ResearchPad - gastrointestinal https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Patients infected with <i>Mycobacterium africanum</i> versus <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> possess distinct intestinal microbiota]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13847 Mycobacterium africanum (MAF) is a hypovirulent mycobacterium species that is co-endemic with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in West Africa and is selectively responsible for up to half the tuberculosis cases in this region. Why some individuals become infected with MAF versus MTB is unclear but has been suggested to be determined by differential host immune competency. Since the microbiome has now been implicated in numerous studies to generally influence host resistance to disease, we investigated whether differences in the intestinal microbiota might associate with MAF as compared with MTB infection. This report presents the first analysis of the intestinal microbiome of MAF-infected subjects as well as a comparison with the microbiota of co-endemic MTB patients and reveals that the microbiota of individuals with MAF infection display both decreased diversity and distinct differences in microbial taxa when compared to both MTB-infected and healthy controls. Furthermore, our data reveal for the first time in TB patients a correlation between the abundance of certain taxa and host blood transcriptional changes related to immune function. Our study also establishes that antibiotic treatment induces parallel changes in the gut microbiota of MAF- and MTB-infected patients. Although not directly addressed in the present study, the findings presented here raise the possibility that the microbiota or other host physiologic or immune factors closely associated with it may be a factor underlying the differential susceptibility of West Africans to MAF infection. In addition, the data identify certain commensal taxa that could be tested in future studies as specific determinants of this association.

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<![CDATA[Fine-scale visualizing the hierarchical structure of mouse biliary tree with fluorescence microscopy method]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13843 The liver is a vital organ and the hepatic lobule serves as the most basic structural and functional unit which is mainly assembled with parenchymal cells including hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells. The continuous tubular arrangement of biliary cells which constitutes the biliary tracts is critical for liver function, however, the biliary tracts are often disrupted in many liver diseases such as cirrhosis and some congenital disorders. Visualization of the biliary tracts in fine-scale and three-dimension will help to understanding the structure basis of these liver diseases. In the present study, we established several biliary tract injury mouse models by diet feeding, surgery or genetic modification. The cytoplasm and nuclei of the parenchymal cells were marked by active uptake of fluorescent dyes Rhodamine B (red) and Hoechst (blue), respectively. After the removal of liver en bloc, the biliary tracts were retrogradely perfused with green fluorescent dye, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The liver was then observed under confocal microscopy. The fine-scale and three-dimensional (3D) structure of the whole biliary tree, particularly the network of the end-terminal bile canaliculi and neighboring hepatocytes were clearly visualized. The biliary tracts displayed clear distinct characteristics in normal liver and diseased liver models. Taken together, we have developed a simple and repeatable imaging method to visualize the fine-scale and hierarchical architecture of the biliary tracts spreading in the mouse liver.

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<![CDATA[A modified arginine-depleting enzyme NEI-01 inhibits growth of pancreatic cancer cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11227 Arginine deprivation cancer therapy targets certain types of malignancies with positive result in many studies and clinical trials. NEI-01 was designed as a novel arginine-depleting enzyme comprising an albumin binding domain capable of binding to human serum albumin to lengthen its half-life. In the present work, NEI-01 is shown to bind to serum albumin from various species, including mice, rat and human. Single intraperitoneal administration of NEI-01 to mice reduced plasma arginine to undetectable level for at least 9 days. Treatment of NEI-01 specifically inhibited cell viability of MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cancer cell lines, which were ASS1 negative. Using a human pancreatic mouse xenograft model, NEI-01 treatment significantly reduced tumor volume and weight. Our data provides proof of principle for a cancer treatment strategy using NEI-01.

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<![CDATA[Silencing of LncRNA PVT1 inhibits the proliferation, migration and fibrosis of high glucose-induced mouse mesangial cells via targeting microRNA-93-5p]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9222 Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the regulatory role of long non-coding RNA plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) on high glucose (HG)-induced mouse mesangial cells (MMCs).

Methods: PVT1 expression in diabetic nephropathy (DN) mice and HG-induced MMCs was detected by qRT-PCR. EdU and Colony formation, Annexin V-PI staining, Muse cell cycle, Scratch, and Transwell assays were performed to detect the cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, migration, and invasion, respectively. The contents of fibrosis factors in cell-culture supernatants were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot was performed to detect the expression of factors involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, migration and invasion, fibrosis, and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The targeting relation between miR-93-5p and PVT1 was predicted by StarBase3.0 (an online software for analyzing the targeting relationship) and identified by Dual-luciferase reporter (DLR) assay.

Results: PVT1 was overexpressed in DN kidney tissues and HG-induced MMCs. HG-induced MMCs exhibited significantly increased EdU-positive cells, cell colonies, S and G2/M phase cells, migration and invasion ability, and contents of fibrosis factors, as well as significantly decreased apoptosis rate compared with NG-induced MMCs. HG significantly up-regulated Bcl-2, CyclinD1, CDK4, N-cadherin, vimentin, Col. IV, FN, TGF-β1 and PAI-1, and down-regulated Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, and E-cadherin in MMCs. Silencing of PVT1 eliminated the effects of HG in MMCs and blocked PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. MiR-93-5p was a target of PVT1, which eliminated the effects of PVT1 on HG-induced MMCs.

Conclusions: PVT1 silencing inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion and fibrosis, promoted the apoptosis, and blocked PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in HG-induced MMCs via up-regulating miR-93-5p.

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<![CDATA[Hereditary hemochromatosis disrupts uric acid homeostasis and causes hyperuricemia via altered expression/activity of xanthine oxidase and ABCG2]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9170 Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is mostly caused by mutations in the iron-regulatory gene HFE. The disease is associated with iron overload, resulting in liver cirrhosis/cancer, cardiomegaly, kidney dysfunction, diabetes, and arthritis. Fe2+-induced oxidative damage is suspected in the etiology of these symptoms. Here we examined, using Hfe−/− mice, whether disruption of uric acid (UA) homeostasis plays any role in HH-associated arthritis. We detected elevated levels of UA in serum and intestine in Hfe−/− mice compared with controls. Though the expression of xanthine oxidase, which generates UA, was not different in liver and intestine between wild type and Hfe−/− mice, the enzymatic activity was higher in Hfe−/− mice. We then examined various transporters involved in UA absorption/excretion. Glut9 expression did not change; however, there was an increase in Mrp4 and a decrease in Abcg2 in Hfe−/− mice. As ABCG2 mediates intestinal excretion of UA and mutations in ABCG2 cause hyperuricemia, we examined the potential connection between iron and ABCG2. We found p53-responsive elements in hABCG2 promoter and confirmed with chromatin immunoprecipitation that p53 binds to this promoter. p53 protein was reduced in Hfe−/− mouse intestine. p53 is a heme-binding protein and p53-heme complex is subjected to proteasomal degradation. We conclude that iron/heme overload in HH increases xanthine oxidase activity and also promotes p53 degradation resulting in decreased ABCG2 expression. As a result, systemic UA production is increased and intestinal excretion of UA via ABCG2 is decreased, causing serum and tissue accumulation of UA, a potential factor in the etiology of HH-associated arthritis.

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<![CDATA[Arterial and venous abdominal thrombosis in a 79-year-old woman with COVID-19 pneumonia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7590 As coronavirus pandemic continue to spread over the world, we have to be aware of potential complications on hospitalized patients. We report a case of a 79-year-old woman with COVID-19 pneumonia complicated by combined arterial and venous thrombosis of upper mesenteric vessels. As unenhanced chest CT scan plays a key role in managing the COVID-19 pandemic, we should pay attention to indirect signs of thrombosis.

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<![CDATA[Bacterial association and comparison between lung and intestine in rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N79a28e01-0c89-4ad0-9dcc-f43071225fa5 The association between lung and intestine has already been reported, but the differences in community structures or functions between lung and intestine bacteria yet need to explore. To explore the differences in community structures or functions, the lung tissues and fecal contents in rats were collected and analyzed through 16S rRNA sequencing. It was found that intestine bacteria was more abundant and diverse than lung bacteria. In intestine bacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroides were identified as major phyla while Lactobacillus was among the most abundant genus. However, in lung the major identified phylum was Proteobacteria and genus Pseudomonas was most prominent genus. On the other hand, in contrast the lung bacteria was more concentrated in cytoskeleton and function in energy production and conversion. While, intestine bacteria were enriched in RNA processing, modification chromatin structure, dynamics and amino acid metabolism. The study provides the basis for understanding the relationships between lung and intestine bacteria.

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<![CDATA[Anti-apoptosis mechanism of triptolide based on network pharmacology in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N409d00df-bdc9-40d1-b0a2-a6055e43bdc2 Triptolide (TPL), the active component of Tripterygium wilfordii, exhibits anti-cancer and antioxidant functions. We aimed to explore the anti-apoptosis mechanism of TPL based on network pharmacology and in vivo and in vitro research validation using a rat model of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). The chemical structures and pharmacological activities of the compounds reported in T. wilfordii were determined and used to perform the network pharmacology analysis. The Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database (TCMSP) was then used to identify the network targets for 16 compounds from Tripterygium wilfordii. Our results showed that 47 overlapping genes obtained from the GeneCards and OMIM databases were involved in the occurrence and development of FSGS and used to construct the protein–protein interaction (PPI) network using the STRING database. Hub genes were identified via the MCODE plug-in of the Cytoscape software. IL4 was the target gene of TPL in FSGS and was mainly enriched in the cell apoptosis term and p53 signaling pathway, according to Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses. TPL inhibited FSGS-induced cell apoptosis in rats and regulated IL4, nephrin, podocin, and p53 protein levels via using CCK8, TUNEL, and Western blot assays. The effects of IL4 overexpression, including inhibition of cell viability and promotion of apoptosis, were reversed by TPL. TPL treatment increased the expression of nephrin and podocin and decreased p53 expression in rat podocytes. In conclusion, TPL inhibited podocyte apoptosis by targeting IL4 to alleviate kidney injury in FSGS rats.

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<![CDATA[Prospective Biomarker Study in Advanced RAS Wild‐Type Colorectal Cancer: POSIBA Trial (GEMCAD 10‐02)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfdc2f8a5-e695-4ecf-80f1-840c9a2dcf74

This articles compares the capacity of several biomarkers (BRAF mutation, PIK3CA mutation/PTEN loss and DP phenotype) to predict 12‐month progression‐free survival and compares it with that of clinical variables

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<![CDATA[Shiga Toxin Receptor Gb3Cer/CD77: Tumor-Association and Promising Therapeutic Target in Pancreas and Colon Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db09ab0ee8fa60bc97d3

Background

Despite progress in adjuvant chemotherapy in the recent decades, pancreatic and colon cancers remain common causes of death worldwide. Bacterial toxins, which specifically bind to cell surface-exposed glycosphingolipids, are a potential novel therapy. We determined the expression of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer/CD77), the Shiga toxin receptor, in human pancreatic and colon adenocarcinomas.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Tissue lipid extracts of matched pairs of cancerous and adjacent normal tissue from 21 pancreatic and 16 colon cancer patients were investigated with thin-layer chromatography overlay assay combined with a novel mass spectrometry approach. Gb3Cer/CD77 was localized by immunofluorescence microscopy of cryosections from malignant and corresponding healthy tissue samples. 62% of pancreatic and 81% of colon adenocarcinomas showed increased Gb3Cer/CD77 expression, whereas 38% and 19% of malignant pancreas and colon tissue, respectively, did not, indicating an association of this marker with neoplastic transformation. Also, Gb3Cer/CD77 was associated with poor differentiation (G>2) in pancreatic cancer (P = 0.039). Mass spectrometric analysis evidenced enhanced expression of Gb3Cer/CD77 with long (C24) and short chain fatty acids (C16) in malignant tissues and pointed to the presence of hydroxylated fatty acid lipoforms, which are proposed to be important for receptor targeting. They could be detected in 86% of pancreatic and about 19% of colon adenocarcinomas. Immunohistology of tissue cryosections indicated tumor-association of these receptors.

Conclusions/Significance

Enhanced expression of Gb3Cer/CD77 in most pancreatic and colon adenocarcinomas prompts consideration of Shiga toxin, its B-subunit or B-subunit-derivatives as novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of these challenging malignancies.

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<![CDATA[A Comparison Between Radioimmunotherapy and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for the Treatment of Peritoneal Carcinomatosis of Colonic Origin in Rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b7d0c57463d7e3157f9a0a9

Background

Cytoreductive surgery (CS) followed by heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is considered the standard of care for the treatment of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) of colorectal cancer (CRC). These surgical procedures result in a median survival of 2 years at the cost of considerable morbidity and mortality. In preclinical studies, radioimmunotherapy (RIT) improved survival after CS in a model of induced PC of colonic origin.

In the present studies we aimed to compare the efficacy and toxicity of CS followed by adjuvant RIT in experimental PC to the standard of care, HIPEC.

Methods

PC was induced by intraperitoneal inoculation of CC-531 colon carcinoma cells in three groups of Wag/Rij rats. Treatment comprised CS only, CS + RIT or CS + HIPEC, immediately after surgery. RIT consisted of intraperitoneal administration of 74 MBq Lutetium-177 labeled MG1. HIPEC was performed by a closed abdomen perfusion technique using mitomycin C (16 mg/L during 60 minutes). The primary endpoint was survival.

Results

CS only or combined with RIT was well tolerated. Rats receiving CS + HIPEC were lethargic, suffered from diarrhea, and lost significantly more weight in the first postoperative week. Median survival of rats treated with CS + RIT was significantly longer than after CS alone (97 and 57 days, respectively, P < .004), whereas survival after CS + HIPEC or CS alone were not significantly different (76 and 57 days, respectively, P = .17).

Conclusion

Survival after CS was significantly improved by RIT with Lutetium-177-MG1 in rats with PC of colorectal origin. Adjuvant HIPEC did not improve survival and was more toxic than adjuvant RIT.

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<![CDATA[Recapitulation of the accessible interface of biopsy-derived canine intestinal organoids to study epithelial-luminal interactions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N24a1d01a-2f11-47b7-a628-8330af6f7455

Recent advances in canine intestinal organoids have expanded the option for building a better in vitro model to investigate translational science of intestinal physiology and pathology between humans and animals. However, the three-dimensional geometry and the enclosed lumen of canine intestinal organoids considerably hinder the access to the apical side of epithelium for investigating the nutrient and drug absorption, host-microbiome crosstalk, and pharmaceutical toxicity testing. Thus, the creation of a polarized epithelial interface accessible from apical or basolateral side is critical. Here, we demonstrated the generation of an intestinal epithelial monolayer using canine biopsy-derived colonic organoids (colonoids). We optimized the culture condition to form an intact monolayer of the canine colonic epithelium on a nanoporous membrane insert using the canine colonoids over 14 days. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy revealed a physiological brush border interface covered by the microvilli with glycocalyx, as well as the presence of mucin granules, tight junctions, and desmosomes. The population of stem cells as well as differentiated lineage-dependent epithelial cells were verified by immunofluorescence staining and RNA in situ hybridization. The polarized expression of P-glycoprotein efflux pump was confirmed at the apical membrane. Also, the epithelial monolayer formed tight- and adherence-junctional barrier within 4 days, where the transepithelial electrical resistance and apparent permeability were inversely correlated. Hence, we verified the stable creation, maintenance, differentiation, and physiological function of a canine intestinal epithelial barrier, which can be useful for pharmaceutical and biomedical researches.

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<![CDATA[Risk of stomach cancer incidence in a cohort of Mayak PA workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb5246167-3f67-43a4-8a84-93c6a22ed7ff

Stomach cancer is a widespread health condition associated with environmental and genetic factors. Contribution of ionizing radiation to stomach cancer etiology is not sufficiently studied. This study was aimed to assess an association of the stomach cancer incidence risk with doses from occupational radiation exposure in a cohort of workers hired at main Mayak production association facilities in 1948–1982 taking into account non-radiation factors including digestive disorders. The study cohort comprised 22,377 individuals and by 31.12.2013 343 stomach cancer diagnoses had been reported among the cohort members. Occupational stomach absorbed doses were provided by the Mayak Worker Dosimetry System– 2008 (MWDS–2008) for external gamma ray exposure and by the Mayak Worker Dosimetry System– 2013 (MWDS–2013) for internal exposure to plutonium. Excess relative risks (ERR) per Gy for stomach cancer were estimated using the Poisson’s regression. Analyses were run using the AMFIT module of the EPICURE software. The stomach cancer incidence risk in the study cohort was found to be significantly associated with the stomach absorbed dose of gamma rays: ERR/Gy = 0.19 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.44) with a 0 year lag, and ERR/Gy = 0.20 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.45) with a 5 year lag. To estimate the baseline risk, sex, attained age, smoking status and alcohol consumption, chronic diseases (peptic ulcer, gastritis and duodenitis) were taken into account. No modifications of the radiogenic risk by non-radiation factors were found in the study worker cohort. No association of the stomach cancer incidence risk with internal exposure to incorporated plutonium was observed.

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<![CDATA[Detection of novel coronaviruses in bats in Myanmar]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3669ab46-787e-4c30-a451-397d479219b9

The recent emergence of bat-borne zoonotic viruses warrants vigilant surveillance in their natural hosts. Of particular concern is the family of coronaviruses, which includes the causative agents of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and most recently, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), an epidemic of acute respiratory illness originating from Wuhan, China in December 2019. Viral detection, discovery, and surveillance activities were undertaken in Myanmar to identify viruses in animals at high risk contact interfaces with people. Free-ranging bats were captured, and rectal and oral swabs and guano samples collected for coronaviral screening using broadly reactive consensus conventional polymerase chain reaction. Sequences from positives were compared to known coronaviruses. Three novel alphacoronaviruses, three novel betacoronaviruses, and one known alphacoronavirus previously identified in other southeast Asian countries were detected for the first time in bats in Myanmar. Ongoing land use change remains a prominent driver of zoonotic disease emergence in Myanmar, bringing humans into ever closer contact with wildlife, and justifying continued surveillance and vigilance at broad scales.

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<![CDATA[The McCAVE Trial: Vanucizumab plus mFOLFOX‐6 Versus Bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX‐6 in Patients with Previously Untreated Metastatic Colorectal Carcinoma (mCRC)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nea8b4647-34da-4b60-815c-303ebbb07b55

Abstract

Background

Bevacizumab, a VEGF‐A inhibitor, in combination with chemotherapy, has proven to increase progression‐free survival (PFS) and overall survival in multiple lines of therapy of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The angiogenic factor angiopoetin‐2 (Ang‐2) is associated with poor prognosis in many cancers, including mCRC. Preclinical models demonstrate improved activity when inhibiting both VEGF‐A and Ang‐2, suggesting that the dual VEGF‐A and Ang‐2 blocker vanucizumab (RO5520985 or RG‐7221) may improve clinical outcomes. This phase II trial evaluated the efficacy of vanucizumab plus modified (m)FOLFOX‐6 (folinic acid (leucovorin), fluorouracil (5‐FU) and oxaliplatin) versus bevacizumab/mFOLFOX‐6 for first‐line mCRC.

Patients and Methods

All patients received mFOLFOX‐6 and were randomized 1:1 to also receive vanucizumab 2,000 mg or bevacizumab 5 mg/kg every other week. Oxaliplatin was given for eight cycles; other agents were continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity for a maximum of 24 months. The primary endpoint was investigator‐assessed PFS.

Results

One hundred eighty‐nine patients were randomized (vanucizumab, n = 94; bevacizumab, n = 95). The number of PFS events was comparable (vanucizumab, n = 39; bevacizumab, n = 43). The hazard ratio was 1.00 (95% confidence interval, 0.64–1.58; p = .98) in a stratified analysis based on number of metastatic sites and region. Objective response rate was 52.1% and 57.9% in the vanucizumab and bevacizumab arm, respectively. Baseline plasma Ang‐2 levels were prognostic in both arms but not predictive for treatment effects on PFS of vanucizumab. The incidence of adverse events of grade ≥3 was similar between treatment arms (83.9% vs. 82.1%); gastrointestinal perforations (10.8% vs. 8.4%) exceeded previously reported rates in this setting. Hypertension and peripheral edema were more frequent in the vanucizumab arm.

Conclusion

Vanucizumab/mFOLFOX‐6 did not improve PFS and was associated with increased rates of antiangiogenic toxicity compared with bevacizumab/mFOLFOX‐6. Our results suggest that Ang‐2 is not a relevant therapeutic target in first‐line mCRC.

Implications for Practice

This randomized phase II study demonstrates that additional angiopoietin‐2 (Ang‐2) inhibition does not result in superior benefit over anti–VEGF‐A blockade alone when each added to standard chemotherapy. Moreover, the performed pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis revealed that vanucizumab was bioavailable and affected its intended target, thereby strongly suggesting that Ang‐2 is not a relevant therapeutic target in the clinical setting of treatment‐naïve metastatic colorectal cancer. As a result, the further clinical development of the dual VEGF‐A and Ang‐2 inhibitor vanucizumab was discontinued.

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<![CDATA[Low efficacy of vaccination against serogroup B meningococci in patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N063b6d00-2073-4190-8d9a-fb913cdb54b6

Abstract

Background: The C5 complement inhibitor eculizumab is first-line treatment in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) going along with a highly increased risk of meningococcal infections. Serogroup B meningococci (MenB) are the most frequently encountered cause for meningococcal infections in Europe. Efficacy of the protein-based MenB-vaccine Bexsero in aHUS has not been determined and testing is only possible in patients off-treatment with eculizumab as a human complement source is required.

Methods: Patients with aHUS were vaccinated with two doses of the protein-based MenB-vaccine Bexsero. Serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers against factor H binding protein (fHbp) of MenB were determined in 14 patients with aHUS off-treatment with eculizumab.

Results: Only 50% of patients showed protective human serum bactericidal antibody (hSBA) titers (≥1:4) against MenB following two vaccinations. Bactericidal antibody titers were relatively low (≤1:8) in three of seven patients with protective titers. While 71% of patients were on immunosuppressive treatment for either thrombotic microangiopathy or renal transplantation at either first or second vaccination, all four patients not receiving any immunosuppressive treatment showed protective bactericidal antibody response. Time between second vaccination and titer measurement was not significantly different between patients with protective titers compared with those with non-protective titers, while time between first and second vaccination was significantly longer in patients with protective titers going along with a tendency for reduction in immunosuppressive treatment.

Conclusions: Efficacy of vaccination against MenB is insufficient in patients with aHUS. Response to vaccination seems to be hampered by immunosuppression. Therefore, implementation of adequate antibiotic prophylaxis seems pivotal.

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<![CDATA[Periurban outbreaks of bovine calf scours in Northern India caused by Cryptosporidium in association with other enteropathogens]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4887331f-c2df-4145-8630-a855ac5b9dab

SUMMARY

Bovine calf scours reported to be caused by multiple aetiologies resulting in heavy mortality in unweaned calves and huge economic loss to the dairy farmers. Among these, cryptosporidiosis is an emerging waterborne zoonoses and one of the important causes of neonatal calf diarrhoea. Poor immune response coupled with primary cryptosporidial infections predispose neonatal calves to multiple secondary infections resulting in their deaths. In the present study, faecal samples from 100 diarrhoeic calves randomly picked up out of 17 outbreaks of bovine calf diarrhoea in periurban Ludhiana, Punjab in Northern India were subjected to conventional (microscopy, modified Zeihl–Neelsen (mZN) staining) and immunological and molecular techniques (faecal antigen capture ELISA and PCR) for detection of primary Cryptosporidium parvum infection as well as other frequently reported concurrent pathogens, viz. rotavirus and coronavirus, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria spp. The faecal antigen capture ELISA and PCR revealed 35% prevalence of C. parvum in contrast to 25% by mZN staining with a relatively higher prevalence (66·7%) in younger (8–14-day-old) calves. The detection rate of the other enteropathogens associated with C. parvum was 45·71% for C. perfringens followed by Salmonella spp (40·0%), rotavirus (36·0%), coronavirus (16·0%), E. coli (12·0%) and Eimeria spp (4·0%) The sensitivity for detection of C. parvum by ELISA and mZN staining in comparison to PCR was 97·14% and 72·72%, respectively. An important finding of the study was that C. parvum alone was found in only 10% of the diarrhoeic faecal samples, whereas, majority of the samples (90%) showed mixed infections ranging from a combination of two to five agents. This is the first documentary proof of C. parvum and associated pathogens responsible for severe periurban outbreaks of bovine calf diarrhoea culminating in heavy mortality from Northern India.

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<![CDATA[Radiomics and Deep Learning: Hepatic Applications]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nccf1b308-3eb2-4a0a-81d5-00b6ae11cfed

Radiomics and deep learning have recently gained attention in the imaging assessment of various liver diseases. Recent research has demonstrated the potential utility of radiomics and deep learning in staging liver fibroses, detecting portal hypertension, characterizing focal hepatic lesions, prognosticating malignant hepatic tumors, and segmenting the liver and liver tumors. In this review, we outline the basic technical aspects of radiomics and deep learning and summarize recent investigations of the application of these techniques in liver disease.

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<![CDATA[Preoperative Prediction for Early Recurrence Can Be as Accurate as Postoperative Assessment in Single Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne0842664-6e8e-4c31-a466-b80f58ce27ba

Objective

To evaluate the performance of predicting early recurrence using preoperative factors only in comparison with using both pre-/postoperative factors.

Materials and Methods

We retrospectively reviewed 549 patients who had undergone curative resection for single hepatcellular carcinoma (HCC) within Milan criteria. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify pre-/postoperative high-risk factors of early recurrence after hepatic resection for HCC. Two prediction models for early HCC recurrence determined by stepwise variable selection methods based on Akaike information criterion were built, either based on preoperative factors alone or both pre-/postoperative factors. Area under the curve (AUC) for each receiver operating characteristic curve of the two models was calculated, and the two curves were compared for non-inferiority testing. The predictive models of early HCC recurrence were internally validated by bootstrap resampling method.

Results

Multivariable analysis on preoperative factors alone identified aspartate aminotransferase/platelet ratio index (OR, 1.632; 95% CI, 1.056–2.522; p = 0.027), tumor size (OR, 1.025; 95% CI, 0.002–1.049; p = 0.031), arterial rim enhancement of the tumor (OR, 2.350; 95% CI, 1.297–4.260; p = 0.005), and presence of nonhypervascular hepatobiliary hypointense nodules (OR, 1.983; 95% CI, 1.049–3.750; p = 0.035) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging as significant factors. After adding postoperative histopathologic factors, presence of microvascular invasion (OR, 1.868; 95% CI, 1.155–3.022; p = 0.011) became an additional significant factor, while tumor size became insignificant (p = 0.119). Comparison of the AUCs of the two models showed that the prediction model built on preoperative factors alone was not inferior to that including both pre-/postoperative factors {AUC for preoperative factors only, 0.673 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.623–0.723) vs. AUC after adding postoperative factors, 0.691 (95% CI, 0.639–0.744); p = 0.0013}. Bootstrap resampling method showed that both the models were valid.

Conclusion

Risk stratification solely based on preoperative imaging and laboratory factors was not inferior to that based on postoperative histopathologic risk factors in predicting early recurrence after curative resection in within Milan criteria single HCC patients.

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<![CDATA[Development and Validation of a Simple Index Based on Non-Enhanced CT and Clinical Factors for Prediction of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd051399b-bd73-45af-86fc-326cea0499ea

Objective

A widely applicable, non-invasive screening method for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is needed. We aimed to develop and validate an index combining computed tomography (CT) and routine clinical data for screening for NAFLD in a large cohort of adults with pathologically proven NAFLD.

Materials and Methods

This retrospective study included 2218 living liver donors who had undergone liver biopsy and CT within a span of 3 days. Donors were randomized 2:1 into development and test cohorts. CTL-S was measured by subtracting splenic attenuation from hepatic attenuation on non-enhanced CT. Multivariable logistic regression analysis of the development cohort was utilized to develop a clinical-CT index predicting pathologically proven NAFLD. The diagnostic performance was evaluated by analyzing the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The cutoffs for the clinical-CT index were determined for 90% sensitivity and 90% specificity in the development cohort, and their diagnostic performance was evaluated in the test cohort.

Results

The clinical-CT index included CTL-S, body mass index, and aspartate transaminase and triglyceride concentrations. In the test cohort, the clinical-CT index (AUC, 0.81) outperformed CTL-S (0.74; p < 0.001) and clinical indices (0.73–0.75; p < 0.001) in diagnosing NAFLD. A cutoff of ≥ 46 had a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 41%, whereas a cutoff of ≥ 56.5 had a sensitivity of 57% and a specificity of 89%.

Conclusion

The clinical-CT index is more accurate than CTL-S and clinical indices alone for the diagnosis of NAFLD and may be clinically useful in screening for NAFLD.

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