ResearchPad - gastroenterology-and-hepatology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Improvement of steatotic rat liver function with a defatting cocktail during <i>ex situ</i> normothermic machine perfusion is not directly related to liver fat content]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13803 There is a significant organ shortage in the field of liver transplantation, partly due to a high discard rate of steatotic livers from donors. These organs are known to function poorly if transplanted but make up a significant portion of the available pool of donated livers. This study demonstrates the ability to improve the function of steatotic rat livers using a combination of ex situ machine perfusion and a “defatting” drug cocktail. After 6 hours of perfusion, defatted livers demonstrated lower perfusate lactate levels and improved bile quality as demonstrated by higher bile bicarbonate and lower bile lactate. Furthermore, defatting was associated with decreased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased expression of enzymes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Rehabilitation of marginal or discarded steatotic livers using machine perfusion and tailored drug therapy can significantly increase the supply of donor livers for transplantation.

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<![CDATA[Multicentre prospective observational study protocol for radiation exposure from gastrointestinal fluoroscopic procedures (REX-GI study)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9137 Recently, the use of various endoscopic procedures under X-ray fluoroscopic guidance, such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), interventional endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), enteral endoscopy and stenting, has been rapidly increasing because of the minimally invasive nature of these procedures compared with that of surgical intervention. With the spread of CT and fluoroscopic interventions, including endoscopic procedures under X-ray guidance, high levels of radiation exposure (RE) from medical imaging have led to major concerns throughout society. However, information about RE related to these image-guided procedures in gastrointestinal endoscopy is scarce, and the RE reference levels have not been established. The aim of this study is to prospectively collect the actual RE dose and to help establish diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in the field of gastroenterology in Japan.Methods and analysisThis is a multicentre, prospective observational study that is being conducted to collect the actual RE from treatments and diagnostic procedures, including ERCP, interventional EUS, balloon-assisted enteroscopy, enteral metallic stent placement and enteral tube placement. We will measure the total fluoroscopy time (min), the total dose–area product (Gycm2) and air-kerma (mGy) of those procedures. Because we are collecting the actual RE data and identifying the influential factors through a prospective, nationwide design, this study will provide guidance regarding the DRLs of ERCP, interventional EUS, balloon-assisted enteroscopy, enteral metallic stent placement and enteral tube placement.Ethics and disseminationApproval was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of Toyonaka Municipal Hospital (25 April 2019). The need for informed consent will be waived via the opt-out method of each hospital website.Trial registration numberThe UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, UMIN000036525. ]]> <![CDATA[Clinical role, optimal timing and frequency of serum infliximab and anti-infliximab antibody level measurements in patients with inflammatory bowel disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc1f4

Background

Serum infliximab (IFX) and antibody-to-infliximab (ATI) levels are objective parameters, that may have a great role in the therapeutic decisions during maintenance biological therapy.

Research design and methods

48 inflammatory bowel disease patients receiving maintenance IFX therapy were prospectively enrolled and divided into adequate (complete remission N = 20) and inadequate responder (partial response, loss of response, dose escalation; N = 28) groups. Blood samples were collected just before (trough level, TL) and two (W2aTL) and six weeks (W6aTL) after the administration of IFX.

Results

Single measurement of ATI titer was insufficient for predicting therapeutic response due to transient expression of ATI, however, using the three points’ measurements, significant difference has been detected between the adequate and inadequate responder group (5.0% vs 35.7%; p = 0.016). The mean value of TL was significantly higher in the adequate responder group (3.11±1.64 vs.1.19±1.11; p<0.001) without further difference on the second and sixth week. Sensitivity and specificity for predicting the therapeutic response were 85.0% and 71.4% based on the cut-off value of TL 2.0 μg/ml.

Conclusion

Simultaneous measurement of serum IFX level prior to administration of regular IFX infusion and ATI titers significantly increase the diagnostic accuracy for the therapeutic decision in patients uncertainly responding to the therapy. The measurement of W2aTL and W6aTL levels did not result in further improvement in the prediction of therapeutic response.

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<![CDATA[Aberrant expression of two miRNAs promotes proliferation, hepatitis B virus amplification, migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells: evidence from bioinformatic analysis and experimental validation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8f756cb8-5957-4c43-a86e-a428dcc762c2

Background

As key negative regulators of gene expression, microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the onset and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to identify the miRNAs involved in HCC carcinogenesis and their regulated genes.

Methods

The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset (GSE108724) was chosen and explored to identify differentially expressed miRNAs using GEO2R. For the prediction of potential miRNA target genes, the miRTarBase was explored. Enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) was performed by the DAVID online tool. The hub genes were screened out using the CytoHubba plug-in ranked by degrees. The networks between miRNAs and hub genes were constructed by Cytoscape software. MiRNA mimics and negative control were transfected into HCC cell lines and their effects on proliferation, hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV-DNA) replication, TP53 expression, migration, and invasion were investigated. The following methods were employed: MTT assay, quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay, western blotting, wound healing assay, and transwell assay.

Results

A total of 50 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified, including 20 upregulated and 30 downregulated miRNAs, in HCC tumor tissues compared to matched adjacent tumor-free tissues. The top three upregulated (miR-221-3p, miR-222-3p, and miR-18-5p) and downregulated (miR-375, miR-214-3p and miR-378d) miRNAs, ranked by |log2 fold change (log2FC)|, were chosen and their potential target genes were predicted. Two gene sets, targeted by the upregulated and the downregulated miRNAs, were identified respectively. GO and KEGG pathway analysis showed that the predicted target genes of upregulated and downregulated miRNAs were mainly enriched in the cell cycle and cancer-related pathways. The top ten hub nodes of gene sets ranked by degrees were identified as hub genes. Analysis of miRNA-hub gene network showed that miR-221-3p and miR-375 modulated most of the hub genes, especially involving regulation of TP53. The q-PCR results showed that miR-221-3p and miR-375 were markedly upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in HCC cells and HCC clinical tissue samples compared to non-tumoral tissues. Furthermore, miR-221-3p overexpression significantly enhanced proliferation, HBV-DNA replication, as well as the migration and invasion of HCC cells, whereas miR-375 overexpression resulted in opposite effects. Western blotting analysis showed that the overexpression of miR-221-3p and miR-375 reduced and increased TP53 expression, respectively.

Conclusion

The present study revealed that miR-211-3p and miR-375 may exert vital effects on cell proliferation, HBV-DNA replication, cell migration, and invasion through the regulation of TP53 expression in HCC.

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<![CDATA[Association of Hepatitis B Virus DNA Level and Follow-up Interval With Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndaf115ef-b64b-4924-b46a-0c6f0b85ef0e

This prognostic study evaluates the feasibility and availability of a novel hepatitis B virus DNA index to assess the prognosis of patients with hepatitis B virus–related hepatocellular carcinoma.

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<![CDATA[Drug induced pancreatitis: A systematic review of case reports to determine potential drug associations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8c4889da-2d62-467b-8b66-b271dff2cf8d

Objective

A current assessment of case reports of possible drug-induced pancreatitis is needed. We systematically reviewed the case report literature to identify drugs with potential associations with acute pancreatitis and the burden of evidence supporting these associations.

Methods

A protocol was developed a priori (PROSPERO CRD42017060473). We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and additional sources to identify cases of drug-induced pancreatitis that met accepted diagnostic criteria of acute pancreatitis. Cases caused by multiple drugs or combination therapy were excluded. Established systematic review methods were used for screening and data extraction. A classification system for associated drugs was developed a priori based upon the number of cases, re-challenge, exclusion of non-drug causes of acute pancreatitis, and consistency of latency.

Results

Seven-hundred and thirteen cases of potential drug-induced pancreatitis were identified, implicating 213 unique drugs. The evidence base was poor: exclusion of non-drug causes of acute pancreatitis was incomplete or poorly reported in all cases, 47% had at least one underlying condition predisposing to acute pancreatitis, and causality assessment was not conducted in 81%. Forty-five drugs (21%) were classified as having the highest level of evidence regarding their association with acute pancreatitis; causality was deemed to be probable or definite for 19 of these drugs (42%). Fifty-seven drugs (27%) had the lowest level of evidence regarding an association with acute pancreatitis, being implicated in single case reports, without exclusion of other causes of acute pancreatitis.

Discussion

Much of the case report evidence upon which drug-induced pancreatitis associations are based is tenuous. A greater emphasis on exclusion of all non-drug causes of acute pancreatitis and on quality reporting would improve the evidence base. It should be recognized that reviews of case reports, are valuable scoping tools but have limited strength to establish drug-induced pancreatitis associations.

Registration

CRD42017060473.

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<![CDATA[Serum levels of bone sialoprotein correlate with portal pressure in patients with liver cirrhosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd170950f-0b0f-46af-a42d-6b06a3bc49ed

Liver cirrhosis represents the common end-stage of chronic liver diseases regardless of its etiology. Patients with compensated disease are mostly asymptomatic, however, progression to a decompensated disease stage is common. The available stratification strategies are often unsuitable to identify patients with a higher risk for disease progression and a limited prognosis. SIBLINGs, soluble glycophosphoproteins, are secreted into the blood by immune-cells. While osteopontin, the most prominent member of the SIBLINGs family, has been repeatedly associated with liver cirrhosis, data on the diagnostic and/or prognostic value of bone sialoprotein (BSP) are scarce and partly inconclusive. In this study, we analyzed the diagnostic and prognostic potential of circulating BSP in comparison to other standard laboratory markers in a large cohort of patients with liver cirrhosis receiving transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Serum levels of BSP were similar in patients with different disease stages and were not indicative for prognosis. Interestingly, BSP serum levels did correlate inversely with portal pressure, as well as its surrogates such as platelet count, the portal vein cross-sectional area and correlated positively with the portal venous velocity. In summary, our data highlight that BSP might represent a previously unrecognized marker for portal hypertension in patients with liver cirrhosis.

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<![CDATA[Nomograms for predicting overall survival and cancer-specific survival in young patients with pancreatic cancer in the US based on the SEER database]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc163a081-e30a-4539-9d1d-f30b97862201

Background

The incidence of young patients with pancreatic cancer (PC) is on the rise, and there is a lack of models that could effectively predict their prognosis. The purpose of this study was to construct nomograms for predicting the overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) of young patients with PC.

Methods

PC patients younger than 50 years old from 2004 to 2015 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database were selected and randomly divided into training set and validation set. Univariable and forward stepwise multivariable Cox analysis was used to determine the independent factors affecting OS. The Fine and Gray competing risk regression model was used to determine the independent factors affecting CSS. We used significant variables in the training set to construct nomograms predicting prognosis. The discrimination and calibration power of models were evaluated by concordance index (C-index), calibration curve and 10-flod cross-validation.

Results

A total of 4,146 patients were selected. Multivariable Cox analysis showed that gender, race, grade, pathological types, AJCC stage and surgery were independent factors affecting OS. The C-index of the nomogram predicting OS in training and validation was 0.733 (average = 0.731, 95% CI [0.724–0.738]) and 0.742 (95% CI [0.725–0.759]), respectively. Competing risk analysis showed that primary site, pathological types, AJCC stage and surgery were independent factors affecting CSS. The C-index of the nomogram predicting CSS in training and validation set was 0.792 (average = 0.765, 95% CI [0.742–0.788]) and 0.776 (95% CI [0.773–0.779]), respectively. C-index based on nomogram was better in training and validation set than that based on AJCC stage. Calibration curves showed that these nomograms could accurately predict the 1-, 3- and 5-year OS and CSS both in training set and validation set.

Conclusions

The nomograms could effectively predict OS and CSS in young patients with PC, which help clinicians more accurately and quantitatively judge the prognosis of individual patients.

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<![CDATA[Antibiotic use for Australian Aboriginal children in three remote Northern Territory communities]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N999fa4e6-a15c-456a-862e-2e1ce88316a9

Objective

To describe antibiotic prescription rates for Australian Aboriginal children aged <2 years living in three remote Northern Territory communities.

Design

A retrospective cohort study using electronic health records.

Setting

Three primary health care centres located in the Katherine East region.

Participants

Consent was obtained from 149 mothers to extract data from 196 child records. There were 124 children born between January 2010 and July 2014 who resided in one of the three chosen communities and had electronic health records for their first two years of life.

Main outcome measures

Antibiotic prescription rates, factors associated with antibiotic prescription and factors associated with appropriate antibiotic prescription.

Results

There were 5,675 Primary Health Care (PHC) encounters for 124 children (median 41, IQR 25.5, 64). Of the 5,675 PHC encounters, 1,542 (27%) recorded at least one infection (total 1,777) and 1,330 (23%) had at least one antibiotic prescription recorded (total 1,468). Children had a median five (IQR 2, 9) prescriptions in both their first and second year of life, with a prescription rate of 5.99/person year (95% CI 5.35, 6.63). Acute otitis media was the most common infection (683 records, 38%) and Amoxycillin was the most commonly prescribed antibiotic (797 prescriptions, 54%). Of the 1,468 recorded prescriptions, 398 (27%) had no infection recorded and 116 (8%) with an infection recorded were not aligned with local treatment guidelines.

Conclusion

Prescription rates for Australian Aboriginal children in these communities are significantly higher than that reported nationally for non-Aboriginal Australians. Prescriptions predominantly aligned with treatment guidelines in this setting where there is a high burden of infectious disease.

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<![CDATA[Severe hyperbilirubinemia is associated with higher risk of contrast-related acute kidney injury following contrast-enhanced computed tomography]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N624c57d4-8983-4ece-aecc-e0e7860066cf

Introduction

Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is associated with high risks of morbidity and mortality. Hyperbilirubinemia might have some renal protection but with no clear cutoff value for protection. Related studies are typically on limited numbers of patients and only in conditions of vascular intervention.

Methods

We performed this study to elucidate CI-AKI in patients after contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CCT). The outcomes were CI-AKI, dialysis and mortality. Patients were divided to three groups based on their serum levels of total bilirubin: ≤1.2 mg/dl, 1.3–2.0 mg/dl, and >2.0 mg/dl.

Results

We enrolled a total of 9,496 patients who had received CCT. Patients with serum total bilirubin >2.0 mg/dl were associated with CI-AKI. Those undergoing dialysis had the highest incidence of PC-AKI (p<0.001). No difference was found between the two groups of total bilirubin ≤1.2 and 1.3–2.0 mg/dl. Patients with total bilirubin >2mg/dl were associated with CI-AKI (OR = 1.89, 1.53–2.33 of 95% CI), dialysis (OR = 1.40, 1.01–1.95 of 95% CI) and mortality (OR = 1.63, 1.38–1.93 of 95% CI) after adjusting for laboratory data and all comorbidities (i.e., cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, and acute myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, gastrointestinal bleeding, cirrhosis, peritonitis, ascites, hepatoma, shock lung and colon cancer). We concluded that total bilirubin level >2 mg/dl is an independent risk factor for CI-AKI, dialysis and mortality after CCT. These patients also had high risks for cirrhosis or hepatoma.

Conclusion

This is the first study providing evidence that hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin >2.0 mg/dl) being an independent risk factor for CI-AKI, dialysis and mortality after receiving CCT. Most patients with total bilirubin >2.0mg/dl had cirrhosis or hepatoma.

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<![CDATA[Toward precision prescribing for methadone: Determinants of methadone deposition]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N51499fe4-a854-40f2-ac0e-5bd2b114360f

Background

Despite the World Health Organization listing methadone as an essential medication, effective dose selection is challenging, especially in racial and ethnic minority populations. Subtherapeutic doses can result in withdrawal symptoms while supratherapeutic doses can result in overdose and death. Although CYP3A4 was conventionally considered the principal methadone metabolizing enzyme, more recent data have identified CYP2B6 as the principal enzyme. CYP2B6 has ethnically-associated polymorphisms that affect the metabolic rate. Our objective was to investigate the effects of genetic and nongenetic factors on methadone metabolism.

Methods

We measured trough plasma methadone levels in 100 participants with opioid use disorder. We assessed methadone metabolism by calculating the metabolite ratio (major metabolite: 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine [EDDP] divided by methadone concentration). We assessed hepatic fibrosis and steatosis by transient elastography and CYP2B6 alleles, principally responsible for methadone metabolism. Mixed effects models modeled the data in 97 participants.

Results

Participants were largely male (58%), minority (61% African American) and non-Hispanic (68%). Forty percent were HCV mono-infected, 40% were uninfected, and 20% were HCV/HIV co-infected. Female sex had significant effects on (R)- and (S)-methadone metabolism (p = 0.016 and p = 0.044, respectively). CYP2B6 loss of function (LOF) alleles significantly affected (S)-methadone metabolism (p = 0.012). Body mass index (BMI) significantly affected (R)-methadone metabolism (p = 0.034). Methadone metabolism appeared to be lower in males, in individuals with LOF alleles, and elevated BMI.

Conclusions

Genetic analysis, especially in minority populations, is essential to delivering individualized treatments. Although the principal methadone metabolizing enzyme remains controversial, our results suggest that sex, CYP2B6 genotype, and BMI should be incorporated into multivariate models to create methadone dosing algorithms. Methadone dosing algorithms should facilitate medication delivery, improve patient satisfaction, and diminish overdose potential.

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<![CDATA[Integrative analysis of dysregulated lncRNA-associated ceRNA network reveals potential lncRNA biomarkers for human hepatocellular carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbefbdee0-3f34-4b48-86f3-7ca275dff284

Background

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive cancer with a poor prognosis and a high incidence. The molecular changes and novel biomarkers of HCC need to be identified to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of this disease. We investigated the current research concentrations of HCC and identified the transcriptomics-related biomarkers of HCC from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TGCA) database.

Methods

We investigated the current research concentrations of HCC using literature metrology analysis for studies conducted from 2008 to 2018. We identified long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that correlated with the clinical features and survival prognoses of HCC from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TGCA) database. Differentially expressed genes (lncRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs) were also identified by TCGA datasets in HCC tumor tissues. A lncRNA competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network was constructed from lncRNAs based on intersected lncRNAs. Survival times and the association between the expression levels of the key lncRNAs of the ceRNA network and the clinicopathological characteristics of HCC patients were analyzed using TCGA. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to validate the reliability of the results in tissue samples from 20 newly-diagnosed HCC patients.

Results

Analysis of the literature pertaining to HCC research revealed that current research is focused on lncRNA functions in tumorigenesis and tumor development. A total of 128 HCC dysregulated lncRNAs were identified; 66 were included in the co-expressed ceRNA network. We analyzed survival times and the associations between the expression of 66 key lncRNAs and the clinicopathological features of the HCC patients identified from TCGA. Twenty-six lncRNAs were associated with clinical features of HCC (P < 0.05) and six key lncRNAs were associated with survival time (log-rank test P < 0.05). Six key lncRNAs were selected for the validation of their expression levels in 20 patients with newly diagnosed HCC using qRT-PCR. Consistent fold changes in the trends of up and down regulation between qRT-PCR validation and TCGA proved the reliability of our bioinformatics analysis.

Conclusions

We used integrative bioinformatics analysis of the TCGA datasets to improve our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved with the functional features of lncRNAs in HCC. The results revealed that lncRNAs are potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of HCC.

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<![CDATA[The altered gut microbiota of high-purine-induced hyperuricemia rats and its correlation with hyperuricemia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Neac843bb-be68-4ed5-ae78-d8fdce066c1d

Some studies on the hyperuricemia (HUA) have focused on intestinal bacteria. To better understand the correlation between gut microbiota and HUA, we established a HUA rat model with high-purine diet, and used 16S rRNA genes sequencing to analyze gut microbiota changes in HUA rats. To analyze the potential role played by gut microbiota in HUA, we altered the gut microbiota of HUA rats with antibiotics, and compared the degree of uric acid elevation between HUA and antibiotic-fed HUA rats (Ab+HUA). Finally, we established a recipient rat model, in which we transplanted fecal microbiota of HUA and normal rats into recipient rats. Three weeks later, we compared the uric acid content of recipient rats. As a result, the diversity and abundance of the gut microbiota had changed in HUA rats. The Ab-fed HUA rats had significantly lower uric acid content compared to the HUA rats, and gut microbiota from HUA rats increased uric acid content of recipient rats. The genera Vallitalea, Christensenella and Insolitispirillum may associate with HUA. Our findings highlight the association between gut microbiota and HUA, and the potential role played by gut microbiota in HUA. We hope that this finding will promote the isolation and culture of HUA-related bacteria and orient HUA-related studies from being correlational to mechanistic. These steps will therefore make it possible for us to treat HUA using gut microbiota as the target.

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<![CDATA[Identification and validation of potential key long noncoding RNAs in sorafenib-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc22deb9b-a695-4f48-b2d5-0a5632539383

As the first-line treatment, sorafenib has been used for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the chemoresistance commonly restricts to the clinical efficiency. In this study, we intend to investigate the genome-wide expression pattern of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in sorafenib-resistant HCC. Herein, we identified thousands of differentially expressed lncRNAs in sorafenib-resistant HCC cells by high-throughput sequencing compared to the parental. Besides, based on GO (Gene Ontology) term enrichment analysis, these differentially expressed lncRNAs are mainly related to binding and catalytic activity and biological regulation of metabolic processes in both the sorafenib-resistant Huh7 cells (Huh7-S) and sorafenib-resistant HepG2 cells (HepG2-S) compared to the parental cells. Moreover, when analyzed by KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway, the differentially expressed genes were significantly related to the tight junction. Among them, the expression of TCONS_00284048 and TCONS_00006019 was consistently up-regulated in sorafenib-resistant HCC cell lines, whereas when either was knocked down, the sensitivity of Huh7-S and HepG2-S cells to sorafenib was increased. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the lncRNA expression profile is significantly altered in sorafenib-resistant HCC cells as well as differentially expressed lncRNAs may play crucial functions on HCC sorafenib resistance and HCC progression.

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<![CDATA[The diagnostic and prognostic value of UBE2T in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N316edad5-daf9-40e9-a3fe-587d9ae769ba

Background

Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2T (UBE2T) is overexpressed in several types of malignancies. However, little is known about its diagnostic significance in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and other bile duct diseases or its prognostic value in ICC.

Methods

The expression levels of UBE2T in the intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD, N = 13), biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN; BilIN-1/2, N = 23; BilIN-3, N = 11), and ICC (N = 401) were examined by immunohistochemistry. The differential diagnostic and prognostic values were also assessed.

Results

The number of UBE2T-positive cells was significantly higher in ICC tissues than in nonmalignant tissues, including the IHBD, BilIN-1/2, and BilIN-3 tissues. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that overexpression of UBE2T was correlated with a shorter time to recurrence (TTR) and overall survival (OS). The 5-year TTR rates in the high UBE2T and low UBE2T groups were 100% and 86.2%, respectively. The corresponding OS rates were 1.9% and 22.2%, respectively. High expression of UBE2T was an independent risk factor for both TTR (hazard ratio: 1.345; 95% confidence interval: 1.047,1.728) and OS (hazard ratio: 1.420; 95% confidence interval: 1.098,1.837).

Conclusions

UBE2T can assist in differentiating benign bile duct diseases from ICC, and high expression of UBE2T suggests a poor prognosis for ICC.

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<![CDATA[Long non-coding RNA ERICH3-AS1 is an unfavorable prognostic factor for gastric cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nde703c1f-2665-4c1d-88a3-558297536ba4

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in gastric cancer (GC), but the mechanism is not fully clear. ERICH3-AS1 (ERICH3 antisense RNA1) is affiliated with the non-coding RNA class which has proven to be involved in the prognostic of GC, but the function of ERICH3-AS1 is still unclear. In this study, we aim to explore the potential function of ERICH3-AS1 in the development of GC and analyze the prognostic role of ERICH3-AS1 in GC. We found that the lncRNA ERICH3-AS1 was significantly up-regulated in GC tissues in the analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data; the Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the higher the expression of ERICH3-AS1 was, the earlier the recurrence and the poorer the prognosis would be in patients. Cox univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that ERICH3-AS1 was a risk factor of disease-free survival (DFS) (p < 0.05) and overall survival (OS) (p < 0.05) of patients. Through Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses, it demonstrated that the ERBB pathways, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, the MTOR pathways, p53 pathways and Wnt pathways were differentially enriched in ERICH3-AS1 high expression phenotype. Furthermore, the correlation analysis showed that ERICH3-AS1 had significant correlations with apoptosis-related proteins such as BCL2L10 and CASP14; cell cycle-associated proteins CDK14 and invasion and migration-associated proteins such as MMP20, MMP26 and MMP27. In summary, we identified that increased ERICH3-AS1 might be a potential biomarker for diagnosis and independent prognostic factor of GC. Moreover, ERICH3-AS1 might participate in the oncogenesis and development of tumors via cell cycle and apoptosis pathway mediated by ERBB, MAPK, MTOR, p53 and Wnt pathways.

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<![CDATA[Resection vs. ablation for lesions characterized as resectable-ablative within the colorectal liver oligometastases criteria: a propensity score matching from retrospective study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N51560a07-859b-4375-8969-dca3f29e7fa7

Background

There has been no prospective or retrospective studies reporting the comparison outcome between surgery and ablation for resectable-ablative (lesions could be treated by resection or complete ablation) colorectal liver oligometastases (CLOM). The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and prognostic difference in patients who underwent R0 resection vs. complete ablation within the resectable-ablative CLOM criteria.

Methods

From January 2008 to May 2018, a total of 2,367 patients diagnosed with colorectal liver metastases were included in this observational study. The metastasis was characterized by only limited to liver with number ≤5, size ≤5 cm, and resectable-ablative (lesions could be treated by resection or complete ablation). The evaluated indications, including liver progression-free survival (LPFS), overall survival (OS), survival rates, pattern and number of recurrences, and complications, were compared by using propensity score matching (PSM). The Kaplan−Meier curves were generated, and a log-rank test was performed. The Cox regression model was used for univariate and multivariate analyses to identify predictors of outcomes.

Results

A total of 421 consecutive patients were eligible for this study, with 250 and 171 undergoing R0 resection and complete ablation, respectively. PSM identified 145 patients from each group. The 1-, 3-, 5- and 8-year OS rates in the resection group and the ablation group were 95.8% vs. 95.0%, 69.8% vs. 60.1%, 53.6% vs. 42.5%, and 45.1% vs. 32.9% (p = 0.075), respectively. The median LPFS in the resection group was significantly longer than that in the ablation group (35 months vs. 15 months, p = 0.011). No statistical difference was found in LPFS between the two groups when comparing ≤3 cm liver metastases. For liver metastasis >3 cm, the median LPFS in the resection group and ablation group was 11 months and 5 months, respectively (p = 0.001). In terms of high risk of clinical risk score (CRS), the resection group showed longer LPFS than the ablation group (median 18 months vs. 10 months, p = 0.043).

Conclusion

For patients within the CLOM criteria suggesting that liver metastases were resectable as well as ablative, resection could result in longer liver recurrence-free survival than ablation in cases with size >3 cm or high risk of CRS. But for ≤3 cm liver metastases, their treatment efficacies were comparable.

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<![CDATA[MLST-based genetic relatedness of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from chickens and humans in Poland]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2eb0d267-f054-40f4-b445-0c8d9725ee43

Campylobacter jejuni infection is one of the most frequently reported foodborne bacterial diseases worldwide. The main transmission route of these microorganisms to humans is consumption of contaminated food, especially of chicken origin. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic relatedness of C. jejuni from chicken sources (feces, carcasses, and meat) and from humans with diarrhea as well as to subtype the isolates to gain better insight into their population structure present in Poland. C. jejuni were genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and sequence types (STs) were assigned in the MLST database. Among 602 isolates tested, a total of 121 different STs, including 70 (57.9%) unique to the isolates' origin, and 32 STs that were not present in the MLST database were identified. The most prevalent STs were ST464 and ST257, with 58 (9.6%) and 52 (8.6%) C. jejuni isolates, respectively. Isolates with some STs (464, 6411, 257, 50) were shown to be common in chickens, whereas others (e.g. ST21 and ST572) were more often identified among human C. jejuni. It was shown that of 47 human sequence types, 26 STs (106 isolates), 23 STs (102 isolates), and 29 STs (100 isolates) were also identified in chicken feces, meat, and carcasses, respectively. These results, together with the high and similar proportional similarity indexes (PSI) calculated for C. jejuni isolated from patients and chickens, may suggest that human campylobacteriosis was associated with contaminated chicken meat or meat products or other kinds of food cross-contaminated with campylobacters of chicken origin. The frequency of various sequence types identified in the present study generally reflects of the prevalence of STs in other countries which may suggest that C. jejuni with some STs have a global distribution, while other genotypes may be more restricted to certain countries.

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<![CDATA[LIFEStyle, Prevention and Risk of Acute PaNcreatitis (LIFESPAN): protocol of a multicentre and multinational observational case–control study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5b784dfb-6a18-4860-84c7-a01029aa8fbe

Introduction

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a life-threatening inflammatory disease of the exocrine pancreas which needs acute hospitalisation. Despite its importance, we have significant lack of knowledge whether the lifestyle factors elevate or decrease the risk of AP or influence the disease outcome. So far, no synthetising study has been carried out examining associations between socioeconomic factors, dietary habits, physical activity, chronic stress, sleep quality and AP. Accordingly, LIFESPAN identifies risk factors of acute pancreatitis and helps to prepare preventive recommendations for lifestyle elements.

Methods and analysis

LIFESPAN is an observational, multicentre international case–control study. Participating subjects will create case and control groups. The study protocol was designed according to the SPIRIT guideline. Patients in the case group (n=1700) have suffered from AP (alcohol-induced, n=500; biliary, n=500; hypertriglyceridemiainduced, n=200; other, n=500); the control group subjects have no AP in their medical history. Our study will have three major control groups (n=2200): hospital-based (n=500), population-based (n=500) and aetiology-based (alcohol, n=500; biliary, n=500 and hypertriglyceridemia, n=200). All of them will be matched to the case group individually by gender, age and location of residence. Aggregately, 3900 subjects will be enrolled into the study. The study participants will complete a complex questionnaire with the help of a clinical research administrator/study nurse. Analysis methods include analysis of the continuous and categorical values.

Ethics and dissemination

The study has obtained the relevant ethical approval (54175-2/2018/EKU) and also internationally registered (ISRCTN25940508). After obtaining the final conclusions, we will publish the data to the medical community and will also disseminate our results via open access.

Trial registration number

ISRCTN25940508; Pre-results.

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<![CDATA[Multicentre, non-interventional study of the efficacy and tolerability of linaclotide in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation in primary, secondary and tertiary centres: the Alpine study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N38f0af75-a07a-4ca9-a893-edcc5b26d8b6

Objectives

We evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of linaclotide, a minimally absorbed guanylate cyclase-C agonist, in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) in routine clinical practice.

Setting

A multicentre, non-interventional study conducted between December 2013 and November 2015 across 31 primary, secondary and tertiary centres in Austria and Switzerland.

Participants

The study enrolled 138 patients aged ≥18 years with moderate-to-severe IBS-C. Treatment decision was at the physician’s discretion. Patients with known hypersensitivity to the study drug or suspected mechanical obstruction were excluded. The mean age of participants was 50 years, and >75% of the patients were women. 128 patients completed the study.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

Data were collected at weeks 0 and 4 in Austria and weeks 0, 4 and 16 in Switzerland. The primary effectiveness endpoints included severity of abdominal pain and bloating (11-point numerical rating scale [0=no pain/bloating to 10=worst possible pain/bloating]), frequency of bowel movements and physicians’ global effectiveness of linaclotide. Treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were recorded.

Results

Following a 4-week treatment period, the mean intensity score of abdominal pain was reduced from 5.8 at baseline to 2.7, while the bloating intensity score was reduced from 5.8 at baseline to 3.1e (both indices p<0.001). The frequency of mean weekly bowel movements increased from 2.1 at baseline to 4.5 at week 4 (p<0.001). Global effectiveness and tolerability of linaclotide were assessed by the treating physicians as ‘good’ or ‘excellent’ in >70% of patients. In total, 31 AEs were reported in 22 patients, the most common being diarrhoea, reported by 6 (7%) and 8 (15.4%) patients in Austria and Switzerland, respectively.

Conclusions

Patients with IBS-C receiving linaclotide experienced effective treatment of moderate-to-severe symptoms in routine clinical practice. Linaclotide was safe and well tolerated and no new safety concerns were raised, supporting results from previous clinical trials.

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