture risk due to rapid bone loss. We analyzed the effects of hormone therapy (HT) on serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), serum estradiol, and bone mineral density (BMD) in young female HSCT recipients. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 234 female patients who underwent allogenic HSCT between April 2009 and April 2018 at our center. The maximum age at the time of transplantation was 40 years, and patients were followed up for at least 3 years. Of the 734 patients who were initially screened, 360 patients aged <18 years and 8 who were transferred to another institution after transplantation were excluded from the study. There were 93 patients who died within 3 years of transplantation, while 30 were lost to follow-up, and 9 were followed-up for less than 3 years. Changes in hormone levels and BMD, according to HT regimen, were evaluated in 234 patients. Results: The mean age at transplantation was 30.47 ± 6.55 years. Out of 234 patients, 170 (72.6%) patients received HT, starting treatment at a mean of 15.1 ± 8.2 months after transplantation. A significant increase in estradiol level was observed in patients receiving HT (p < 0.001); no difference was observed between the 3 different types of HT regimen (p = 0.534). After 2 years of HT, BMD was significantly increased at all measurement sites: lumbar spine 5.8 ± 6.26% (p < 0.001), femoral neck 3.4 ± 17.78% (p = 0.037), total hip 2.1 ± 7.15% (p = 0.001). Again, there was no difference in changes between the HT regimens (p = 0.646 for lumbar spine, p = 0.840 for femoral neck, and p = 0.855 for total hip). These changes were significant even in patients with graft versus host disease (GVHD) or steroid exposure. Conclusion: In patients with premature ovarian failure following allogenic HSCT, HT effectively lowered serum FSH and increased serum estradiol levels. HT significantly increased BMD regardless of the history of GVHD or steroid exposure. These changes in hormones and BMD were independent of the HT regimen.

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<![CDATA[Climate change, environmental sustainability and health care quality]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nabdb3819-3ac1-47d0-89f9-d8b973adec18 The challenges for health care continue to grow and in the 21st century healthcare policymakers and providers will need to respond to the developing impact of global warming and the environmental impact of healthcare service delivery. This cannot be viewed apart from the current Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which is likely to be linked to the climate crisis.

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<![CDATA[OR29-05 A Natural History Study of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP): 12-Month Outcomes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N656efe3a-b401-4e0b-8ed5-70501e8cad97 90% ankylosed across 15 major joints; total score range 0 to 30 [higher scores indicate more severe mobility limitations]) and the FOP Physical Function Questionnaire (FOP-PFQ; percent total score). Changes from Baseline at Month 12 were evaluated for new HO volume, CAJIS, and FOP-PFQ. Results: Of 114 participants (pts) with Baseline data, 99 (4 to 56 years at enrollment; mean 17 years of age; 56% male) also had a Month 12 assessment. A total of 93 pts had evaluable WBCT scans at Baseline and Month 12 and were included in the HO analysis.In total, 40% (37/93) of pts had new HO over 12 months; the mean volume of new HO in these pts was 57,706 mm3 (SD=100,079 mm3; median=20,753 mm3; range: 522 to 438,826 mm3). Of the pts with new HO, 65% (24/37) reported at least one flare-up (mean rate of 2.3 flare-ups/year).Over 12 months, 60% (56/93) of pts did not have new HO; 43% (24/56) of them reported at least one flare-up (mean rate of 1.8 flare-ups/year).Mean changes from Baseline in CAJIS and FOP-PFQ were minimal: CAJIS: 0.6 (SD=2.4; median=1.0; n=99) and FOP-PFQ: 4.4% (SD=11.2; median=3.7%; n=90); and were similar across pts with or without new HO. Conclusions: In participants with FOP, although deterioration of physical function is expected over a patient’s lifetime, CAJIS and FOP-PFQ scores did not worsen significantly in the relative short-term of this study. However, HO volume, quantified by WBCT, increased over the course of 12 months. These results show that measuring HO may be a viable way to monitor changes in FOP over short periods of time. ]]> <![CDATA[OR29-01 Long-Term Safety in Adults with X-Linked Hypophosphatemia (XLH) Treated with Burosumab, a Fully Human Monoclonal Antibody Against FGF23: Final Results of a Phase 3 Trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nad57beb0-02e7-4a1a-8677-315c5343daaa <![CDATA[OR29-07 A Novel Estimate of Creatinine Excretion to Determine Adequacy of 24-Hr Urine Collection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N16f6bdd2-efc9-4b2e-b2da-fc5197634cde 10% between the two consecutive collections were excluded. In the initial 115 pairs of inpatient 24-hour urine collections (50 female, 65 male) participants, creatinine excretion/BW fell outside the currently accepted reference ranges in >50% of collections. The proportion below the reference range increased with higher BMI. In this derivation dataset, linear regression models were then constructed to predict 24-hr urine creatinine excretion from race, sex, age, weight and height. Reliable prediction of observed 24-hr urine creatinine excretion was confirmed in a validation dataset that included 50 pairs of 24-hour urine samples similarly collected in an inpatient research setting.This new prediction model performed significantly better than the currently used reference ranges in a large outpatient dataset including 1,399 pairs of 24-hour urine collections. In women, actual creatinine excretion fell within the 95% prediction intervals for our derived equation in 90% of cases using the new interval vs 46% using the current reference range. The corresponding values were 90% and 33% in men. In both genders, the superiority of the new prediction over the current reference range was more pronounced at higher BMI.We therefore propose revision of currently used criteria to define adequacy of 24-hour urine collection to account for the impact of obesity. The proposed equation incorporates readily available demographic parameters to predict urine creatinine excretion. These findings have wide implications on patient care and research studies, and future studies should test this equation in different settings, diets, and populations. ]]> <![CDATA[OR29-06 Burosumab Improves Biochemical, Skeletal, and Clinical Features of Tumor-Induced Osteomalacia Syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4da8b822-e924-4a88-9300-4b980eed9a6a <![CDATA[OR29-02 Natural Language Processing of Radiology Reports Improves Identification of Patients with Fracture]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbaacecc6-b372-4e5e-86b1-469a7ce9db58 50y; bone involved; etc). At the development site, XRAIT was used to search the emergency patient presentations of people over 50 years of age and compared to referrals to FLS (usual care) during the same 3-month period. XRAIT analyzed all plain radiographs and CT scans (n = 5089) while n = 224 were referred to FLS for usual care. External validation: XRAIT was used to analyze digitally readable radiology reports in an untrained cohort from DOES (n = 327) to calculate sensitivity and specificity.Results: XRAIT identified a 5-fold higher number of potential significant fractures (349/5089) compared to manual case finding (70/224). 339/349 were confirmed fractures (97.1%). Only 29% of those eligible were started or recommended anti-resorptive therapy, including those seen by the fracture liaison service. XRAIT unadjusted for the local radiology reporting styles in DOES had a sensitivity of 69.6% and specificity of 95%. Conclusion: XRAIT identifies clinically significant fractures efficiently with minimal additional human resources. Its high specificity in an untrained cohort suggests it could be used at other sites. Automated methods of patient identification may assist fracture liaison services to identify fractures that still remain largely untreated. ]]> <![CDATA[OR29-04 TGFβ Regulates Bone Perilacunar/Canalicular Remodeling in a Sexually Dimorphic Manner]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2b6dbd43-188d-46c5-8f14-0193b0734ef6 <![CDATA[Deliberations on Unconscious thought Theory]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1bab0ee8fa60b7cc01 ]]> <![CDATA[A Gateway between Recent and Remote Memory]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db10ab0ee8fa60bcbd5d ]]> <![CDATA[Meal replacement and functional connectivity in the brain network for appetite: connecting the dots]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d3ab0ee8fa60b64c22 ]]> <![CDATA[Invited commentary: lubricating the rusty wheel, new insights into iron oxidizing bacteria through comparative genomics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4bab0ee8fa60bda4ab ]]> <![CDATA[Many Roads to Motor Deficits: Loss of Dopamine Signaling in Direct or Indirect Basal Ganglia Pathway Leads to Akinesia through Distinct Physiological Mechanisms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db12ab0ee8fa60bcc530 ]]> <![CDATA[Assessing error awareness without relying on introspective judgment?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0cab0ee8fa60b77d11 ]]> <![CDATA[Metacognition moderates the effects of distraction on cognition]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae6ab0ee8fa60bbdb57 ]]> <![CDATA[Game-based cognitive training for the aging brain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da05ab0ee8fa60b7581b ]]>