ResearchPad - fruit-and-seed-anatomy https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Production location of the gelling agent Phytagel has a significant impact on <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i> seedling phenotypic analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14611 Recently, it was found that 1% Phytagel plates used to conduct Arabidopsis thaliana seedling phenotypic analysis no longer reproduced previously published results. This Phytagel, which is produced in China (Phytagel C), has replace American-made Phytagel (Phytagel), which is no longer commercially available. In this study, we present the impact of Phytagel produced in the United States vs. China on seedling phenotypic analysis. As a part of this study, an alternative gelling agent has been identified that is capable of reproducing previously published seedling morphometrics.ResultsPhytagel and Phytagel C were investigated based on their ability to reproduce the subtle phenotype of the sob3-4 esc-8 double mutant. Fluence-rate-response analysis of seedlings grown on 1% Phytagel C plates failed to replicate the sob3-4 esc-8 subtle phenotype seen on 1% Phytagel. Furthermore, root penetrance analysis showed a significant difference between sob3-4 esc-8 seedlings grown on 1% Phytagel and 1% Phytagel C. It was also found that 1% Phytagel C was significantly harder than 1% Phytagel. As a replacement for Phytagel C, Gellan was tested. 1% Gellan was able to reproduce the subtle phenotype of sob3-4 esc-8. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in root penetration of the wild type or sob3-4 esc-8 seedlings between 1% Phytagel and 1% Gellan. This may be due to the significant reduction in hardness in 1% Gellan plates compared to 1% Phytagel plates. Finally, we tested additional concentrations of Gellan and found that seedlings on 0.6% Gellan looked more uniform while also being able to reproduce previously published results.ConclusionsPhytagel has been the standard gelling agent for several studies involving the characterization of subtle seedling phenotypes. After production was moved to China, Phytagel C was no longer capable of reproducing these previously published results. An alternative gelling agent, Gellan, was able to reproduce previously published seedling phenotypes at both 1% and 0.6% concentrations. The information provided in this manuscript is beneficial to the scientific community as whole, specifically phenomics labs, as it details key problematic differences between gelling agents that should be performing identically (Phytagel and Phytagel C). ]]> <![CDATA[Impact of fruit orientation and pelleting material on water uptake and germination performance in artificial substrate for sugar beet]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14564 Water uptake into seeds is a fundamental prerequisite of germination and commonly influenced by commercial seed enhancement technologies. The effect of fruit orientation and contrasting pelleting materials on germination and biological performance of sugar beet was assessed. The results indicated there was orientation dependent fruit shrinkage of 37% for the operculum side supplied by moisture compared to 4% for the basal pore side. The expansion rate of 5% compared to the original size, which was also observed for non-shrinking seeds, indicated this was a temporary effect. This behaviour has importance for the application pelleting materials to seeds. Pellets composed of materials exhibiting low levels of swelling act as a water distribution layer which increased germination rates. Careful selection of pelleting material is crucial as it has direct implications on germination speed and subsequent establishment rates.

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<![CDATA[Uptake and speciation of zinc in edible plants grown in smelter contaminated soils]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N21b4cc8f-fdc5-4198-8cfa-2868c1971919

Heavy metal accumulation in edible plants grown in contaminated soils poses a major environmental risk to humans and grazing animals. This study focused on the concentration and speciation of Zn in different edible plants grown in soils contaminated with smelter wastes (Spelter, WV, USA) containing high levels of the metals Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd. Their accumulation was examined in different parts (roots, stem, and leaves) of plants and as a function of growth stage (dry seed, sprouting seed, cotyledon, and leaves) in the root vegetables radish, the leafy vegetable spinach and the legume clover. Although the accumulation of metals varied significantly with plant species, the average metal concentrations were [Zn] > [Pb] > [Cu] > [Cd]. Metal uptake studies were complemented with bulk and micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at Zn K-edge and micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) measurements to evaluate the speciation and distribution of Zn in these plant species. Dynamic interplay between the histidine and malate complexation of Zn was observed in all plant species. XRF mapping of spinach leaves at micron spatial resolution demonstrated the accumulation of Zn in vacuoles and leaf tips. Radish root showed accumulation of Zn in root hairs, likely as ZnS nanoparticles. At locations of high Zn concentration in spinach leaves, μXANES suggests Zn complexation with histidine, as opposed to malate in the bulk leaf. These findings shed new light on the dynamic nature of Zn speciation in plants.

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<![CDATA[Fine mapping of the major QTL for seed coat color in Brassica rapa var. Yellow Sarson by use of NIL populations and transcriptome sequencing for identification of the candidate genes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e930d5eed0c48496f960

Yellow seed is a desirable trait in Brassica oilseed crops. The B. rapa var. Yellow Sarson carry unique yellow seed color genes which are not only important for the development of yellow-seeded oilseed B. rapa cultivars but this variant can also be used to develop yellow-seeded B. napus. In this study, we developed near-isogenic lines (NILs) of Yellow Sarson for the major seed coat color QTL SCA9-2 of the chromosome A9 and used the NILs to fine map this QTL region and to identify the candidate genes through linkage mapping and transcriptome sequencing of the developing seeds. From the 18.4 to 22.79 Mb region of SCA9-2, six SSR markers showing 0.63 to 5.65% recombination were developed through linkage analysis and physical mapping. A total of 55 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the SCA9-2 region through transcriptome analysis; these included three transcription factors, Bra028039 (NAC), Bra023223 (C2H2 type zinc finger), Bra032362 (TIFY), and several other genes which encode unknown or nucleic acid binding protein; these genes might be the candidates and involved in the regulation of seed coat color in the materials used in this study. Several biosynthetic pathways, including the flavonoid, phenylpropanoid and suberin biosynthetic pathways were significantly enriched through GO and KEGG enrichment analysis of the DEGs. This is the first comprehensive study to understand the yellow seed trait of Yellow Sarson through employing linkage mapping and global transcriptome analysis approaches.

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<![CDATA[RSM1, an Arabidopsis MYB protein, interacts with HY5/HYH to modulate seed germination and seedling development in response to abscisic acid and salinity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c23f311d5eed0c48404a31b

MYB transcription factors are involved in many biological processes, including metabolism, development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. RADIALIS-LIKE SANT/MYB 1 (RSM1) belongs to a MYB-related subfamily, and previous transcriptome analysis suggests that RSM1 may play roles in plant development, stress responses and plant hormone signaling. However, the molecular mechanisms of RSM1 action in response to abiotic stresses remain obscure. We show that down-regulation or up-regulation of RSM1 expression alters the sensitivity of seed germination and cotyledon greening to abscisic acid (ABA), NaCl and mannitol in Arabidopsis. The expression of RSM1 is dynamically regulated by ABA and NaCl. Transcription factors ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) and HY5 HOMOLOG (HYH) regulate RSM1 expression via binding to the RSM1 promoter. Genetic analyses reveal that RSM1 mediates multiple functions of HY5 in responses of seed germination, post-germination development to ABA and abiotic stresses, and seedling tolerance to salinity. Pull-down and BiFC assays show that RSM1 interacts with HY5/HYH in vitro and in vivo. RSM1 and HY5/HYH may function as a regulatory module in responses to ABA and abiotic stresses. RSM1 binds to the promoter of ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5), thereby regulating its expression, while RSM1 interaction also stimulates HY5 binding to the ABI5 promoter. However, no evidence was found in the dual-luciferase transient expression assay to support that RSM enhances the activation of ABI5 expression by HY. In summary, HY5/HYH and RSM1 may converge on the ABI5 promoter and independently or somehow dependently regulate ABI5 expression and ABI5-downstream ABA and abiotic stress-responsive genes, thereby improving the adaption of plants to the environment.

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<![CDATA[MYB1 transcription factor is a candidate responsible for red root skin in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bae98f440307c0c23a1c152

Root skin color is one of the economically important traits in radish (Raphanus sativus), and the pigmentation in red skin varieties is largely attributable to anthocyanin accumulation. Pelargonidin was found as a major anthocyanin pigment accumulated in the sub-epidermal layer of red radish roots. In the 20 F2 population generated from the F1 with red root skins, root skins with red and white colors segregated in a 3:1 ratio. Additionally, a test cross between a red F3 individual and a white skin individual gave rise to 1:1 segregation of red and white, indicating that the root skin color of radish is determined by a single locus and red color is dominant over white. We performed association mapping for root skin color using SNPs obtained from RNA-seq analysis. Segregation analysis on the 152 F3 test-cross population revealed an RsMyb1 transcription factor as a candidate gene to determine root skin color. A PCR marker based on the polymorphism within 2 kb of RsMyb1 was developed and tested on 12 and 152 individuals from F2 and F3 test cross populations, respectively, and red and white root skin colors were completely distinguished corresponding to the genotypes. Expression levels of RsMyb1 in red or purple root cultivars were significantly higher than in white root cultivars. These findings suggest that RsMyb1 is a crucial determinant for anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish roots, and the molecular marker developed in this study will be useful for marker-assisted selection for red skin individuals at early seedling stages.

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<![CDATA[Comparative transcriptomics reveals shared gene expression changes during independent evolutionary origins of stem and hypocotyl/root tubers in Brassica (Brassicaceae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c032dfed5eed0c4844f8aab

Plant succulence provides a classic example of evolutionary convergence in over 40 plant families. If evolutionary parallelism is in fact responsible for separate evolutionary origins of expanded storage tissues in stems, hypocotyls, and roots, we expect similar gene expression profiles in stem and hypocotyl / root tubers. We analyzed RNA-Seq transcript abundance patterns in stem and hypocotyl / root tubers of the Brassica crops kohlrabi (B. oleracea) and turnip (B. rapa) and compared their transcript expression profiles to those in the conspecific thin-stemmed and thin-rooted crops flowering kale and pak choi, respectively. Across these four cultivars, 38,192 expressed gene loci were identified. Of the 3,709 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) in the turnip: pak choi comparison and the 6,521 DEGs in the kohlrabi: kale comparison, turnips and kohlrabies share a statistically disproportionate overlap of 841 DEG homologs in their tubers (p value < 1e-10). This overlapping set is statistically enriched in biochemical functions that are also associated with tuber induction in potatoes and sweet potatoes: sucrose metabolism, lipoxygenases, auxin metabolism, and meristem development. These shared expression profiles in tuberous stems and root / hypocotyls in Brassica suggest parallel employment of shared molecular genetic pathways during the evolution of tubers in stems, hypocotyls and roots of Brassica crops and more widely in other tuberous plants as well.

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<![CDATA[Escape to Ferality: The Endoferal Origin of Weedy Rice from Crop Rice through De-Domestication]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da6bab0ee8fa60b92d4f

Domestication is the hallmark of evolution and civilization and harnesses biodiversity through selection for specific traits. In regions where domesticated lines are grown near wild relatives, congeneric sources of aggressive weedy genotypes cause major economic losses. Thus, the origins of weedy genotypes where no congeneric species occur raise questions regarding management effectiveness and evolutionary mechanisms responsible for weedy population success. Since eradication in the 1970s, California growers avoided weedy rice through continuous flood culture and zero-tolerance guidelines, preventing the import, presence, and movement of weedy seeds. In 2003, after decades of no reported presence in California, a weedy rice population was confirmed in dry-seeded fields. Our objectives were to identify the origins and establishment of this population and pinpoint possible phenotypes involved. We show that California weedy rice is derived from a different genetic source among a broad range of AA genome Oryzas and is most recently diverged from O. sativa temperate japonica cultivated in California. In contrast, other weedy rice ecotypes in North America (Southern US) originate from weedy genotypes from China near wild Oryza, and are derived through existing crop-wild relative crosses. Analyses of morphological data show that California weedy rice subgroups have phenotypes like medium-grain or gourmet cultivars, but have colored pericarp, seed shattering, and awns like wild relatives, suggesting that reversion to non-domestic or wild-like traits can occur following domestication, despite apparent fixation of domestication alleles. Additionally, these results indicate that preventive methods focused on incoming weed sources through contamination may miss burgeoning weedy genotypes that rapidly adapt, establish, and proliferate. Investigating the common and unique evolutionary mechanisms underlying global weed origins and subsequent interactions with crop relatives sheds light on how weeds evolve and addresses broader questions regarding the stability of selection during domestication and crop improvement.

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<![CDATA[The MADS Box Genes ABS, SHP1, and SHP2 Are Essential for the Coordination of Cell Divisions in Ovule and Seed Coat Development and for Endosperm Formation in Arabidopsis thaliana]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da4cab0ee8fa60b8d0e9

Seed formation is a pivotal process in plant reproduction and dispersal. It begins with megagametophyte development in the ovule, followed by fertilization and subsequently coordinated development of embryo, endosperm, and maternal seed coat. Two closely related MADS-box genes, SHATTERPROOF 1 and 2 (SHP1 and SHP2) are involved in specifying ovule integument identity in Arabidopsis thaliana. The MADS box gene ARABIDOPSIS BSISTER (ABS or TT16) is required, together with SEEDSTICK (STK) for the formation of endothelium, part of the seed coat and innermost tissue layer formed by the maternal plant. Little is known about the genetic interaction of SHP1 and SHP2 with ABS and the coordination of endosperm and seed coat development. In this work, mutant and expression analysis shed light on this aspect of concerted development. Triple tt16 shp1 shp2 mutants produce malformed seedlings, seed coat formation defects, fewer seeds, and mucilage reduction. While shp1 shp2 mutants fail to coordinate the timely development of ovules, tt16 mutants show less peripheral endosperm after fertilization. Failure in coordinated division of the innermost integument layer in early ovule stages leads to inner seed coat defects in tt16 and tt16 shp1 shp2 triple mutant seeds. An antagonistic action of ABS and SHP1/SHP2 is observed in inner seed coat layer formation. Expression analysis also indicates that ABS represses SHP1, SHP2, and FRUITFUL expression. Our work shows that the evolutionary conserved Bsister genes are required not only for endothelium but also for endosperm development and genetically interact with SHP1 and SHP2 in a partially antagonistic manner.

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<![CDATA[Identification of Multiple Proteins Coupling Transcriptional Gene Silencing to Genome Stability in Arabidopsis thaliana]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf7ab0ee8fa60bc331f

Eukaryotic genomes are regulated by epigenetic marks that act to modulate transcriptional control as well as to regulate DNA replication and repair. In Arabidopsis thaliana, mutation of the ATXR5 and ATXR6 histone methyltransferases causes reduction in histone H3 lysine 27 monomethylation, transcriptional upregulation of transposons, and a genome instability defect in which there is an accumulation of excess DNA corresponding to pericentromeric heterochromatin. We designed a forward genetic screen to identify suppressors of the atxr5/6 phenotype that uncovered loss-of-function mutations in two components of the TREX-2 complex (AtTHP1, AtSAC3B), a SUMO-interacting E3 ubiquitin ligase (AtSTUbL2) and a methyl-binding domain protein (AtMBD9). Additionally, using a reverse genetic approach, we show that a mutation in a plant homolog of the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 enhances the atxr5/6 phenotype. Through characterization of these mutations, our results suggest models for the production atxr5 atxr6-induced extra DNA involving conflicts between the replicative and transcriptional processes in the cell, and suggest that the atxr5 atxr6 transcriptional defects may be the cause of the genome instability defects in the mutants. These findings highlight the critical intersection of transcriptional silencing and DNA replication in the maintenance of genome stability of heterochromatin.

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<![CDATA[Molecular actions of two synthetic brassinosteroids, iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL, which cause altered physiological activities between Arabidopsis and rice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc2b6

Brassinosteroid (BR) is an important plant hormone that is perceived by the BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1) receptor. BRI1 is conserved among dicot and monocot species; however, the molecular mechanism underlying BR perception in monocots is not fully understood. We synthesised two BRs, iso-carbabrassinolide (iso-carbaBL) and 6-deoxoBL, which have different BR activities in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and rice. Our bioassay indicated that iso-carbaBL has relatively strong BR activity in Arabidopsis, but is inactive in rice and competitively inhibits BR activity. The bioactivity of 6-deoxoBL was similar to that of BL in Arabidopsis, but was much lower in rice. Binding experiments using recombinant Arabidopsis and rice BRI1 protein fragments suggested that iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL bind to both receptors. These results showed that iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL act as an antagonist and agonist, respectively, of BRs in rice. A docking simulation analysis suggested that iso-carbaBL fits deeper in the binding pocket to block the binding of active BR to rice BRI1. The simulated binding energy of 6-deoxoBL with rice BRI1 is much lower than that with Arabidopsis BRI1. The possible structural characteristics of rice BRI1 were determined based on the difference in the BR activities of iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL in Arabidopsis and rice.

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<![CDATA[Apomixis frequency under stress conditions in weeping lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdc9d8

To overcome environmental stress, plants develop physiological responses that are triggered by genetic or epigenetic changes, some of which involve DNA methylation. It has been proposed that apomixis, the formation of asexual seeds without meiosis, occurs through the temporal or spatial deregulation of the sexual process mediated by genetic and epigenetic factors influenced by the environment. Here, we explored whether there was a link between the occurrence of apomixis and various factors that generate stress, including drought stress, in vitro culture, and intraspecific hybridization. For this purpose, we monitored the embryo sacs of different weeping lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula [Schrad.] Nees) genotypes after the plants were subjected to these stress conditions. Progeny tests based on molecular markers and genome methylation status were analyzed following the stress treatment. When grown in the greenhouse, the cultivar Tanganyika INTA generated less than 2% of its progeny by sexual reproduction. Plants of this cultivar subjected to different stresses showed an increase of sexual embryo sacs, demonstrating an increased expression of sexuality compared to control plants. Plants of the cv. Tanganyika USDA did not demonstrate the ability to generate sexual embryo sacs under any conditions and is therefore classified as a fully apomictic cultivar. We found that this change in the prevalence of sexuality was correlated with genetic and epigenetic changes analyzed by MSAP and AFLPs profiles. Our results demonstrate that different stress conditions can alter the expression of sexual reproduction in facultative tetraploid apomictic cultivars and when the stress stops the reproductive mode shift back to the apomixis original level. These data together with previous observations allow us to generate a hypothetical model of the regulation of apomixis in weeping lovegrass in which the genetic/s region/s that condition apomixis, is/are affected by ploidy, and is/are subjected to epigenetic control.

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<![CDATA[Physiological effects of autotoxicity due to DHAP stress on Picea schrenkiana regeneration]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf61c

Picea Schrenkiana as one of the most important zonal vegetation was an endemic species in Middle Asia. Natural regeneration of P. Schrenkiana is a long existing problem troubling scientists. The autotoxicity of 3,4-dihydroxy-acetophenone (DHAP) was found to be a causative factor causing the failure of P. Schrenkiana natural regeneration. The effects of concentrations of DHAP treatment on the viability of root cell, activities of antioxidant enzymes and levels of P. Schrenkiana phytohormones were performed to disclose the physiological mechanism of DHAP autotoxicity. It was observed that high concentration of DHAP could inhibit the seed germination and seedling growth, but had a hormesis at low concentrations. Analyses showed that the root cells significantly lost their viability treated with high DHAP. The enzymes activities of seedlings were significantly stimulated by the treatment of 0.5 mM DHAP to give a transient increase and then decrease as DHAP concentration increased to 1.0 mM except for GR (glutathione reductase) in which DHAP treatment had little effect on its activity. Comparing with the control, an increase in the levels of phytohormones ZT (zeatin), GA3 (gibberellic acid) and IAA (indole acetic acid) was induced by the treatment of DHAP at low concentrations (0.1–0.25 mM), but the significant deficiency was found treated by high concentrations (0.5–1.0 mM). In addition, the ABA (abscisic acid) level increased in all experimental observations. These results suggested that DHAP significantly affected indices of growth and physiology, and provided some new information about different effect in P. Schrenkiana treated with DHAP.

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<![CDATA[Deciphering Transcriptional Programming during Pod and Seed Development Using RNA-Seq in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daffab0ee8fa60bc62b3

Seed development is an important event in plant life cycle that has interested humankind since ages, especially in crops of economic importance. Pigeonpea is an important grain legume of the semi-arid tropics, used mainly for its protein rich seeds. In order to understand the transcriptional programming during the pod and seed development, RNA-seq data was generated from embryo sac from the day of anthesis (0 DAA), seed and pod wall (5, 10, 20 and 30 DAA) of pigeonpea variety “Asha” (ICPL 87119) using Illumina HiSeq 2500. About 684 million sequencing reads have been generated from nine samples, which resulted in the identification of 27,441 expressed genes after sequence analysis. These genes have been studied for their differentially expression, co-expression, temporal and spatial gene expression. We have also used the RNA-seq data to identify important seed-specific transcription factors, biological processes and associated pathways during seed development process in pigeonpea. The comprehensive gene expression study from flowering to mature pod development in pigeonpea would be crucial in identifying candidate genes involved in seed traits directly or indirectly related to yield and quality. The dataset will serve as an important resource for gene discovery and deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying various seed related traits.

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<![CDATA[Mutations in the maize zeta-carotene desaturase gene lead to viviparous kernel]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcda8

Preharvest sprouting reduces the maize quality and causes a significant yield loss in maize production. vp-wl2 is a Mutator (Mu)-induced viviparous mutant in maize, causing white or pale yellow kernels, dramatically reduced carotenoid and ABA content, and a high level of zeta-carotene accumulation. Here, we reported the cloning of the vp-wl2 gene using a modified digestion-ligation-amplification method (DLA). The results showed that an insertion of Mu9 in the first intron of the zeta-carotene desaturase (ZDS) gene results in the vp-wl2 mutation. Previous studies have suggested that ZDS is likely the structural gene of the viviparous9 (vp9) locus. Therefore, we performed an allelic test using vp-wl2 and three vp9 mutants. The results showed that vp-wl2 is a novel allele of the vp9 locus. In addition, the sequences of ZDS gene were identified in these three vp9 alleles. The vp-wl2 mutant gene was subsequently introgressed into four maize inbred lines, and a viviparous phenotype was observed with yield losses from 7.69% to 13.33%.

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<![CDATA[Fine Mapping and Whole-Genome Resequencing Identify the Seed Coat Color Gene in Brassica rapa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dabbab0ee8fa60baeb6b

A yellow seed coat is a desirable agronomic trait in the seeds of oilseed-type Brassica crops. In this study, we identified a candidate gene for seed coat color in Dahuang, a landrace of Brassica rapa. A previous study of Dahuang mapped the seed coat color gene Brsc1 to a 2.8-Mb interval on chromosome A9 of B. rapa. In the present study, the density of the linkage map for Brsc1 was increased by adding simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and the candidate region for Brsc1 was narrowed to 1.04 Mb. In addition, whole-genome resequencing with bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was conducted to identify candidate intervals for Brsc1. A genome-wide comparison of SNP profiles was performed between yellow-seeded and brown-seeded bulk samples. SNP index analyses identified a major candidate interval on chromosome A9 (A09:18,255,838–18,934,000, 678 kb) containing a long overlap with the target region recovered from the fine mapping results. According to gene annotation, Bra028067 (BrTT1) is an important candidate gene for Brsc1 in the overlapping region. Quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR revealed that BrTT1 mainly functions in the seed. Point mutations and small deletions in BrTT1 were found between yellow- and brown-seeded Dahuang plants. Collectively, the expression and sequence analysis results provide preliminary evidence that BrTT1 is a candidate gene for the seed coat color trait in Dahuang.

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<![CDATA[Spatio-Temporal Metabolite Profiling of the Barley Germination Process by MALDI MS Imaging]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9faab0ee8fa60b71b0b

MALDI mass spectrometry imaging was performed to localize metabolites during the first seven days of the barley germination. Up to 100 mass signals were detected of which 85 signals were identified as 48 different metabolites with highly tissue-specific localizations. Oligosaccharides were observed in the endosperm and in parts of the developed embryo. Lipids in the endosperm co-localized in dependency on their fatty acid compositions with changes in the distributions of diacyl phosphatidylcholines during germination. 26 potentially antifungal hordatines were detected in the embryo with tissue-specific localizations of their glycosylated, hydroxylated, and O-methylated derivates. In order to reveal spatio-temporal patterns in local metabolite compositions, multiple MSI data sets from a time series were analyzed in one batch. This requires a new preprocessing strategy to achieve comparability between data sets as well as a new strategy for unsupervised clustering. The resulting spatial segmentation for each time point sample is visualized in an interactive cluster map and enables simultaneous interactive exploration of all time points. Using this new analysis approach and visualization tool germination-dependent developments of metabolite patterns with single MS position accuracy were discovered. This is the first study that presents metabolite profiling of a cereals’ germination process over time by MALDI MSI with the identification of a large number of peaks of agronomically and industrially important compounds such as oligosaccharides, lipids and antifungal agents. Their detailed localization as well as the MS cluster analyses for on-tissue metabolite profile mapping revealed important information for the understanding of the germination process, which is of high scientific interest.

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<![CDATA[Mutation increasing β-carotene concentrations does not adversely affect concentrations of essential mineral elements in pepper fruit]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc41a

Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are prevalent in human populations throughout the world. Vitamin A deficiency affects hundreds of millions of pre-school age children in low income countries. Fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) can be a major dietary source of precursors to Vitamin A biosynthesis, such as β-carotene. Recently, pepper breeding programs have introduced the orange-fruited (of) trait of the mutant variety Oranzheva kapiya, which is associated with high fruit β-carotene concentrations, to the mutant variety Albena. In this manuscript, concentrations of β-carotene and mineral elements (magnesium, phosphorus, sulphur, potassium, zinc, calcium, manganese, iron and copper) were compared in fruit from P31, a red-fruited genotype derived from the variety Albena, and M38, a genotype developed by transferring the orange-fruited mutation (of) into Albena. It was observed that fruit from M38 plants had greater β-carotene concentration at both commercial and botanical maturity (4.9 and 52.7 mg / kg fresh weight, respectively) than fruit from P31 plants (2.3 and 30.1 mg / kg fresh weight, respectively). The mutation producing high β-carotene concentrations in pepper fruits had no detrimental effect on the concentrations of mineral elements required for human nutrition.

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<![CDATA[Transcriptome Analysis of Purple Pericarps in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db48ab0ee8fa60bd94b9

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars possessing purple grain arethought to be more nutritious because of high anthocyanin contents in the pericarp. Comparative transcriptome analysis of purple (cv Gy115) and white pericarps was carried out using next-generation sequencing technology. There were 23,642 unigenes significantly differentially expressed in the purple and white pericarps, including 9945 up-regulated and 13,697 down-regulated. The differentially expressed unigenes were mainly involved in encoding components of metabolic pathways, The flavonoid biosynthesis pathway was the most represented in metabolic pathways. In the transcriptome of purple pericarp in Gy115, most structural and regulatory genes biosynthesizing anthocyanin were identified, and had higher expression levels than in white pericarp. The largestunigene of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Gy115 was longer than the reference genes, which implies that high-throughput sequencing could isolate the genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis in tissues or organs with high anthocyanin content. Based on present and previous results, three unigenes of MYB gene on chromosome 7BL and three unigenes of MYC on chromosome 2AL were predicted as candidate genes for the purple grain trait. This article was the first to provide a systematic overview comparing the transcriptomes of purple and white pericarps in common wheat, which should be very valuable for identifying the key genes for the purple pericarp trait.

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<![CDATA[Is floral structure a reliable indicator of breeding system in the Brassicaceae?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbf70

This study investigated the usefulness of floral characters as a potential indicator of breeding system in the Brassicaceae. Initially, pod set, seed set and pollen tube growth experiments were carried out to confirm the breeding systems of 53 lines representing 25 different cultivated and weedy species from the Brassicaceae. The results of the pod set tests clearly differentiated between self-compatible and self-incompatible species. Floral characters were then evaluated on one or more lines of each of the 25 species. Fourteen floral characters were evaluated including, flower diameter, Cruden’s outcrossing index, timing and direction of dehiscence and pollen-ovule ratio. Significant differences between species were evident in all of the floral characteristics evaluated. Flower diameter was generally larger in self-incompatible species than self-compatible species and pollen/ovule ratio was generally higher in self-incompatible species than self-compatible species. However, none of the floral characteristics was able to clearly differentiate the self-compatible and self-incompatible species and allow prediction of the breeding system with absolute confidence. The floral characteristic which was most effective at differentiating the two groups was anther direction at dehiscence.

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