ResearchPad - games https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Punishing the privileged: Selfish offers from high-status allocators elicit greater punishment from third-party arbitrators]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14606 Individuals high in socioeconomic status (SES) are often viewed as valuable members of society. However, the appeal of high-SES people exists in tension with our aversion to inequity. Little experimental work has directly examined how people rectify inequitable distributions between two individuals varying in SES. The objective of the present study was to examine how disinterested third parties adjudicate inequity in the context of concrete financial allocations between a selfish allocator and a recipient who was the victim of the allocator’s selfish offer. Specifically, this study focused on whether knowing the SES of the victim or the allocator affected the participant’s decisions to punish the selfish allocator. In two experiments (N = 999), participants completed a modified third-party Ultimatum Game in which they arbitrated inequitable exchanges between an allocator and a recipient. Although participants generally preferred to redistribute inequitable exchanges without punishing players who made unfair allocations, we observed an increased preference for punitive solutions as offers became increasingly selfish. This tendency was especially pronounced when the victim was low in SES or when the perpetrator was high in SES, suggesting a tendency to favor the disadvantaged even among participants reporting high subjective SES. Finally, punitive responses were especially likely when the context emphasized the allocator’s privileged status rather than the recipient’s underprivileged status. These findings inform our understanding of how SES biases retributive justice even in non-judicial contexts that minimize the salience of punishment.

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<![CDATA[‘In search of lost time’: Identifying the causative role of cumulative competition load and competition time-loss in professional tennis using a structural nested mean model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4f3da08e-598e-44d5-a4f3-a2c64fcebd1f

Injury prevention is critical to the achievement of peak performance in elite sport. For professional tennis players, the topic of injury prevention has gained even greater importance in recent years as multiple of the best male players have been sidelined owing to injury. Identifying potential causative factors of injury is essential for the development of effective prevention strategies, yet such research is hampered by incomplete data, the complexity of injury etiology, and observational study biases. The present study attempts to address these challenges by focusing on competition load and time-loss to competition—a completely observable risk factor and outcome—and using a structural nested mean model (SNMM) to identify the potential causal role of cumulative competition load on the risk of time-loss. Using inverse probability of treatment weights to balance exposure histories with respect to player ability, past injury, and consecutive competition weeks at each time point; the SNMM analysis of 389 professional male players and 55,773 weeks of competition found that total load significantly increases the risk of time-loss (HR = 1.05 per 1,000 games of additional load 95% CI 1.01-1.10) and this effect becomes magnified with age. Standard regression showed a protective effect of load, highlighting the value of more robust causal methods in the study of dynamic exposures and injury in sport and the need for further applications of these methods for understanding how time-loss and injuries of elite athletes might be prevented in the future.

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<![CDATA[Children’s descriptions of playing and learning as related processes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb68d6bfc-75c6-4e1a-9b4b-3dced51d37df

Many studies have examined children’s understanding of playing and learning as separate concepts, but the ways that children relate playing and learning to one another remain relatively unexplored. The current study asked 5- to 8-year-olds (N = 92) to define playing and learning, and examined whether children defined them as abstract processes or merely as labels for particular types of activities. We also asked children to state whether playing and learning can occur simultaneously, and examined whether they could give examples of playing and learning with attributes either congruent or incongruent with those activities. Older children were more likely to define both playing and learning in terms of abstract processes, rather than by describing particular topics or activities. Children who defined both playing and learning in this way were able to generate more examples of situations where they were simultaneously playing and learning, and were better able to generate examples of learning with characteristics of play, and examples of playing with characteristics of learning. These data suggest that children develop an understanding that learning and playing can coincide. These results are critical to researchers and educators who seek to integrate play and learning, as children’s beliefs about these concepts can influence how they reflect on playful learning opportunities.

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<![CDATA[The role of moral reasoning & personality in explaining lyrical preferences]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N58765145-20be-4ad7-966a-c2141b60fcef

Previous research has supported that personality traits can act to a precursor to media preferences. Due to the ongoing association between morality and media preferences in public and political discourse (e.g., blaming immoral behaviours on media preferences), this research sought to expand the knowledge about factors that contribute to media preferences by investigating if moral reasoning styles explain some of the variance that was not already explained by personality traits. A specific form of media preferences were chosen – lyrical preferences in metal music – as claims between metal lyrical themes and behaviour have been ongoing since the 1980s, despite a lack of empirical evidence to support these claims. A lyrical preferences scale was developed, and utilizing this scale, it was found that different types of metal fans exhibit different moral reasoning styles dependent on their metal sub-genre identification. Further, it was found that moral reasoning styles explain a portion of the variance in lyrical preferences that weren’t already explained by personality traits. In particular, lyrical preferences were often thematically consistent with moral reasoning content and personality traits, such as that individuals that preferred lyrics about celebrating metal culture and unity had higher levels of the group loyalty moral reasoning domain alongside being higher in extraversion. The implications of moral reasoning styles and personality traits as being precursors to media preferences are discussed.

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<![CDATA[Faithfulness-boost effect: Loyal teammate selection correlates with skill acquisition improvement in online games]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823a7d5eed0c484638d67

The problem of skill acquisition is ubiquitous and fundamental to life. Most tasks in modern society involve the cooperation with other subjects. Notwithstanding its fundamental importance, teammate selection is commonly overlooked when studying learning. We exploit the virtually infinite repository of human behavior available in Internet to study a relevant topic in anthropological science: how grouping strategies may affect learning. We analyze the impact of team play strategies in skill acquisition using a turn-based game where players can participate individually or in teams. We unveil a subtle but strong effect in skill acquisition based on the way teams are formed and maintained during time. “Faithfulness-boost effect” provides a skill boost during the first games that would only be acquired after thousands of games. The tendency to play games in teams is associated with a long-run skill improvement while playing loyally with the same teammate significantly accelerates short-run skill acquisition.

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<![CDATA[Match-play movement and metabolic power demands of elite youth, sub-elite and elite senior Australian footballers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c818e8dd5eed0c484cc250f

Aims

Currently minimal research has quantified physical requirement differences in match-play between youth and senior Australian football players. The aim of the current research was to describe and compare the movement profiles and energy cost of youth, sub-elite and elite senior Australian football match-play.

Methods

Fifty-seven Australian footballers playing in an elite senior 20, sub-elite senior 16 and elite youth competition 21 participated in this study. Distance, speed based indices and metabolic power measures recording via Global Positioning System (GPS) devices were compared across three competition tiers. Kicks and handballs were collected via a commercial statistics provider (Champion Data) and compared across the competition tiers.

Results

Youth players recorded less field time (elite: ES = 1.37/sub-elite: ES = 1.68), total distance (elite: ES = 1.64 /sub-elite: ES = 1.55) and high speed running (elite: ES = 0.90/sub-elite: ES = 0.26) compared to the elite and sub-elite players. The average energy cost of elite (ES = 2.19) and sub-elite (ES = 1.58) match-play was significantly higher that youth match-play.

Conclusions

A progressive increase regarding physical demands was evident across AF competition tiers. The findings suggest that sub-elite match-play can provide a viable pathway for youth players to develop physical capacity and technical skills before transitioning to elite senior match-play.

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<![CDATA[Effects of playing position, pitch location, opposition ability and team ability on the technical performance of elite soccer players in different score line states]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633972d5eed0c484ae67a3

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of playing position, pitch location, team ability and opposition ability on technical performance variables (pass, cross, corner, free kick accuracy) of English Premier League Soccer players in difference score line states. A validated automatic tracking system (Venatrack) was used to code player actions in real time for passing accuracy, cross accuracy, corner accuracy and free kick accuracy. In total 376 of the 380 games played during the 2011–12 English premier League season were recorded, resulting in activity profiles of 570 players and over 35’000 rows of data. These data were analysed using multi-level modelling. Multi-level regression revealed a “u” shaped association between passing accuracy and goal difference (GD) with greater accuracy occurring at extremes of GD e.g., when the score was either positive or negative. The same pattern was seen for corner accuracy away from home e.g., corner accuracy was lowest when the score was close with the lowest accuracy at extremes of GD. Although free kicks were not associated with GD, team ability, playing position and pitch location were found to predict accuracy. No temporal variables were found to predict cross accuracy. A number of score line effects were present across the temporal factors which should be considered by coaches and managers when preparing and selecting teams in order to maximise performance. The current study highlighted the need for more sensitive score line definitions in which to consider score line effects.

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<![CDATA[A tactical comparison of the 4-2-3-1 and 3-5-2 formation in soccer: A theory-oriented, experimental approach based on positional data in an 11 vs. 11 game set-up]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52cdd5eed0c4842bd050

The presented field experiment in an 11 vs. 11 soccer game set-up is the first to examine the impact of different formations (e.g. 4-2-3-1 vs. 3-5-2) on tactical key performance indicators (KPIs) using positional data in a controlled experiment. The data were gathered using player tracking systems (1 Hz) in a standardized 11 vs. 11 soccer game. The KPIs were measured using dynamical positioning variables like Effective Playing Space, Player Length per Width ratio, Team Separateness, Space Control Gain, and Pressure Passing Efficiency. Within the experimental positional data analysis paradigm, neither of the team formations showed differences in Effective Playing Space, Team Separateness, or Space Control Gain. However, as a theory-based approach predicted, a 3-5-2 formation for the Player Length per Width ratio and Pressure Passing Efficiency exceeded the 4-2-3-1 formation. Practice task designs which manipulate team formations therefore significantly influence the emergent behavioral dynamics and need to be considered when planning and monitoring performance. Accordingly, an experimental positional data analysis paradigm is a useful approach to enable the development and validation of theory-oriented models in the area of performance analysis in sports games.

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<![CDATA[Predictors of gambling and problem gambling in Victoria, Australia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c52188ad5eed0c484798d75

In 2016, the gambling habits of a sample of 3361 adults in the state of Victoria, Australia, were surveyed. It was found that a number of factors that were highly correlated with self-reported gambling frequency and gambling problems were not significant predictors of gambling frequency and problem gambling. The major predictors of gambling frequency were the degree to which family members and peers were perceived to gamble, self-reported approval of gambling, the frequency of discussing gambling offline, and the participant’s Canadian Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) score. Age was a significant predictor of gambling frequency for certain types of gambling (e.g. buying lottery tickets). Approximately 91% of the explainable variance in the participant’s PGSI score could be explained by just five predictors: Positive Urgency; Frequency of playing poker machines at pubs, hotels or sporting clubs; Participation in online discussions of betting on gaming tables at casinos; Frequency of gambling on the internet, and Overestimating the chances of winning. Based on these findings, suggestions are made as to how gambling-related harm can be reduced.

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<![CDATA[Compensate a little, but punish a lot: Asymmetric routes to restoring justice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f811d5eed0c484386f86

Most people have a desire to live in a just world, a place where good things happen to good people and bad things happen to bad people. And yet, injustices do occur: good things happen to bad people and bad things happen to good people. Across four experiments, we show that people respond quite differently to correct these two types of injustices. When bad things happen to good people, individuals are eager to compensate a good person’s losses, but only do so to a small degree. In contrast, when a good thing happens to a bad person, because the only perceived appropriate act of punishment is to fully strip the bad actor of all his or her illegitimate gains, few people choose to punish in this costly way. However, when they do, they do so to very large degrees. Moreover, we demonstrate that differential psychological mechanisms drive this asymmetry.

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<![CDATA[An evolutionary game perspective on quantised consensus in opinion dynamics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c390ba9d5eed0c48491dbf3

Quantised consensus has been used in the context of opinion dynamics. In this context agents interact with their neighbours and they change their opinion according to their interests and the opinions of their neighbours. We consider various quantised consensus models, where agents have different levels of susceptibility to the inputs received from their neighbours. The provided models share similarities with collective decision making models inspired by honeybees and evolutionary games. As first contribution, we develop an evolutionary game-theoretic model that accommodates the different consensus dynamics in a unified framework. As second contribution, we study equilibrium points and extend such study to the symmetric case where the transition probabilities of the evolutionary game dynamics are symmetric. Symmetry is associated with the case of equally favourable options. As third contribution, we study stability of the equilibrium points for the different cases. We corroborate the theoretical results with some simulations to study the outcomes of the various models.

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<![CDATA[The subjective metric of remembered colors: A Fisher-information analysis of the geometry of human chromatic memory]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3667c6d5eed0c4841a63c1

In order to explore the metric structure of the space of remembered colors, a computer game was designed, where players with normal color vision had to store a color in memory, and later retrieve it by selecting the best match out of a continuum of alternatives. All tested subjects exhibited evidence of focal colors in their mnemonic strategy. We found no concluding evidence that the focal colors of different players tended to cluster around universal prototypes. Based on the Fisher metric, for each subject we defined a notion of distance in color space that captured the accuracy with which similar colors where discriminated or confounded when stored and retrieved from memory. The notions of distance obtained for different players were remarkably similar. Finally, for each player, we constructed a new color scale, in which colors are memorized and retrieved with uniform accuracy.

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<![CDATA[A short certificateless aggregate signature against coalition attacks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1ab868d5eed0c484027ebe

Certificateless aggregate signature (CLAS) is a crucial cryptosystem. It can not only compress multiple signatures into a short signature, but also ensure the validity of each signature participating in the aggregation by verifying the validity of an resulting aggregate signature. Therefore, a secure and efficient CLAS scheme is very useful for resource-constrained environments because it greatly reduces the overall length of the signature and the verifier’s computational overhead. Cheng et al. presented an efficient CLAS scheme and proved its security in the random oracle model. However, we find that their scheme has security flaws. In this paper, we demonstrate that Cheng et al.’s CLAS scheme is vulnerable to coalition attacks from internal signers. To overcome these attacks, we present an improved CLAS scheme and prove that it is existentially unforgeable under the computational Diffie-Hellman assumption. In addition, our CLAS scheme can not only resist coalition attacks but also generate a very short aggregate signature. The performance analysis results show that our improved CLAS scheme is lower than the related CLAS schemes in terms of communication overhead and computation cost.

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<![CDATA[Automatically recognizing strategic cooperative behaviors in various situations of a team sport]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c22a0bfd5eed0c4849ec088

Understanding multi-agent cooperative behavior is challenging in various scientific and engineering domains. In some cases, such as team sports, many cooperative behaviors can be visually categorized and labeled manually by experts. However, these actions which are manually categorized with the same label based on its function have low spatiotemporal similarity. In other words, it is difficult to find similar and different structures of the motions with the same and different labels, respectively. Here, we propose an automatic recognition system for strategic cooperative plays, which are the minimal, basic, and diverse plays in a ball game. Using player’s moving distance, geometric information, and distances among players, the proposed method accurately discriminated not only the cooperative plays in a primary area, i.e., near the ball, but also those distant from a primary area. We also propose a method to classify more detailed types of cooperative plays in various situations. The proposed framework, which sheds light on inconspicuous players to play important roles, could have a potential to detect well-defined and labeled cooperative behaviors.

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<![CDATA[Energy demand in an active videogame session and the potential to promote hypotension after exercise in hypertensive women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0aafd5eed0c4844268b9

The aim of this study was to determine the energy demand of one session of active video game (AVG) and its potential to reduce blood pressure (BP). Fourteen hypertensive (56.4±7.5 years) individuals performed sessions of AVG, a traditional sedentary video game sessions (SVG) and walking (WAL), as negative and positive controls, in a randomly determined order. Oxygen consumption and energy expenditure (EE) were measured during sessions. BP and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM) were measured at rest and every 15 minutes of a 60-minute period of recovery from activities. A rating of enjoyment scale was also applied. AVG and WAL resulted in higher oxygen consumption (10.0±0.5 ml/kg/min and 16.6±3.1 ml/kg/min, respectively) and EE (3.5±0.2 kcal/min and 4.2±0.5 kcal/min) compared to 4.1±0.8 ml/kg/min and 1.4±0.1 kcal/min in SVG. A reduction in systolic and diastolic BP was evident following AVG sessions (-11.6±2.5 mmHg and -8.7±2.5 mmHg) and WAL (-10.8±2.8 mmHg and -8.6±2.3 mmHg) compared to pre-experiment value, and the same did not occur in SVG. All sessions promoted a feeling of enjoyment, with no difference between them. The parasympathetic activity was significantly lower at 30 and 45 minutes in post-WAL recovery (34.6±15.0 ms2 and 34.4±16.0 ms2) in the frequency domain (HF) in relation to both AVG (195.5±67.0 ms2 and 164.5±55.0 ms2) and the SVG (158.9±45.0 and 281.3±98.0 ms2). It is concluded that an AVG session promotes increased metabolic activity and is able to promote acute reduction of BP in hypertensive individuals similar to traditional walking exercise.

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<![CDATA[Changes over time in Lithuanian schoolchildren’s attitudes toward addictive behaviors: Promoting and preventing factors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c117b39d5eed0c48469853d

Background

Concern is growing about the high prevalence of traditional and new forms of addictive behaviors among young people due to the health risks and a better understanding of the factors causing these behaviors is needed.

Aim

To evaluate tendencies in the attitudes of Lithuanian schoolchildren toward addictive behaviors over a three year period and to ascertain the promoting and preventing factors of such behaviors.

Methods

The researchers developed a survey which was conducted twice over a three year period. The sample consisted of pupils in the 5th, 9th and 12th grades (N = 1590, age range 11–19 years) from both urban and rural areas.

Results

Both the recognition of and involvement in addictive behaviors significantly increased with age. Motivation to abstain due to internal factors decreased with age and increased among pupils already involved in addictive behaviors. Time- and age-related differences were found regarding substance abuse and behavioral addictions. Whilst betting adverts were increasingly noticed over time, smoking adverts were decreasingly noticed over the three year period and it was concomitant with inconsistent changes in self-reported involvement in these behaviors.

Conclusions

Most significant changes in the attitudes of Lithuanian pupils toward addictive behaviors occur between the ages of 11 and 15 years. However, age-related changes differ for the pupils’ attitudes toward substance abuse and behavioral addictions. Increasing awareness of the potential risk of addictive behaviors does not prevent their increasing prevalence with age. Increased risk of involvement in addictive behavior correlates with decreased internal motivation to abstain from addictive behavior and decreased recognition of its potential risks. No clear correlation was found between significant changes in noticing adverts and involvement in addictive behaviors.

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<![CDATA[Team reasoning—Experimental evidence on cooperation from centipede games]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0841d0d5eed0c484fcad2c

Previous laboratory studies on the centipede game have found that subjects exhibit surprisingly high levels of cooperation. Across disciplines, it has recently been highlighted that these high levels of cooperation might be explained by “team reasoning”, the willingness to think as a team rather than as an individual. We run an experiment with a standard centipede game as a baseline. In two treatments, we seek to induce team reasoning by making a joint goal salient. First, we implement a probabilistic variant of the centipede game that makes it easy to identify a joint goal. Second, we frame the game as a situation where a team of two soccer players attempts to score a goal. This frame increases the salience even more. Compared to the baseline, our treatments induce higher levels of cooperation. In a second experiment, we obtain similar evidence in a more natural environment–a beer garden during the 2014 FIFA Soccer World Cup. Our study contributes to understanding how a salient goal can support cooperation.

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<![CDATA[Real-world unexpected outcomes predict city-level mood states and risk-taking behavior]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0841a5d5eed0c484fca536

Fluctuations in mood states are driven by unpredictable outcomes in daily life but also appear to drive consequential behaviors such as risk-taking. However, our understanding of the relationships between unexpected outcomes, mood, and risk-taking behavior has relied primarily upon constrained and artificial laboratory settings. Here we examine, using naturalistic datasets, how real-world unexpected outcomes predict mood state changes observable at the level of a city, in turn predicting changes in gambling behavior. By analyzing day-to-day mood language extracted from 5.2 million location-specific and public Twitter posts or ‘tweets’, we examine how real-world ‘prediction errors’—local outcomes that deviate positively from expectations—predict day-to-day mood states observable at the level of a city. These mood states in turn predicted increased per-person lottery gambling rates, revealing how interplay between prediction errors, moods, and risky decision-making unfolds in the real world. Our results underscore how social media and naturalistic datasets can uniquely allow us to understand consequential psychological phenomena.

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<![CDATA[Ruminative minds, wandering minds: Effects of rumination and mind wandering on lexical associations, pitch imitation and eye behaviour]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bfc627ed5eed0c484ec9aea

This study demonstrates that rumination is reflected in two behavioural signals that both play an important role in face-to-face interactions and provides evidence for the negative impact of rumination on social cognition. Sixty-one students were randomly assigned either to a condition in which rumination was induced or to a control condition. Their task was to play a speech-based word association game with an Embodied Conversational Agent during which their word associations, pitch imitation and eye movements were measured. Two questionnaires assessed their ruminative tendencies and mind wandering thoughts, respectively. Rumination predicted differences in task-related mind wandering, polarity of lexical associations, pitch imitation, and blinks while mind wandering predicted differences in saccades. This outcome may show that rumination has a negative impact on certain aspects of social interactions.

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<![CDATA[At 4.5 but not 5.5 years, children favor kin when the stakes are moderately high]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b8b29f040307c405292ca57

Adults report more willingness to help siblings over close friends when the stakes are extremely high, such as when deciding whether to donate a kidney or risk injury to rescue someone in peril. When dividing plentiful, low-value resources, in contrast, children expect people to share equally with friends and siblings. Even when distributing limited resources—one instead of many—and distributing to their own social partners rather than fictional characters, children share more with kin and friends than with strangers but do not favor kin over friends until 5.5 years of age. However, no study has tested whether children would preferentially benefit kin if the rewards require that children incur a higher personal cost of their own time and effort. In the present experiment, therefore, we asked if children would work harder for kin over non-kin when playing a challenging geometry game that allowed them to earn rewards for others. We found that 4.5-year-old children calibrated their time and effort in the game differently according to who received the rewards—they played for more trials and answered more trials correctly for kin over non-kin, but 5.5-year-old children did not. The older children may have found the task easier and less costly or may have different social experiences affecting their efforts to benefit others. Nonetheless, 4.5-year-old children’s social decisions favored kin as recipients of their generosity.

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