ResearchPad - fungicides https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[A screening of the MMV Pathogen Box® reveals new potential antifungal drugs against the etiologic agents of chromoblastomycosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13863 Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis caused by traumatic implantation of many species of black fungi. Due to the refractoriness of some cases and common recurrence of CBM, a more effective and less time-consuming treatment is mandatory. The aim of this study was to identify compounds with in vitro antifungal activity in the Pathogen Box® compound collection against different CBM agents. Synergism of these compounds with drugs currently used to treat CBM was also assessed. An initial screening of the drugs present in this collection at 1 μM was performed with a Fonsecaea pedrosoi clinical strain according to the EUCAST protocol. The compounds with activity against this fungus were also tested against other seven etiologic agents of CBM (Cladophialophora carrionii, Phialophora verrucosa, Exophiala jeanselmei, Exophiala dermatitidis, Fonsecaea monophora, Fonsecaea nubica, and Rhinocladiella similis) at concentrations ranging from 0.039 to 10 μM. The analysis of potential synergism of these compounds with itraconazole and terbinafine was performed by the checkerboard method. Eight compounds inhibited more than 60% of the F. pedrosoi growth: difenoconazole, bitertanol, iodoquinol, azoxystrobin, MMV688179, MMV021013, trifloxystrobin, and auranofin. Iodoquinol produced the lowest MIC values (1.25–2.5 μM) and MMV688179 showed MICs that were higher than all compounds tested (5 - >10 μM). When auranofin and itraconazole were tested in combination, a synergistic interaction (FICI = 0.37) was observed against the C. carrionii isolate. Toxicity analysis revealed that MMV021013 showed high selectivity indices (SI ≥ 10) against the fungi tested. In summary, auranofin, iodoquinol, and MMV021013 were identified as promising compounds to be tested in CBM models of infection.

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<![CDATA[Pesticide distribution and depletion kinetic determination in honey and beeswax: Model for pesticide occurrence and distribution in beehive products]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe5bd5eed0c484e5b94e

Beehive products such as honey, beeswax and recently pollen have been regarded for many years as appropriate sentinels for environmental pesticide pollutions. However, despite yearly application of hundreds of approved pesticides in agricultural fields, only a minor fraction of these organic compounds were actually detected in honey and beeswax samples. This observation has led us to question the general suitability of beehive products as a sentinel for synthetic organic pesticides applied in the field. The aim of the present study was to experimentally determine the distribution (logarithmic ratio of beeswax to honey pesticide concentration, LogD) and depletion kinetics (half-life) of selected pesticides in honey and beeswax as a measure of the latter matrixes to serve as a pesticide sentinel. The obtained parameters were used to extrapolate to pesticide burden in honey and beeswax samples collected from German and Israeli apiaries. In addition, we aimed to establish a mathematical model, enabling us to predict distribution of selected pesticides between honey to beeswax, by utilizing simple substance descriptors, namely, octanol/water partitioning coefficient, molar weight and Henry coefficient. Based on the present results, it appears that pesticides with LogD values > 1 and half-life in beeswax > 1 day, were likely to accumulate and detected in beeswax samples, and less likely to be found in honey. On the other hand, pesticides with negative LogD values were highly likely to be found in honey and less so in beeswax samples. Finally, pesticides with LogD values between 0–1 were expected to be found in both matrixes. The developed model was successfully applied to predict LogD values, thereby identifying octanol/water partitioning and molar weight as the most prominent substance descriptors, which affect pesticide distribution between honey and beeswax.

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<![CDATA[Antifungal activity of well-defined chito-oligosaccharide preparations against medically relevant yeasts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e4fd7d5eed0c484d79991

Due to their antifungal activity, chitosan and its derivatives have potential to be used for treating yeast infections in humans. However, to be considered for use in human medicine, it is necessary to control and know the chemical composition of the compound, which is not always the case for polymeric chitosans. Here, we analyze the antifungal activity of a soluble and well-defined chito-oligosaccharide (CHOS) with an average polymerization degree (DPn) of 32 and fraction of acetylation (FA) of 0.15 (C32) on 52 medically relevant yeast strains. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) varied widely among yeast species, strains and isolates (from > 5000 to < 9.77 μg mL-1) and inhibition patterns showed a time- and dose-dependencies. The antifungal activity was predominantly fungicidal and was inversely proportional to the pH, being maximal at pH 4.5, the lowest tested pH. Furthermore, antifungal effects of CHOS fractions with varying average molecular weight indicated that those fractions with an intermediate degree of polymerization, i.e. DP 31 and 54, had the strongest inhibitory effects. Confocal imaging showed that C32 adsorbs to the cell surface, with subsequent cell disruption and accumulation of C32 in the cytoplasm. Thus, C32 has potential to be used as a therapy for fungal infections.

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<![CDATA[Effective chemical protection against the maize late wilt causal agent, Harpophora maydis, in the field]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c22a0bed5eed0c4849ebffa

Late wilt, a disease severely affecting maize fields throughout Israel, is characterized by relatively rapid wilting of maize plants before tasseling and until shortly before maturity. The disease’s causal agent is the fungus Harpophora maydis, a soil-borne and seed-borne pathogen, which is currently controlled using reduced sensitivity maize cultivars. In a former study, we showed that Azoxystrobin (AS) injected into a drip irrigation line assigned for each row can suppress H. maydis in the field and that AS seed coating can provide an additional layer of protection. In the present study, we examine a more cost-effective protective treatment using this fungicide with Difenoconazole mixture (AS+DC), or Fluazinam, or Fluopyram and Trifloxystrobin mixture, or Prothioconazole and Tebuconazole mixture in combined treatment of seed coating and a drip irrigation line for two coupling rows. A recently developed Real-Time PCR method revealed that protecting the plants using AS+DC seed coating alone managed to delay pathogen DNA spread in the maize tissues, in the early stages of the growth season (up to the age of 50 days from sowing), but was less effective in protecting the crops later. AS+DC seed coating combined with drip irrigation using AS+DC was the most successful treatment, and in the double-row cultivation, it reduced fungal DNA in the host tissues to near zero levels. This treatment minimized the development of wilt symptoms by 41% and recovered cob yield by a factor of 1.6 (to the level common in healthy fields). Moreover, the yield classified as A class (cob weight of more than 250 g) increased from 58% to 75% in this treatment. This successful treatment against H. maydis in Israel can now be applied in vast areas to protect sensitive maize cultivars against maize late wilt disease.

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<![CDATA[Leishmanicidal and fungicidal activity of lipases obtained from endophytic fungi extracts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b498fc7463d7e0897c6e027

This work describes the production of lipases from endophytic fungi: Vermisporium-like, Emericella nidulans, Dichotomophtora portulacae and D. boerhaaviae and the biological activity against the dermatophyte fungi Malassezia sp and Microsporum canis and the parasite Leishmania amazonensis. All fungal enzymes extract showed lipolysis action in the media that contains long carbon chain lipids. The proteomic analysis of lipases exhibits several molecules mostly ranging in size from 220 to 20 kDa, with clear differences in protein profile’s yield. All fungal enzymes were competent to eliminate promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis at 5 mg.mL-1. The antileishmanial activity of lipases from Vermisporium-like, E. nidulans, D. portulacae and D. boerhaaviae in amastigote forms, promoted the reduction in viability of 78.88, 39.65, 63.17 and 98.13%, with selectivity index of 19.56, 30.68, 18.09 and 20.99. In relation to antifungal activity, Dichothomophtora enzymes demonstrate best action with MFC of 14.65 μg.mL-1 against Malassezia sp and Microsporum canis, respectively. These results allow us to infer that lipases from entophytic fungi displays activity against dermatophyte fungi (Malassezia sp. and Microsporum canis) as well as Leishmania.

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<![CDATA[The Evolution of Fungicide Resistance Resulting from Combinations of Foliar-Acting Systemic Seed Treatments and Foliar-Applied Fungicides: A Modeling Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db1bab0ee8fa60bce17c

For the treatment of foliar diseases of cereals, fungicides may be applied as foliar sprays or systemic seed treatments which are translocated to leaves. Little research has been done to assess the resistance risks associated with foliar-acting systemic seed treatments when used alone or in combination with foliar sprays, even though both types of treatment may share the same mode of action. It is therefore unknown to what extent adding a systemic seed treatment to a foliar spray programme poses an additional resistance risk and whether in the presence of a seed treatment additional resistance management strategies (such as limiting the total number of treatments) are necessary to limit the evolution of fungicide-resistance. A mathematical model was developed to simulate an epidemic and the resistance evolution of Zymoseptoria tritici on winter wheat, which was used to compare different combinations of seed and foliar treatments by calculating the fungicide effective life, i.e. the number of years before effective disease control is lost to resistance. A range of parameterizations for the seed treatment fungicide and different fungicide uptake models were compared. Despite the different parameterizations, the model consistently predicted the same trends in that i) similar levels of efficacy delivered either by a foliar-acting seed treatment, or a foliar application, resulted in broadly similar resistance selection, ii) adding a foliar-acting seed treatment to a foliar spray programme increased resistance selection and usually decreased effective life, and iii) splitting a given total dose—by adding a seed treatment to foliar treatments, but decreasing dose per treatment—gave effective lives that were the same as, or shorter than those given by the spray programme alone. For our chosen plant-pathogen-fungicide system, the model results suggest that to effectively manage selection for fungicide-resistance, foliar acting systemic seed treatments should be included as one of the maximum number of permitted fungicide applications.

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<![CDATA[High-Resolution Genetics Identifies the Lipid Transfer Protein Sec14p as Target for Antifungal Ergolines]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da52ab0ee8fa60b8e201

Invasive infections by fungal pathogens cause more deaths than malaria worldwide. We found the ergoline compound NGx04 in an antifungal screen, with selectivity over mammalian cells. High-resolution chemogenomics identified the lipid transfer protein Sec14p as the target of NGx04 and compound-resistant mutations in Sec14p define compound-target interactions in the substrate binding pocket of the protein. Beyond its essential lipid transfer function in a variety of pathogenic fungi, Sec14p is also involved in secretion of virulence determinants essential for the pathogenicity of fungi such as Cryptococcus neoformans, making Sec14p an attractive antifungal target. Consistent with this dual function, we demonstrate that NGx04 inhibits the growth of two clinical isolates of C. neoformans and that NGx04-related compounds have equal and even higher potency against C. neoformans. Furthermore NGx04 analogues showed fungicidal activity against a fluconazole resistant C. neoformans strain. In summary, we present genetic evidence that NGx04 inhibits fungal Sec14p and initial data supporting NGx04 as a novel antifungal starting point.

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<![CDATA[Economic and Environmental Impact of Rice Blast Pathogen (Magnaporthe oryzae) Alleviation in the United States]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf8ab0ee8fa60bc3c68

Rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) is a key concern in combating global food insecurity given the disease is responsible for approximately 30% of rice production losses globally—the equivalent of feeding 60 million people. These losses increase the global rice price and reduce consumer welfare and food security. Rice is the staple crop for more than half the world’s population so any reduction in rice blast would have substantial beneficial effects on consumer livelihoods. In 2012, researchers in the US began analyzing the feasibility of creating blast-resistant rice through cisgenic breeding. Correspondingly, our study evaluates the changes in producer, consumer, and environmental welfare, if all the rice produced in the Mid-South of the US were blast resistant through a process like cisgenics, using both international trade and environmental assessment modeling. Our results show that US rice producers would gain 69.34 million dollars annually and increase the rice supply to feed an additional one million consumers globally by eliminating blast from production in the Mid-South. These results suggest that blast alleviation could be even more significant in increasing global food security given that the US is a small rice producer by global standards and likely experiences lower losses from blast than other rice-producing countries because of its ongoing investment in production technology and management. Furthermore, results from our detailed life cycle assessment (LCA) show that producing blast-resistant rice has lower environmental (fossil fuel depletion, ecotoxicity, carcinogenics, eutrophication, acidification, global warming potential, and ozone depletion) impacts per unit of rice than non-blast resistant rice production. Our findings suggest that any reduction in blast via breeding will have significantly positive impacts on reducing global food insecurity through increased supply, as well as decreased price and environmental impacts in production.

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<![CDATA[A Statistical Evaluation of Methods of In-Vitro Growth Assessment for Phyllosticta citricarpa: Average Colony Diameter vs. Area]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdb890

Fungal growth inhibition on solid media has been historically measured and calculated based on the average of perpendicular diameter measurements of growth on fungicide amended media. We investigated the sensitivity of the calculated area (DA) and the measured area (MA) for assessing fungicide growth inhibition of the ascomycete, Phyllosticta citricarpa on solid media. Both the calculated, DA and the actual measured area, MA were adequate for distinguishing significant treatment effects of fungicide on fungal growth, however MA was more sensitive at identifying significant differences between the controls and fungicide concentrations below 5 ppm.

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<![CDATA[Genetic diversity, QoI fungicide resistance, and mating type distribution of Cercospora sojina—Implications for the disease dynamics of frogeye leaf spot on soybean]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf642

Frogeye leaf spot (FLS), caused by Cercospora sojina, causes significant damage to soybean in the U.S. One control strategy is the use of quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides. QoI resistant isolates were first reported in Tennessee (TN) in 2010. To investigate the disease dynamics of C. sojina, we collected 437 C. sojina isolates in 2015 from Jackson and Milan, TN and used 40 historical isolates collected from 2006–2009 from TN and ten additional states for comparison. A subset of 186 isolates, including historical isolates, were genotyped for 49 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and the QoI resistance locus, revealing 35 unique genotypes. The genotypes clustered into three groups with two groups containing only sensitive isolates and the remaining group containing all resistant isolates and a dominant clonal lineage of 130 isolates. All 477 C. sojina isolates were genotyped for the QoI locus revealing 344 resistant and 133 sensitive isolates. All isolates collected prior to 2015 were QoI sensitive. Both mating type alleles (MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2) were found in Jackson and Milan, TN and recovered from single lesions suggesting sexual recombination may play a role in the epidemiology of field populations. Analysis of C. sojina isolates using SNP markers proved useful to investigate population diversity and to elaborate on diversity as it relates to QoI resistance and mating type.

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<![CDATA[Environmental contaminants of honeybee products in Uganda detected using LC-MS/MS and GC-ECD]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be0193

Pollinator services and the development of beekeeping as a poverty alleviating tool have gained considerable focus in recent years in sub-Saharan Africa. An improved understanding of the pervasive environmental extent of agro-chemical contaminants is critical to the success of beekeeping development and the production of clean hive products. This study developed and validated a multi-residue method for screening 36 pesticides in honeybees, honey and beeswax using LC-MS/MS and GC-ECD. Of the 36 screened pesticides, 20 were detected. The highest frequencies occurred in beeswax and in samples from apiaries located in the proximity of citrus and tobacco farms. Fungicides were the most prevalent chemical class. Detected insecticides included neonicotinoids, organophosphates, carbamates, organophosphorus, tetrazines and diacylhydrazines. All detected pesticide levels were below maximum residue limits (according to EU regulations) and the lethal doses known for honeybees. However, future risk assessment is needed to determine the health effects on the African genotype of honeybees by these pesticide classes and combinations of these. In conclusion, our data present a significant challenge to the burgeoning organic honey sector in Uganda, but to achieve this, there is an urgent need to regulate the contact routes of pesticides into the beehive products. Interestingly, the “zero” detection rate of pesticides in the Mid-Northern zone is a significant indicator of the large potential to promote Ugandan organic honey for the export market.

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<![CDATA[How the Pathogenic Fungus Alternaria alternata Copes with Stress via the Response Regulators SSK1 and SHO1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d8ab0ee8fa60b66a77

The tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen causing brown spot disease on a number of citrus cultivars. To better understand the dynamics of signal regulation leading to oxidative and osmotic stress response and fungal infection on citrus, phenotypic characterization of the yeast SSK1 response regulator homolog was performed. It was determined that SSK1 responds to diverse environmental stimuli and plays a critical role in fungal pathogenesis. Experiments to determine the phenotypes resulting from the loss of SSK1 reveal that the SSK1 gene product may be fulfilling similar regulatory roles in signaling pathways involving a HOG1 MAP kinase during ROS resistance, osmotic resistance, fungicide sensitivity and fungal virulence. The SSK1 mutants display elevated sensitivity to oxidants, fail to detoxify H2O2 effectively, induce minor necrosis on susceptible citrus leaves, and displays resistance to dicarboximide and phenylpyrrole fungicides. Unlike the SKN7 response regulator, SSK1 and HOG1 confer resistance to salt-induced osmotic stress via an unknown kinase sensor rather than the “two component” histidine kinase HSK1. SSK1 and HOG1 play a moderate role in sugar-induced osmotic stress. We also show that SSK1 mutants are impaired in their ability to produce germ tubes from conidia, indicating a role for the gene product in cell differentiation. SSK1 also is involved in multi-drug resistance. However, deletion of the yeast SHO1 (synthetic high osmolarity) homolog resulted in no noticeable phenotypes. Nonetheless, our results show that A. alternata can sense and react to different types of stress via SSK1, HOG1 and SKN7 in a cooperative manner leading to proper physiological and pathological functions.

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<![CDATA[Prediction of Hexaconazole Concentration in the Top Most Layer of Oil Palm Plantation Soil Using Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0aab0ee8fa60bc9ef4

Ganoderma boninense is a fungus that can affect oil palm trees and cause a serious disease called the basal stem root (BSR). This disease causes the death of more than 80% of oil palm trees midway through their economic life and hexaconazole is one of the particular fungicides that can control this fungus. Hexaconazole can be applied by the soil drenching method and it will be of interest to know the concentration of the residue in the soil after treatment with respect to time. Hence, a field study was conducted in order to determine the actual concentration of hexaconazole in soil. In the present paper, a new approach that can be used to predict the concentration of pesticides in the soil is proposed. The statistical analysis revealed that the Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) techniques would be appropriate in this study. The EDA techniques were used to fit a robust resistant model and predict the concentration of the residue in the topmost layer of the soil.

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<![CDATA[Asexual Recombinants of Plasmopara halstedii Pathotypes from Dual Infection of Sunflower]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadbab0ee8fa60bb9ef8

Genetically homogenous strains of Plasmopara halstedii differing in host specificity and fungicide tolerance were used to test the hypothesis that asexual genetic recombination occurs and may account for the high genotype diversity of this homothallic reproducing oomycete, which causes downy mildew in sunflower. Dual inoculation of sunflower seedlings with single zoospore strains of complementary infection characteristics caused sporulation under conditions where inoculation with each strain alone failed to infect. PCR-based investigation with strain-specific primers proved the presence of genetic traits from both progenitors in single sporangia collected from sporangiophores of such infections. Sister zoospores released from these sporangia revealed the genotype of the one or the other parental strain thus indicating heterokaryology of sporangia. Moreover, some zoospores showed amplification products of both parents, which suggests that the generally mononucleic spores derived from genetic recombination. The possibility of parasexual genetic exchange in the host-independent stage of infection and the evolutionary consequences are discussed.

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<![CDATA[Pterostilbene Is a Potential Candidate for Control of Blackleg in Canola]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db3cab0ee8fa60bd54d1

Two stilbenes, resveratrol and pterostilbene, exhibit antifungal activity against Leptosphaeria maculans, the fungal pathogen responsible for blackleg (stem canker) in canola (Brassica napus). In vitro studies on the effect of these stilbenes on L. maculans mycelial growth and conidia germination showed that pterostilbene is a potent fungicide and sporicide, but resveratrol only exerted minor inhibition on L. maculans. Cell viability of hyphae cultures was markedly reduced by pterostilbene and SYTOX green staining showed that cell membrane integrity was compromised. We demonstrate that pterostilbene exerts fungicidal activity across 10 different L. maculans isolates and the compound confers protection to the blackleg-susceptible canola cv. Westar seedlings. The potential of pterostilbene as a control agent against blackleg in canola is discussed.

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<![CDATA[A Quantitative Dynamic Simulation of Bremia lactucae Airborne Conidia Concentration above a Lettuce Canopy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daafab0ee8fa60baa9fa

Lettuce downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Bremia lactucae Regel, is a major threat to lettuce production worldwide. Lettuce downy mildew is a polycyclic disease driven by airborne spores. A weather-based dynamic simulation model for B. lactucae airborne spores was developed to simulate the aerobiological characteristics of the pathogen. The model was built using the STELLA platform by following the system dynamics methodology. The model was developed using published equations describing disease subprocesses (e.g., sporulation) and assembled knowledge of the interactions among pathogen, host, and weather. The model was evaluated with four years of independent data by comparing model simulations with observations of hourly and daily airborne spore concentrations. The results show an accurate simulation of the trend and shape of B. lactucae temporal dynamics of airborne spore concentration. The model simulated hourly and daily peaks in airborne spore concentrations. More than 95% of the simulation runs, the daily-simulated airborne conidia concentration was 0 when airborne conidia were not observed. Also, the relationship between the simulated and the observed airborne spores was linear. In more than 94% of the simulation runs, the proportion of the linear variation in the hourly-observed values explained by the variation in the hourly-simulated values was greater than 0.7 in all years except one. Most of the errors came from the deviation from the 1:1 line, and the proportion of errors due to the model bias was low. This model is the only dynamic model developed to mimic the dynamics of airborne inoculum and represents an initial step towards improved lettuce downy mildew understanding, forecasting and management.

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<![CDATA[Effects of Atrazine, Metolachlor, Carbaryl and Chlorothalonil on Benthic Microbes and Their Nutrient Dynamics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0aab0ee8fa60bc9b36

Atrazine, metolachlor, carbaryl, and chlorothalonil are detected in streams throughout the U.S. at concentrations that may have adverse effects on benthic microbes. Sediment samples were exposed to these pesticides to quantify responses of ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate uptake by the benthic microbial community. Control uptake rates of sediments had net remineralization of nitrate (−1.58 NO3 µg gdm−1 h−1), and net assimilation of phosphate (1.34 PO4 µg gdm−1 h−1) and ammonium (0.03 NH4 µg gdm−1 h−1). Metolachlor decreased ammonium and phosphate uptake. Chlorothalonil decreased nitrate remineralization and phosphate uptake. Nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate uptake rates are more pronounced in the presence of these pesticides due to microbial adaptations to toxicants. Our interpretation of pesticide availability based on their water/solid affinities supports no effects for atrazine and carbaryl, decreasing nitrate remineralization, and phosphate assimilation in response to chlorothalonil. Further, decreased ammonium and phosphate uptake in response to metolachlor is likely due to affinity. Because atrazine target autotrophs, and carbaryl synaptic activity, effects on benthic microbes were not hypothesized, consistent with results. Metolachlor and chlorothalonil (non-specific modes of action) had significant effects on sediment microbial nutrient dynamics. Thus, pesticides with a higher affinity to sediments and/or broad modes of action are likely to affect sediment microbes' nutrient dynamics than pesticides dissolved in water or specific modes of action. Predicted nutrient uptake rates were calculated at mean and peak concentrations of metolachlor and chlorothalonil in freshwaters using polynomial equations generated in this experiment. We concluded that in natural ecosystems, peak chlorothalonil and metolachlor concentrations could affect phosphate and ammonium by decreasing net assimilation, and nitrate uptake rates by decreasing remineralization, relative to mean concentrations of metolachlor and chlorothalonil. Our regression equations can complement models of nitrogen and phosphorus availability in streams to predict potential changes in nutrient dynamics in response to pesticides in freshwaters.

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<![CDATA[Combating the Sigatoka Disease Complex on Banana]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafaab0ee8fa60bc4338 ]]> <![CDATA[A Major Facilitator Superfamily Transporter-Mediated Resistance to Oxidative Stress and Fungicides Requires Yap1, Skn7, and MAP Kinases in the Citrus Fungal Pathogen Alternaria alternata]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d3ab0ee8fa60b64d94

Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) transporters play an important role in multidrug resistance in fungi. We report an AaMFS19 gene encoding a MFS transporter required for cellular resistance to oxidative stress and fungicides in the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata. AaMFS19, containing 12 transmembrane domains, displays activity toward a broad range of substrates. Fungal mutants lacking AaMFS19 display profound hypersensitivities to cumyl hydroperoxide, potassium superoxide, many singlet oxygen-generating compounds (eosin Y, rose Bengal, hematoporphyrin, methylene blue, and cercosporin), and the cell wall biosynthesis inhibitor, Congo red. AaMFS19 mutants also increase sensitivity to copper ions, clotrimazole, fludioxonil, and kocide fungicides, 2-chloro-5-hydroxypyridine (CHP), and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA). AaMFS19 mutants induce smaller necrotic lesions on leaves of a susceptible citrus cultivar. All observed phenotypes in the mutant are restored by introducing and expressing a wild-type copy of AaMFS19. The wild-type strain of A. alternata treated with either CHP or TIBA reduces radial growth and formation and germination of conidia, increases hyphal branching, and results in decreased expression of the AaMFS19 gene. The expression of AaMFS19 is regulated by the Yap1 transcription activator, the Hog1 and Fus3 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, the ‘two component’ histidine kinase, and the Skn7 response regulator. Our results demonstrate that A. alternata confers resistance to different chemicals via a membrane-bound MFS transporter.

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<![CDATA[Metagenomic Analysis of Fungal Diversity on Strawberry Plants and the Effect of Management Practices on the Fungal Community Structure of Aerial Organs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac8ab0ee8fa60bb3087

An amplicon metagenomic approach based on the ITS2 region of fungal rDNA was used to identify the composition of fungal communities associated with different strawberry organs (leaves, flowers, immature and mature fruits), grown on a farm using management practices that entailed the routine use of various chemical pesticides. ITS2 sequences clustered into 316 OTUs and Ascomycota was the dominant phyla (95.6%) followed by Basidiomycota (3.9%). Strawberry plants supported a high diversity of microbial organisms, but two genera, Botrytis and Cladosporium, were the most abundant, representing 70–99% of the relative abundance (RA) of all detected sequences. According to alpha and beta diversity analyses, strawberry organs displayed significantly different fungal communities with leaves having the most diverse fungal community, followed by flowers, and fruit. The interruption of chemical treatments for one month resulted in a significant modification in the structure of the fungal community of leaves and flowers while immature and mature fruit were not significantly affected. Several plant pathogens of other plant species, that would not be intuitively expected to be present on strawberry plants such as Erysiphe, were detected, while some common strawberry pathogens, such as Rhizoctonia, were less evident or absent.

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