ResearchPad - full-length-article https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Smooth Muscle in Cardiac Chambers is Common in Turtles and Extensive in the Emydid Turtle, <i>Trachemys scripta</i> ]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6775 A prominent layer of smooth muscle lining the luminal side of the atria of freshwater turtles (Emydidae) was described more than a century ago. We recently demonstrated that this smooth muscle provides a previously unrecognized mechanism to change cardiac output in the emydid red‐eared slider (Trachemys scripta) that possibly contributes to their tremendous diving capacity. The purpose of the present immunohistochemical study was firstly to screen major groups of vertebrates for the presence of cardiac smooth muscle. Secondly, we investigated the phylogenetic distribution of cardiac smooth muscle within the turtle order (Testudines), including terrestrial and aquatic species. Atrial smooth muscle was not detected in a range of vertebrates, including Xenopus laevis, Alligator mississippiensis, and Caiman crocodilus, all of which have pronounced diving capacities. However, we confirmed earlier reports that traces of smooth muscle are found in human atrial tissue. Only within the turtles (eight species) was there substantial amounts of nonvascular smooth muscle in the heart. This amount was greatest in the atria, while the amount in proportion to cardiac muscle was greater in the sinus venosus than in other chambers. T. scripta had more smooth muscle in the sinus venosus and atria than the other turtles. In some specimens, there was some smooth muscle in the ventricle and the pulmonary vein. Our study demonstrates that cardiac smooth muscle likely appeared early in turtle evolution and has become extensive within the Emydidae family, possibly in association with diving. Across other tetrapod clades, cardiac smooth muscle might not associate with diving. Anat Rec, 303:1327–1336, 2020. © 2019 The Authors. The Anatomical Record published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association for Anatomy.

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<![CDATA[Identification of protective T-cell antigens for smallpox vaccines]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N46220d90-9c2f-4820-a39c-9fab5e38332e E3L is an immediate-early protein of vaccinia virus (VV) that is detected within 0.5 h of infection, potentially before the many immune evasion genes of vaccinia can exert their protective effects. E3L is highly conserved among orthopoxviruses and hence could provide important protective T-cell epitopes that should be retained in any subunit or attenuated vaccine. We have therefore evaluated the immunogenicity of E3L in healthy VV-vaccinated donors.MethodsPeripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers (n = 13) who had previously received a smallpox vaccine (Dryvax) were activated and expanded using overlapping E3L peptides and their function, specificity and antiviral activity was analyzed. E3L-specific T cells were expanded from 7 of 12 (58.3%) vaccinated healthy donors. Twenty-five percent of these produced CD8+ T-cell responses and 87.5% produced CD4+ T cells. We identified epitopes restricted by HLA-B35 and HLA-DR15.ResultsE3L-specific T cells killed peptide-loaded target cells as well as vaccinia-infected cells, but only CD8+ T cells could prevent the spread of infectious virus in virus inhibition assays. The epitopes recognized by E3L-specific T cells were shared with monkeypox, and although there was a single amino acid change in the variola epitope homolog, it was recognized by vaccinia-specific T-cells.ConclusionsIt might be important to include E3L in any deletion mutant or subunit vaccine and E3L could provide a useful antigen to monitor protective immunity in humans. ]]> <![CDATA[Internet-based self-help intervention aimed at increasing social self-efficacy among internal migrants in Poland: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6911aebb-5275-4acc-9082-92acd41fec17

Background

Migration is a challenging life transition that may be a source of various problems related to well-being and mental health. However, the psychological adaptation of migrants may be potentially facilitated by social self-efficacy—the beliefs in one's ability to initiate and maintain interpersonal relationships. Previous research suggests that social self-efficacy is positively related to adjustment and negatively related to loneliness, depression, and psychological distress. Research also confirms that self-efficacy beliefs can be effectively enhanced using Internet-based interventions. These results served as a background for creating the New in Town, a self-help Internet-based intervention for internal migrants in Poland that aims at increasing social self-efficacy. Exercises in the intervention are based on the principles of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and relate to sources of self-efficacy beliefs: mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasions, and emotional and physiological states. Users complete increasingly challenging tasks that encourage them to interact with their environment. The aim of this trial was to investigate the efficacy of the New in Town intervention.

Methods

The efficacy of the New in Town intervention will be tested in a two-arm randomized controlled trial with a waitlist control group. Social self-efficacy will be the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes will include loneliness, perceived social support, and satisfaction with life. Additionally, we will measure user experience among participants allocated to the experimental group. We aim to recruit a total of N = 280 participants aged at least 18 years who have changed their place of residence in the last 6 months and have an Internet connection. Participants will be assessed at baseline, 3-week post-test, and 8-week follow-up.

Discussion

The trial will provide insights into the efficacy of Internet-based self-help interventions in increasing social self-efficacy. Given that the intervention works, New in Town could provide an easily accessible support option for internal migrants in Poland.

Trial registration

The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT04088487) on 11th September 2019.

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<![CDATA[Outpatient and self-referred participants: Adherence to treatment components and outcome in an internet intervention targeting anxiety disorders]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9b3e9698-272b-4133-b9e8-e07f967a76d2

Objective

While adherence is an important factor influencing the effectiveness of internet interventions, many studies operationalize adherence only by the number of sessions and do not report adherence to specific treatment components. The goal of this study was to investigate adherence to treatment components as well as outcome in outpatients and self-referred participants who participated in an internet intervention targeting anxiety.

Method

Outpatients (N = 50) were compared to self-referred (N = 37) participants and a matched outpatient waitlist sample (based on nearest neighbor matching): Using t-test and χ2 tests adherence to treatment components based on the number of completed exercises was compared between participant groups. A 2 × 2 repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare pre-to post symptom change between participant groups. Primary measures included the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 (GAD-7) and the Mini Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN). Using nonparametric bootstrap analyses number of sessions and adherence to treatment components were investigated as potential mediators of the relationship between participant group and outcome. Finally, predictors of adherence to treatment components in outpatient participants were investigated using LASSO and logistic regression.

Results

Self-referred participants were more adherent than outpatient participants, however the groups did not differ significantly in outcome. Outpatient participants who adhered to relaxation showed greater improvement during the waiting period than the matched outpatient waitlist sample. The effect of participant group on outcome was mediated via adherence to exposure and number of sessions.

Conclusions

In internet interventions adherence to treatment components differs between participant groups and has a mediating effect on treatment outcome. Therefore, it should be fostered, especially when participants are not self-referred. In line with these findings more studies should investigate relevant participant characteristics in more depth.

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<![CDATA[Repeated exposure to aerosolized graphene oxide mediates autophagy inhibition and inflammation in a three-dimensional human airway model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7022bc1b-3621-47e5-a562-8fd8d9204593

Hazard evaluation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) using real-world exposure scenario could provide better interpretation of toxicity end points for their use in the assessment of human safety and for their implications in many fields such as toxicology, nanomedicine, and so forth. However, most of the current studies, both in vivo and in vitro, do not reflect realistic conditions of human exposure to ENMs, due to the high doses implemented. Moreover, the use of cellular models cultured under submerged conditions limits their physiological relevance for lung exposure, where cells are primarily cultured at the air-liquid interface. Addressing such issues is even more challenging for emergent nanomaterials, such as graphene oxide (GO), for which little or no information on exposure is available. In this work, we studied the impact of repeated exposure of GO on a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruct of human bronchial tissue, using a nebulizer system focusing on short-term effects. The selected doses (reaching a maximum of ca. 20 ​μg/cm2 for a period of 4 weeks of exposure) were extrapolated from alveolar mass deposition values of a broader class of carbon-based nanomaterials, reflecting a full working lifetime of human exposure. Experimental results did not show strong toxic effects of GO in terms of viability and integrity of the lung tissue. However, since 2 weeks of treatment, repeated GO exposure elicited a proinflammatory response, moderate barrier impairment, and autophagosome accumulation, a process resulting from blockade of autophagy flux. Interestingly, the 3D airway model could recover such an effect by restoring autophagy flux at longer exposure (30 days). These findings indicate that prolonged exposure to GO produces a time window (during the 30 days of treatment set for this study) for which GO-mediated autophagy inhibition along with inflammation may potentially increase the susceptibility of exposed humans to pulmonary infections and/or lung diseases. This study also highlights the importance of using physiologically relevant in vitro models and doses derived from real-world exposure to obtain focused data for the assessment of human safety.

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<![CDATA[The genomes of three coronaviruses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N442bd022-a9fb-4e17-92b2-c883a540a48b ]]> <![CDATA[Putative papain-related thiol proteases of positive-strand RNA viruses Identification of rubi- and aphthovirus proteases and delineation of a novel conserved domain associated with proteases of rubi-, α- and coronaviruses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd2064473-2547-4782-a8ee-182e74f7d259

A computer‐assisted comparative analysis of the amino acid sequences of (putative) thiol proteases encoded by the genomes of several diverse groups or positive‐stranded RNA viruses and distantly related to the family of cellular papain‐like proteases is presented. A high level of similarity was detected between the leader protease of foot‐and‐mouth‐disease virus and the protease of murine hepatitis coronavirus which cleaves the N‐terminal p28 protein from the polyprotein. Statistically significant alignment of a portion of the rubella virus polyprotein with cellular papain‐like proteases was obtained, leading to tentative identification of the papain‐like protease as the enzyme mediating processing of the non‐structural proteins of this virus. Specific grouping between the sequences of the proteases of α‐viruses, and poty‐ and bymoviruses was revealed. It was noted that papain‐like proteases of positive‐stranded RNA viruses are much more variable both in their sequences and in genomic locations than chymotrypsin‐related proteases found in the same virus class. A novel conserved domain of unknown function has also been identified which flanks the papain‐like proteases of α‐, rubi‐ and coronaviruses.

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<![CDATA[Endosomal association of a protein phosphatase with high dephosphorylating activity against a coronavirus nucleocapsid protein]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N020c7222-9555-416d-be56-a8a0619e2c74

On the assumption that dephosphorylation of the neurotropic coronavirus JHM (JHMV) nucleocapsid protein (N) may be connected with initiation of the infectious cycle we searched for a relevant host enzyme activity. Analysis of subcellular fractions from L‐2 murine fibroblasts, separated by dual Percoll density gradients, revealed the presence of a phosphoprotein phosphatase (PPPase), co‐sedimenting with the endososomal/prelysosomal material, which possesses high activity against N. With purified [22P]N as substrate it was demonstrated that this PPPase, distinguishable from acid and alkaline phosphatases, acts optimally at neutral pH in the presence of Mn2+ following treatment with a detergent. Complete inhibition with okadaic acid at 0.9–4.5 μM but not at 1–10 nM relegates this PPase to a type I protein phosphatase. Similar PPPase activity for N was present in the endosome fraction of a rat Roc‐1 astrocytoma‐oligodendrocyte cell line and in homogenates of brain and cultured oligodendrocytes. Our data suggest that the phosphorylated N of the inoculum may be modified by the endosomal PPPase in host cells, including those from the CNS so as to facilitate the JHMV infectious process.

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<![CDATA[Intensive one-week internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for panic disorder and agoraphobia: A pilot study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N766ede81-d5b7-4e49-b416-fba49fe915e2

This is the first pilot study to explore the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of intensive cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for panic disorder and/or agoraphobia delivered via the internet. Ten participants who met DSM-5 criteria for panic disorder and/or agoraphobia (6 males; mean age = 43.40, SD = 15.25) completed The Intensive Panic Program: a six-lesson exposure-based CBT program, delivered online over seven days. Clinician support was provided via phone and email. All 10 participants completed the program (100% adherence) and high levels of satisfaction were reported. We found large and significant reductions in panic symptom severity at post-treatment (d = 1.40), which were maintained at two-month follow-up. We also found large reductions in agoraphobic avoidance (d = 0.92) and functional impairment (d = 1.04) at follow-up, and days out of role were halved. On average, 132 min (SD = 42, range: 47–183) of clinician time was spent per participant during the treatment week. The results provide promising preliminary evidence for the feasibility and acceptability of internet-delivered intensive CBT for panic disorder and/or agoraphobia. A larger, randomized control trial is now needed to evaluate the efficacy of this program compared to a control group and to explore long-term outcomes.

Clinical trial registration number

ACTRN12618001501235

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<![CDATA[Functionalized DNA-spider silk nanohydrogels for controlled protein binding and release]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N54fd556e-32f3-4f86-8a93-78e04941cb42

Hydrogels are excellent scaffolds to accommodate sensitive enzymes in a protective environment. However, the lack of suitable immobilization techniques on substrates and the lack of selectivity to anchor a biocatalyst are major drawbacks preventing the use of hydrogels in bioanalytical devices. Here, nanofilm coatings on surfaces were made of a recombinant spider silk protein (rssp) to induce rssp self-assembly and thus the formation of fibril-based nanohydrogels. To functionalize spider silk nanohydrogels for bioselective binding of proteins, two different antithrombin aptamers were chemically conjugated with the rssp, thereby integrating the target-binding function into the nanohydrogel network. Human thrombin was selected as a sensitive model target, in which the structural integrity determines its activity. The chosen aptamers, which bind various exosites of thrombin, enabled selective and cooperative embedding of the protein into the nanohydrogels. The change of the aptamer secondary structure using complementary DNA sequences led to the release of active thrombin and confirmed the addressable functionalization of spider silk nanohydrogels.

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<![CDATA[Role of active nanoliposomes in the surface and bulk mechanical properties of hybrid hydrogels]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3860de62-d04e-402f-8aee-613648f0ddaf

Nanoliposomes are widely used as delivery vehicles for active compounds. Nanoliposomes from rapeseed phospholipids were incorporated into interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels of gelatin methacryloyl and alginate. The multiscale physicochemical properties of the hydrogels are studied both on the surface and through the thickness of the 3D network. The obtained composite hydrogels exhibited strong mechanical properties and a highly porous surface. The blend ratio, as well as the concentration of nanoliposomes, affects the properties of the hydrogels. Nanofunctionalized hydrogels induced keratinocyte ​growth. These advantageous characteristics may open up many applications of the developed hydrogels in drug delivery and tissue engineering.

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<![CDATA[Effects of intense assessment on statistical power in randomized controlled trials: Simulation study on depression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N74e03ef5-05cb-4e80-8e15-cdc826b06ecb

Smartphone-based devices are increasingly recognized to assess disease symptoms in daily life (e.g. ecological momentary assessment, EMA). Despite this development in digital psychiatry, clinical trials are mainly based on point assessments of psychopathology. This study investigated expectable increases in statistical power by intense assessment in randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

A simulation study, based on three scenarios and several empirical data sets, estimated power gains of two- or fivefold pre-post-assessment. For each condition, data sets of various effect sizes were generated, and AN(C)OVAs were applied to the sample of interest (N = 50–N = 200).

Power increases ranged from 6% to 92%, with higher gains in more underpowered scenarios and with higher number of repeated assessments. ANCOVA profited from a more precise estimation of the baseline covariate, resulting in additional gains in statistical power. Fivefold pre-post EMA resulted in highest absolute statistical power and clearly outperformed traditional questionnaire assessments. For example, ANCOVA of automatized PHQ-9 questionnaire data resulted in absolute power of 55 (for N = 200 and d = 0.3). Fivefold EMA, however, resulted in power of 88.9. Non-parametric and multi-level analyses resulted in comparable outcomes.

Besides providing psychological treatment, digital mental health can help optimizing sensitivity in RCT-based research. Intense assessment appears advisable whenever psychopathology needs to be assessed with high precision at pre- and post-assessment (e.g. small sample sizes, small treatment effects, or when applying optimization problems like machine learning). First empiric studies are promising, but more evidence is needed. Simulations for various effects and a short guide for popular power software are provided for study planning.

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<![CDATA[Spatially resolved small-angle X-ray scattering for characterizing mechanoresponsive liposomes using microfluidics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N811b73d4-3915-497c-91db-b0827bc7b0b8

Atherosclerosis gives rise to blood vessel occlusion associated with blood flow alteration and substantial increase of average wall shear stress. This modification was proved acting as a purely physical trigger for targeted vasodilator release from a particular type of liposomes composed of 1,3-diaminophospholipids (Pad-PC-Pad). The flow-induced structural changes of these faceted liposomes, however, are completely unknown. Therefore, spatially resolved small-angle X-ray scattering was combined with microfluidics to uniquely study the purely physical mechanisms, which give rise to the highly efficient drug release from mechanoresponsive liposomes of nanometer size. The microfluidic device, designed to mimic a stenotic blood vessel, consisted of a 1-mm-wide channel with a constriction, 125 ​μm in diameter. Here, the changes of the average bilayer thickness and the mean size of the mechanoresponsive liposomes have been locally detected under flow conditions. Overall shape and bilayer thickness do change already near the constriction inlet, but the alteration is dominant near the outlet. At a flow rate of 0.2 ​μL/s, the liposome's bilayer thickness increased by 30% compared to the situation well before the constriction and under static condition. The detected bilayer thickness increase of the faceted liposomes is in line with the mechanically induced loss of interdigitation between the phospholipid amide chains. These results imply that rather the gradient force than the wall shear stress provokes structural changes of Pad-PC-Pad liposomes and the related drug release at stenoses. The approach, i.e. the combination of microfluidics and spatially resolved small-angle X-ray scattering, paves the way to design highly efficient and specific systems for the targeted drug delivery at constrictions with predefined morphology.

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<![CDATA[Online interventions for problem gamblers with and without co-occurring unhealthy alcohol use: Randomized controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N59de4be1-43cd-4978-b2fc-0ece8ca53a16

Background and aims

Problem gambling and unhealthy alcohol use often co-occur. The current trial sought to establish whether adding a brief online intervention for unhealthy alcohol use to an online problem gambling intervention would lead to improvements in gambling and drinking among those with both of these concerns.

Methods

Participants were recruited from across Canada using an advertisement targeting those concerned about their gambling who were interested in online help. No mention of unhealthy alcohol use was made in the advertisement. Participants meeting criteria for problem gambling were randomized to either receive just an online intervention for gambling (G-only) or to receive an online gambling intervention plus a brief personalized feedback intervention for unhealthy alcohol use (G + A). Participants were followed up at 3 and 6 months.

Results

A total of 282 participants were recruited for the trial. Follow-up rates were good (80% and 84% at 3 and 6 months). There were significant reductions in gambling (p < .001) across time but no significant differences (p > .05) between those who received either the G-only or G + A interventions. Further, for those with unhealthy alcohol use (41% of the sample), there were no significant reductions in alcohol consumption (p > .05) across time or differences between condition.

Discussion and conclusion

The addition of a brief intervention for unhealthy alcohol use to an online intervention for gambling did not appear to improve either gambling or drinking outcomes among people concerned about their gambling. Further research is merited to examine whether a combined intervention (with gambling and drinking components integrated) might result in improved outcomes and whether such an intervention might benefit the subgroup of participants who would specifically seek help for both gambling and alcohol concerns.

Trial registration:ClinicalTrials.govNCT03323606; Registration date: October 24, 2017.

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<![CDATA[Converging perspectives of providers and student users on extending a patient portal into a university-based mental health service: A qualitative study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb17a51ae-cba0-4d2d-94f1-d729c2d62946

Background

Patient portals have the potential to increase access to mental health services. However, a lack of research is available to guide practices on extending patient portals into mental health services. This study explored stakeholder (student service users' and health providers') expectations and perceptions of extending patient portals into a New Zealand university-based mental health service.

Materials and methods

This qualitative study explored the perspectives of 17 students and staff members at a university-based health and counselling service on an Internet-based patient portal through a software demonstration, two focus groups and 13 interviews. Data were analyzed thematically.

Results

Staff and students perceived the patient portal as useful, easy to use and expected it to help make mental health care more accessible. Staff were most concerned with the portal's ability to support their triage processes and that it might enable students to ‘counselor hop’ (see multiple counselors). Staff recommended extension into services that do not require triage. Most students expected the portal to enhance patient-counselor contact and rapport, through continuity of care. Students were concerned with appointment waiting times, the stigmatization of poor mental health and their capacity to seek help. They considered the portal might assist with this. Students recommended extension into all services, including urgent appointments. After viewing findings from initial student and staff groups, staff concluded that extending a patient portal into their counseling services should be prioritized.

Conclusion

This research suggests that there is value in extending patient portals into mental health care, especially into low-risk services. Future research should explore opportunities to support triage and appointment-making processes for mental health services, via patient portals.

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<![CDATA[Logging into therapy: Adolescent perceptions of online therapies for mental health problems]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c82b59ed5eed0c484e5e8b6

Objectives

This study describes adolescent attitudes towards online therapies and explores the factors that predict these attitudes.

Method

Australian adolescents (N = 217) were surveyed on their knowledge of, attitudes towards (including perceived problems, perceived benefits, and perceived helpfulness), recommended availability of, and intentions to use online therapies. In addition, demographic and clinical factors, factors relating to technology use, adolescents' mental health attitudes, and personality traits were also measured.

Results

The findings suggested that 72.0% of adolescents would access an online therapy if they experienced a mental health problem and 31.9% would choose an online therapy over traditional face-to-face support. The most valued benefits of these programs included alleviation of stigma and increased accessibility. Knowledge of online therapies was found to positively predict perceived helpfulness and intended uptake.

Conclusions

This study provides insight into adolescent attitudes towards online therapies and highlights the need to investigate strategies for increasing uptake.

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<![CDATA[Development and acceptability testing of a Facebook smoking cessation intervention for sexual and gender minority young adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c82b3d0d5eed0c484e5bd27

This study tested engagement in and acceptability of a digital smoking cessation intervention designed for young adults and tailored to sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals. The intervention included 90 Facebook posts delivered in private groups tailored to readiness to quit smoking (Ready to quit in 30 days/Not Ready; 180 posts total; 101 posts SGM-tailored by content/image). Acceptability was evaluated over 30 days (3 posts/day). Participants' (N = 27) open-ended feedback was coded and tallied; posts with significant negative feedback were flagged for change. Flags and comment volume were examined by SGM tailoring (versus not tailored) and content category (motivational interviewing, experiential strategies, behavioral strategies, relevant topics). Engagement and acceptability were high. All participants reported viewing at least half of the posts, and the majority reported viewing all 90 posts (M comments per participant = 51.74). The majority of participants agreed or strongly agreed with statements about the intervention's helpfulness and clarity. Posts received an average of 8.08 comments (SD = 2.58), with 59 posts (32.8%) flagged for change. Posts engaged comments and were found to be acceptable at comparable levels regardless of SGM tailoring and content category (all p-values > .189). SGM young adult smokers were highly engaged in an SGM-tailored smoking cessation intervention on Facebook and rated the intervention positively. Both tailored and non-tailored Facebook posts in a variety of content areas were generally well-received by SGM young adults, an underserved population with high rates of smoking.

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<![CDATA[Teens engaged in collaborative health: The feasibility and acceptability of an online skill-building intervention for adolescents at risk for depression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c01bc8bd5eed0c4841bf85b

Background

There is an ongoing need for effective and accessible preventive interventions for adolescent depression and substance abuse. This paper reports on a field trial of an online indicated preventive intervention, ProjectTECH, which is based on cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) techniques. The study aims to gather information about the feasibility and acceptability of this program. Secondary aims of this study were to examine the impact of the program on depression symptoms, perceived stress, positive affect, and substance use and to compare differences between groups that were led by a peer versus those that were led by a licensed clinician.

Methods

High school students (n = 39) were recruited primarily through social media advertisements, and assigned to four groups of 8–12 individuals to collaboratively participate in an 8 week peer network-based online preventive intervention which were led by a trained peer guide or a licensed clinician. Participants were provided with didactic lessons, CBT-based mood management tools, and peer networking features, and completed quantitative and qualitative feedback at baseline, midpoint, end of intervention, and 1 month follow-up.

Results

The program attracted and retained users primarily from social media and was used frequently by many of the participants (system login M = 25.62, SD = 16.58). Participants rated the program as usable, and offered several suggestions for improving the program, including allowing for further personalization by the individual user, and including more prompts to engage with the social network. From baseline to end of intervention, significant decreases were observed in depressive symptoms and perceived stress (p's < 0.05). Significant increases in positive affect were observed from baseline to midpoint (p < 0.05) and no changes were observed in substance use, although the rate of substance use was low in this sample. While this study had low power to detect group differences, no consistent differences were observed between participants in a peer-led group and those in a clinician-led group.

Conclusions

Results of this study indicate that ProjectTECH, an indicated preventive intervention for high school-aged adolescents, demonstrates both feasibility, acceptability, and short-term, longitudinal psychological benefits for participants. Future iterations of the program may benefit from close attention to user interface design and the continued use of trained peer support guides.

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<![CDATA[Assessment of interobserver concordance in polysomnography scoring of sleep bruxism☆]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5af75d56463d7e74cdbf2239

Introduction

Objective evaluation of sleep bruxism (SB) using whole-night polysomnography (PSG) is relevant for diagnostic confirmation. Nevertheless, the PSG electromyogram (EMG) scoring may give rise to controversy, particularly when audiovisual monitoring is not performed. Therefore, the present study assessed the concordance between two independent scorers to visual SB on a PSG performed without audiovisual monitoring.

Methods

Fifty-six PSG tests were scored from individuals with clinical history and polysomnography criteria of SB. In addition to the protocol of conventional whole-night PSG, electrodes were also placed bilaterally on the masseter and temporal muscles. Visual EMG scoring without audio video monitoring was scored by two independent scorers (Dentist 1 and Dentist 2) according the recommendations formulated in the AASM manual (2007). Kendall Tau correlation was used to assess interobserver concordance relative to variables “total duration of events (seconds), “shortest events”, “longest events” and index in each phasic, tonic or mixed event.

Results

The correlation was positive and significant relative to all the investigated variables, being T>0.54.

Conclusion

It was found a good inter-examiner concordance rate in SB scoring in absence of audio video monitoring.

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<![CDATA[Inflammation-induced anorexia and fever are elicited by distinct prostaglandin dependent mechanisms, whereas conditioned taste aversion is prostaglandin independent]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b373ae3463d7e66650bd339

Highlights

  • LPS-induced anorexia depends on COX-2, but not in brain endothelial, myeloid or neural cells.

  • LPS-induced anorexia and fever are elicited by prostaglandin synthesis in distinct cell groups.

  • Conditioned taste aversion induced by LPS is prostaglandin-independent.

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