ResearchPad - gastroenterology-hepatology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Influence of Besifovir Dipivoxil Maleate Combined with L-Carnitine on Hepatic Steatosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10901

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<![CDATA[Differential Impact of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Levels on the Prognosis of Patients with Liver Cirrhosis According to MELD and Child-Pugh Scores]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8431

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<![CDATA[Pretransplant Hepatic Malignancy Increases Risk of De Novo Malignancy after Liver Transplantation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N830fd982-5721-4069-a58e-12904d852b76

Background

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence and development of de novo malignancy (DNM) after liver transplantation (LT) are the major causes of late recipient death.

Methods

We analyzed the incidence of extrahepatic DNM following living donor LT according to the status of pretransplant hepatic malignancy. We selected 2,076 adult patients who underwent primary LDLT during 7 years from January 2010 to December 2016.

Results

The pretransplant hepatic malignancy group (n = 1,012) showed 45 cases (4.4%) of the following extrahepatic DNMs: posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) in 10; lung cancer in 10; stomach cancer in 6; colorectal cancer in 5; urinary bladder cancer in 3; and other cancers in 11. The pretransplant no hepatic malignancy group (n = 1,064) showed 25 cases (2.3%) of the following extrahepatic DNMs: colorectal cancer in 3; stomach cancer in 3; leukemia in 3; lung cancer in 3; PTLD in 2; prostate cancer in 2; and other cancers in 9. Incidences of extrahepatic DNM in the pretransplant hepatic malignancy and no hepatic malignancy groups were as follows: 1.1% and 0.5% at 1 year, 3.2% and 2.0% at 3 years, 4.6% and 2.5% at 5 years, and 5.4% and 2.8% at 8 years, respectively (P = 0.006). Their overall patient survival rates were as follows: 97.3% and 97.2% at 1 year, 91.6% and 95.9% at 3 years, 89.8% and 95.4% at 5 years, and 89.2% and 95.4% at 8 years, respectively (P < 0.001). Pretransplant hepatic malignancy was the only significant risk factor for posttransplant extrahepatic DNM.

Conclusion

Our results suggest that patients who had pretransplant hepatic malignancy be followed up more strictly because they have a potential risk of primary hepatic malignancy recurrence as well as a higher risk of extrahepatic DNM than patients without pretransplant hepatic malignancy.

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<![CDATA[Acute liver failure]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb08f88d8-2ff1-4e20-8fed-1eed760dafd9

Acute liver failure in children is a rare but potentially fatal disease. Causes of ALF in neonatal period are different from those in early or late childhood. Despite the improvement in the paediatric intensive care, liver transplantation remains the only effective treatment. Use of newer treatment modalities (liver assist devices and hepatocyte transplantation) is still in experimental phase. Management requires early recognition, prompt diagnosis of treatable condition, supportive therapy and prevention of complications hence these children should ideally be treated in a specialist unit.

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<![CDATA[Effect of Statin Use on Liver Cancer Mortality Considering Hypercholesterolemia and Obesity in Patients with Non-Cirrhotic Chronic Hepatitis B]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0efe9834-fecd-467b-b416-7c5ce501702c

Little is known about the benefits of statin use on liver cancer mortality among patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) considering hypercholesterolemia and obesity. A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from a Health Examination Cohort of the National Health Insurance Service of Korea. Data on CHB patients with no other concurrent liver disease were acquired, and statin use was defined as a cumulative daily dose ≥28. A 3-year landmark analysis was performed to avoid immortal time bias. Patients who started statin therapy within the landmark date were considered statin users. A Cox regression analysis was applied to assess associations between statin use and liver cancer mortality considering hypercholesterolemia and obesity. Among 13063 patients, 193 (1.5%) died of liver cancer during the mean follow-up period of 10.6 years. After adjusting for demographic and metabolic factors, statin use [hazard ratio (HR), 0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.04–0.70] and hypercholesterolemia (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.24–0.88 for total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL) were associated with a decreased risk of liver cancer mortality, whereas body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 was associated with an increased risk of liver cancer mortality (HR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.20–5.06). This study showed that statin use was associated with decreased liver cancer mortality when adjusting for cholesterol levels and BMI. This study found that hypercholesterolemia was independently associated with decreased liver cancer mortality regardless of statin use.

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<![CDATA[Quality of Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy in Patients with a History of Abdomino-Pelvic Surgery: Retrospective Cohort Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c354c82d5eed0c484dcf54d

Purpose

Prior abdomino-pelvic (AP) surgery makes colonoscopy difficult and can affect bowel preparation quality. However, bowel preparation quality has been found to vary according to prior AP surgery type. We examined the relationship of prior AP surgery type with bowel preparation quality in a large-scale retrospective cohort.

Materials and Methods

In the health screening cohort of the National Cancer Center, 12881 participants who underwent screening or surveillance colonoscopy between June 2007 and December 2014 were included. Personal data were collected by reviewing patient medical records. Bowel preparation quality was assessed using the Aronchick scale and was categorized as satisfactory for excellent to good bowel preparation or unsatisfactory for fair to inadequate bowel preparation.

Results

A total of 1557 (12.1%) participants had a history of AP surgery. The surgery types were colorectal surgery (n=44), gastric/small intestinal surgery (n=125), appendectomy/peritoneum/laparotomy (n=476), cesarean section (n=278), uterus/ovarian surgery (n=317), kidney/bladder/prostate surgery (n=19), or liver/pancreatobiliary surgery (n=96). The proportion of satisfactory bowel preparations was 70.7%. In multivariate analysis, unsatisfactory bowel preparation was related to gastric/small intestinal surgery (odds ratio=1.764, 95% confidence interval=1.230–2.532, p=0.002). However, the other surgery types did not affect bowel preparation quality. Current smoking, diabetes, and high body mass index were risk factors of unacceptable bowel preparation.

Conclusion

Only gastric/small intestinal surgery was a potential risk factor for poor bowel preparation. Further research on patients with a history of gastric/small intestinal surgery to determine appropriate methods for adequate bowel preparation is mandatory.

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<![CDATA[Matrine Suppresses Pancreatic Fibrosis by Regulating TGF-β/Smad Signaling in Rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c354c7ed5eed0c484dcf3f2

Purpose

This study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the anti-pancreatic fibrosis effects of matrine in rats.

Materials and Methods

Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid was administrated to rats to establish a pancreatic fibrosis model. Rats were divided into four groups: Control, Sham, Model, and Matrine (n=8). Hematoxylin-eosin staining, Masson staining, and Azan staining were performed to evaluate pancreatic fibrosis. Expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and collagen I in pancreatic tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. mRNA and protein levels of TGF-β receptor 1 (TβR1), TβR2, and Smad2 in pancreatic tissues were determined by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively.

Results

In the model group, hyperplasia of glandules around the glandular ducts, mitochondrial swelling of acinous cells, and severe fibrosis were found. Interestingly, in the Matrine group, mitochondrial swelling was only found in a small number of acinous cells, and the fundamental structures of pancreatic tissues were intact. Moreover, pancreatic fibrosis was markedly alleviated. Comparing to the Sham group, expression of α-SMA, TGF-β1, and collagen I was sharply elevated in the Model group (p<0.05); however, their expressions were much lower in the Matrine group, compared to the Model group (p<0.05). Compared with the Sham group, mRNA and protein levels of Smad2, TβR1, and TβR2 in the Model group were notably raised (p<0.05). However, their high expression was significantly downregulated in the Matrine group (p<0.05).

Conclusion

Matrine suppressed pancreatic fibrosis by regulating TGF-β/Smad signaling in rats.

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<![CDATA[Prognosis of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2a7989d5eed0c48422ec95

Background

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a serious infectious complication in patients with liver cirrhosis. However, information about prognosis of SBP in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients is limited. We investigated the clinical course of SBP in HCC patients.

Methods

This study enrolled patients diagnosed with SBP between 2005 and 2017. Medical records of patients were reviewed and clinical course was compared between the non-HCC and HCC groups.

Results

In total, 123 SBP cases including 49 HCC cases were enrolled. Men were predominant (48/74, 64.9% vs. 34/49, 69.4%; P = 0.697); median age was 58 years in both non-HCC and HCC groups (P = 0.887). The most common etiology was alcohol (32/74, 43.2%) in non-HCC group and hepatitis B (30/49, 61.2%) in HCC group (P = 0.009). Antibiotic resistance rate was higher in non-HCC than in HCC group (29.7% vs. 12.2%; P = 0.028); in-hospital mortality did not differ between the groups (25/74, 33.8% vs. 13/49, 26.5%; P = 0.431). Development rate of hepatorenal syndrome did not differ between non-HCC and HCC group (14/74, 18.9% vs. 10/49, 20.4%; P = 1.000), but hepatic encephalopathy was less common in HCC group (26/74, 35.2% vs. 9/49, 18.3%; P = 0.008). The most important predictor of in-hospital mortality in patients with HCC was white blood cell count above 11,570 cells/mm3 (odds ratio, 6.629; 95% confidence interval, 1.652–26.590; P = 0.008).

Conclusion

Prognosis of SBP in HCC patients is relatively less severe. This result may be related with reduced antibiotics resistance and lower development rates of other complications, such as hepatic encephalopathy. Degree of systemic inflammation may be the most important factor for in-hospital mortality.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence and Risk Factors of Gallbladder Polypoid Lesions in a Healthy Population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b22515c463d7e5870161d05

Purpose

To determine the prevalence of and investigate the risk factors for gallbladder (GB) polypoid lesions in a healthy population.

Materials and Methods

A total of 23827 subjects who underwent abdominal ultrasonography in conjunction with health screening examinations were retrospectively analyzed. The prevalence of risk factors for GB polypoid lesions were evaluated. In addition, risk factors according to the number of polypoid lesions and the presence of stones with polypoid lesions were investigated. To analyze these risk factors, a control group was established with a 1:2 ratio matched for age and sex.

Results

The prevalence of GB polypoid lesions was identified as 9.96%. On multivariate analysis, chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB) and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MS) were risk factors for GB polypoid lesions. CHB and MS were also significant independent risk factors for multiple GB polypoid lesions when compared with solitary GB polypoid lesions. In addition, gastric Helicobacter pylori infection and MS were significant risk factors for GB polypoid lesions with stones when compared with GB polypoid lesions without stones.

Conclusion

The prevalence of GB polypoid lesions in a healthy Korean population was 9.96%. Patients with CHB and MS need to be carefully examined for such lesions.

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