ResearchPad - gastrointestinal-imaging https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Systematic Review of Studies Assessing the Health-Related Quality of Life of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients from 2009 to 2018]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14772 We reviewed all studies assessing the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) between 2009 and 2018 (n = 45). Most studies assessed HRQoL as an outcome, and evaluated or compared the HRQoL of HCC patients depending on the type of treatment or stage of disease. HCC patients had a worse HRQoL than the general population, including in those with early-stage HCC. Patients commonly experienced pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, distress, and lack of appetite, and these symptoms remained problematic even a few years after treatment. TNM classification of malignant tumors stage, tumor stage, presence of cirrhosis, being Asian, being female, living alone, or being unemployed were associated with a poor HRQoL. While recent studies have included a more diverse patient population, various topics, and different study designs, there were limited studies on supportive interventions. Given the increase in HCC cases and HCC survivors, addressing the HRQoL of HCC patients requires more attention.

]]>
<![CDATA[A pilot study of ex-vivo MRI-PDFF of donor livers for assessment of steatosis and predicting early graft dysfunction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14544 The utility of ex vivo Magnetic resonance imaging proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) in donor liver fat quantification is unknown.PurposeTo evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and utility in predicting early allograft dysfunction (EAD) of ex vivo MRI-PDFF measurement of fat in deceased donor livers using histology as the gold standard.MethodsWe performed Ex vivo, 1.5 Tesla MRI-PDFF on 33 human deceased donor livers before implantation, enroute to the operating room. After the exclusion of 4 images (technical errors), 29 MRI images were evaluable. Histology was evaluable in 27 of 29 patients. EAD was defined as a peak value of aminotransferase >2000 IU/mL during the first week or an INR of ≥1.6 or bilirubin ≥10 mg/dL at day 7.ResultsMRI-PDFF values showed a strong positive correlation (Pearson’s correlation coefficient) when histology (macro-steatosis) was included (r = 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.57‐0.89, p<0.0001). The correlation appeared much stronger when macro plus micro-steatosis were included (r = 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.72‐0.94, p<0.0001). EAD was noted in 7(25%) subjects. AUC (Area Under the Curve) for macro steatosis (histology) predicted EAD in 73% (95% CI: 48–99), micro plus macro steatosis in 76% (95% CI: 49–100). AUC for PDFF values predicted EAD in 67(35–98). Comparison of the ROC curves in a multivariate model revealed, adding MRI PDFF values to macro steatosis increased the ability of the model in predicting EAD (AUC: 79%, 95% CI: 59–99), and addition of macro plus micro steatosis based on histology predicted EAD even better (AUC: 90%: 79–100, P = 0.054).ConclusionIn this pilot study, MRI-PDFF imaging showed potential utility in quantifying hepatic steatosis ex-vivo donor liver evaluation and the ability to predict EAD related to severe allograft steatosis in the recipient. ]]> <![CDATA[Radiomics and Deep Learning: Hepatic Applications]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nccf1b308-3eb2-4a0a-81d5-00b6ae11cfed

Radiomics and deep learning have recently gained attention in the imaging assessment of various liver diseases. Recent research has demonstrated the potential utility of radiomics and deep learning in staging liver fibroses, detecting portal hypertension, characterizing focal hepatic lesions, prognosticating malignant hepatic tumors, and segmenting the liver and liver tumors. In this review, we outline the basic technical aspects of radiomics and deep learning and summarize recent investigations of the application of these techniques in liver disease.

]]>
<![CDATA[Preoperative Prediction for Early Recurrence Can Be as Accurate as Postoperative Assessment in Single Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne0842664-6e8e-4c31-a466-b80f58ce27ba

Objective

To evaluate the performance of predicting early recurrence using preoperative factors only in comparison with using both pre-/postoperative factors.

Materials and Methods

We retrospectively reviewed 549 patients who had undergone curative resection for single hepatcellular carcinoma (HCC) within Milan criteria. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify pre-/postoperative high-risk factors of early recurrence after hepatic resection for HCC. Two prediction models for early HCC recurrence determined by stepwise variable selection methods based on Akaike information criterion were built, either based on preoperative factors alone or both pre-/postoperative factors. Area under the curve (AUC) for each receiver operating characteristic curve of the two models was calculated, and the two curves were compared for non-inferiority testing. The predictive models of early HCC recurrence were internally validated by bootstrap resampling method.

Results

Multivariable analysis on preoperative factors alone identified aspartate aminotransferase/platelet ratio index (OR, 1.632; 95% CI, 1.056–2.522; p = 0.027), tumor size (OR, 1.025; 95% CI, 0.002–1.049; p = 0.031), arterial rim enhancement of the tumor (OR, 2.350; 95% CI, 1.297–4.260; p = 0.005), and presence of nonhypervascular hepatobiliary hypointense nodules (OR, 1.983; 95% CI, 1.049–3.750; p = 0.035) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging as significant factors. After adding postoperative histopathologic factors, presence of microvascular invasion (OR, 1.868; 95% CI, 1.155–3.022; p = 0.011) became an additional significant factor, while tumor size became insignificant (p = 0.119). Comparison of the AUCs of the two models showed that the prediction model built on preoperative factors alone was not inferior to that including both pre-/postoperative factors {AUC for preoperative factors only, 0.673 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.623–0.723) vs. AUC after adding postoperative factors, 0.691 (95% CI, 0.639–0.744); p = 0.0013}. Bootstrap resampling method showed that both the models were valid.

Conclusion

Risk stratification solely based on preoperative imaging and laboratory factors was not inferior to that based on postoperative histopathologic risk factors in predicting early recurrence after curative resection in within Milan criteria single HCC patients.

]]>
<![CDATA[Development and Validation of a Simple Index Based on Non-Enhanced CT and Clinical Factors for Prediction of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd051399b-bd73-45af-86fc-326cea0499ea

Objective

A widely applicable, non-invasive screening method for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is needed. We aimed to develop and validate an index combining computed tomography (CT) and routine clinical data for screening for NAFLD in a large cohort of adults with pathologically proven NAFLD.

Materials and Methods

This retrospective study included 2218 living liver donors who had undergone liver biopsy and CT within a span of 3 days. Donors were randomized 2:1 into development and test cohorts. CTL-S was measured by subtracting splenic attenuation from hepatic attenuation on non-enhanced CT. Multivariable logistic regression analysis of the development cohort was utilized to develop a clinical-CT index predicting pathologically proven NAFLD. The diagnostic performance was evaluated by analyzing the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The cutoffs for the clinical-CT index were determined for 90% sensitivity and 90% specificity in the development cohort, and their diagnostic performance was evaluated in the test cohort.

Results

The clinical-CT index included CTL-S, body mass index, and aspartate transaminase and triglyceride concentrations. In the test cohort, the clinical-CT index (AUC, 0.81) outperformed CTL-S (0.74; p < 0.001) and clinical indices (0.73–0.75; p < 0.001) in diagnosing NAFLD. A cutoff of ≥ 46 had a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 41%, whereas a cutoff of ≥ 56.5 had a sensitivity of 57% and a specificity of 89%.

Conclusion

The clinical-CT index is more accurate than CTL-S and clinical indices alone for the diagnosis of NAFLD and may be clinically useful in screening for NAFLD.

]]>
<![CDATA[Using 2-mSv Appendiceal CT in Usual Practice for Adolescents and Young Adults: Willingness Survey of 579 Radiologists, Emergency Physicians, and Surgeons from 20 Hospitals]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd627ab4b-2a8f-43f4-bd33-af1b4b1a829c

Objective

To survey care providers' willingness to use 2-mSv computed tomography (CT) in their usual practice for adolescents and young adults with suspected appendicitis.

Materials and Methods

An ethical committee approved this prospective study. We introduced 2-mSv CT in 20 hospitals through a pragmatic clinical trial. At the final phase of the trial, we invited 698 potentially-involved care providers in the survey regarding their willingness to use 2-mSv CT. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with willingness. Nine months after the completion of the trial patient recruitment, we surveyed whether the hospitals were using 2-mSv CT in usual practice.

Results

The analyses included responses from 579 participants (203 attendings and 376 trainees; 221 radiologists, 196 emergency physicians, and 162 surgeons). Regarding the willingness to immediately change their standard practice to 2-mSv CT, 158 (27.3%), 375 (64.8%), and 46 (7.9%) participants responded as “yes” (consistently), “partly” (selectively), and “no”, respectively. Willingness varied considerably across the hospitals, but only slightly across the participants' departments or job titles. Willingness was significantly associated with attendings (p = 0.004), intention to maintain the dedicated appendiceal CT protocol (p < 0.001), belief in compelling evidence on the carcinogenic risk of conventional-dose CT radiation (p = 0.028), and hospitals having more than 1000 beds (p = 0.031). Fourteen of the 20 hospitals kept using 2-mSv appendiceal CT in usual practice after the trial.

Conclusion

Despite the extensive efforts over the years of this clinical trial, many care providers were willing to use 2-mSv CT selectively or not willing to use.

]]>
<![CDATA[Improved visualisation of hepatic metastases in gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI: Potential of contrast-optimised (phase-sensitive) inversion recovery imaging]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897740d5eed0c4847d2834

Background

Detection of metastases can have a significant impact on therapy. Nevertheless, even in gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR scans, very small hepatic metastases may be difficult to see.

Purpose

To investigate the potential of a contrast-optimised (phase-sensitive) inversion recovery MR sequence in gadoxetate disodium-enhanced scans for detection of hepatic metastases.

Materials and methods

With institutional review board approval and after written informed consent, 40 patients (18 male, 22 female) with suspected or known hepatic metastases were examined on a 1.5 T MR system. A T1-weighted gradient-echo volumetric-interpolated-breath-hold (VIBE) sequence was acquired as part of the standard imaging protocol 20 minutes after administration of gadoxetate disodium. Additionally, an IR sequence was acquired with an inversion time to suppress native signal from metastases. Overall image quality and delineation of lesions were assessed on VIBE as well as on magnitude-reconstructed (MAG) and phase-sensitive IR (PSIR) sequences. Lesion-to-liver contrast (LLC) was compared between VIBE and MAG images.

Results

Overall image quality was high in both VIBE and MAG IR sequences (VIBE 4.275; MAG 4.313), yet significantly lower in PSIR (4.038). Subjective delineation of lesions was higher on MAG and PSIR images compared to VIBE in all size groups with an overall statistically significant difference for VIBE vs. MAG vs. PSIR (p < .001) in the variance analysis. Mean LLC was 0.35±0.01 for VIBE sequences, and 0.73±0.01 for MAG.

Conclusion

Contrast-optimised PSIR seems to improve imaging characteristics of hepatic metastases in gadoxetate disodium-enhanced scans compared to T1 gradient-echo VIBE sequences.

]]>
<![CDATA[A new formula to calculate the resection limit in hepatectomy based on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c644885d5eed0c484c2e84f

Background and aim

Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (EOB-MRI) can be used not only to detect liver tumors but also to estimate liver function. The aim of this study was to establish a new EOB-MRI-based formula to determine the resection limit in patients undergoing hepatectomy.

Methods

Twenty-eight patients with a normal liver (NL group) and five with an unresectable cirrhotic liver (UL group) who underwent EOB-MRI were included. Standardized liver function (SLF) was calculated based on the signal intensity (SI), the volume of each subsegment (S1–S8), and body surface area. A formula defining the resection limit was devised based on the difference in the SLF values of patients in the NL and UL groups. The formula was validated in 50 patients who underwent EOB-MRI and hepatectomy.

Results

The average SLF value in the NL and UL groups was 2038 and 962 FV/m2, respectively. The difference (1076 FV/m2) was consistent with a 70% in resection volume. Thus, the resection limit for hepatectomy was calculated as a proportion of 70%: 70×(SLF−962)/1076 (%). The one patient who underwent hepatectomy over the resection limit died due to liver failure. In other 49 patients, in whom the resection volume was less than the resection limit, procedures were safely performed.

Conclusions

Our formula for resection limit based on EOB-MRI can improve the safety of hepatectomy.

]]>
<![CDATA[What Is New in the 2017 World Health Organization Classification and 8th American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging System for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fc6fbd5eed0c484e28c1f

The diagnosis and management of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) have evolved significantly in recent years. There are several diagnostic and therapeutic challenges and controversies regarding the management of these lesions. In this review, we focus on the recent significant changes and controversial issues regarding the diagnosis and management of NENs and discuss the role of imaging in the multidisciplinary team approach.

]]>
<![CDATA[Measurement of liver iron by magnetic resonance imaging in the UK Biobank population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c26973bd5eed0c48470efe9

The burden of liver disease continues to increase in the UK, with liver cirrhosis reported to be the third most common cause of premature death. Iron overload, a condition that impacts liver health, was traditionally associated with genetic disorders such as hereditary haemochromatosis, however, it is now increasingly associated with obesity, type-2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of elevated levels of liver iron within the UK Biobank imaging study in a cohort of 9108 individuals. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was undertaken at the UK Biobank imaging centre, acquiring a multi-echo spoiled gradient-echo single-breath-hold MRI sequence from the liver. All images were analysed for liver iron and fat (expressed as proton density fat fraction or PDFF) content using LiverMultiScan. Liver iron was measured in 97.3% of the cohort. The mean liver iron content was 1.32 ± 0.32 mg/g while the median was 1.25 mg/g (min: 0.85 max: 6.44 mg/g). Overall 4.82% of the population were defined as having elevated liver iron, above commonly accepted 1.8 mg/g threshold based on biochemical iron measurements in liver specimens obtained by biopsy. Further analysis using univariate models showed elevated liver iron to be related to male sex (p<10−16, r2 = 0.008), increasing age (p<10−16, r2 = 0.013), and red meat intake (p<10−16, r2 = 0.008). Elevated liver fat (>5.6% PDFF) was associated with a slight increase in prevalence of elevated liver iron (4.4% vs 6.3%, p = 0.0007). This study shows that population studies including measurement of liver iron concentration are feasible, which may in future be used to better inform patient stratification and treatment.

]]>
<![CDATA[Comparison of Chronologic Change in the Size and Contrast-Enhancement of Ablation Zones on CT Images after Irreversible Electroporation and Radiofrequency Ablation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b5b5c5a463d7e1b509f591b

Objective

To compare short-, mid-, and long-term follow-up ablation zone volume alterations as well as imaging features on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) after irreversible electroporation (IRE) of primary and secondary liver tumors with findings subsequent to radiofrequency ablation (RFA).

Materials and Methods

Volume assessment of 39 ablation zones (19 RFA, 20 IRE) after intervention was performed at four time intervals (day 0 [t1; n = 39], day 1–7 [t2; n = 25], day 8–55 [t3; n = 28], after day 55 [t4; n = 23]) on dual-phase CT. Analysis of peripheral rim enhancement was conducted. Lesion's volume decrease relative to the volume at t1 was calculated and statistically analyzed with respect to patient's sex, age, ablation modality (IRE/RFA), and history of platinum-based chemotherapy (PCT).

Results

No influence of patient's sex or age on ablation volume was detected. The decrease in ablation zones' volume was significantly larger (p < 0.05 for all time intervals) after IRE (arterial phase, 7.5%; venous phase, 9.7% of initial volume) compared to RFA (arterial phase, 39.6%; venous phase, 45.3% of initial volume). After RFA, significantly smaller decreases in the ablation volumes, in general, were detected in patients treated with PCT in their history (p = 0.004), which was not detected after IRE (p = 0.288). In the arterial phase, peripheral rim enhancement was frequently detected after both IRE and RFA. In the venous phase, rim-enhancement was depicted significantly more often following IRE at t1 and t2 (pt1 = 0.003, pt2 < 0.001).

Conclusion

As per our analysis, ablation zone volume decreased significantly in a more rapid and more profound manner after IRE. Lesion's remodeling after RFA but not IRE seems to be influenced by PCT, possibly due to the type of cell death induced by the different ablation modalities.

]]>
<![CDATA[Semi-Supervised Feature Transformation for Tissue Image Classification]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da08ab0ee8fa60b76a30

Various systems have been proposed to support biological image analysis, with the intent of decreasing false annotations and reducing the heavy burden on biologists. These systems generally comprise a feature extraction method and a classification method. Task-oriented methods for feature extraction leverage characteristic images for each problem, and they are very effective at improving the classification accuracy. However, it is difficult to utilize such feature extraction methods for versatile task in practice, because few biologists specialize in Computer Vision and/or Pattern Recognition to design the task-oriented methods. Thus, in order to improve the usability of these supporting systems, it will be useful to develop a method that can automatically transform the image features of general propose into the effective form toward the task of their interest. In this paper, we propose a semi-supervised feature transformation method, which is formulated as a natural coupling of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) in the framework of graph-embedding. Compared with other feature transformation methods, our method showed favorable classification performance in biological image analysis.

]]>
<![CDATA[PLoS Pathogens Issue Image | Vol. 13(9) September 2017]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ab0700a463d7e2b83d278d8

An activated form of Rab11 is specifically targeted to intercellular junctions in Drosophila salivary glands.

Drosophila larval salivary glands are comprised of giant polyploid cells, making them an ideal system for sub-cellular distribution and co-localization studies. In this image, an activated and YFP-tagged form of Rab11 was expressed in salivary glands. Rab11 is critical for endocytic recycling, a process through which vesicles carrying junctional components like cadherins are brought near and fuse with the plasma membrane. Only the activated form of Rab11 displays this strong preference for intercellular junctions. The anthrax toxin edema factor (EF) blocks Rab11 function, which weakens the adherens junctions, and promotes edema during infection. Guichard et al.

Image Credit: Annabel Guichard and Ethan Bier, Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, UCSD

]]>
<![CDATA[Characterisation of liver fat in the UK Biobank cohort]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdbc49

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and the risk of progression to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma have been identified as major public health concerns. We have demonstrated the feasibility and potential value of measuring liver fat content by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a large population in this study of 4,949 participants (aged 45–73 years) in the UK Biobank imaging enhancement. Despite requirements for only a single (≤3min) scan of each subject, liver fat was able to be measured as the MRI proton density fat fraction (PDFF) with an overall success rate of 96.4%. The overall hepatic fat distribution was centred between 1–2%, and was highly skewed towards higher fat content. The mean PDFF was 3.91%, and median 2.11%. Analysis of PDFF in conjunction with other data fields available from the UK Biobank Resource showed associations of increased liver fat with greater age, BMI, weight gain, high blood pressure and Type 2 diabetes. Subjects with BMI less than 25 kg/m2 had a low risk (5%) of high liver fat (PDFF > 5.5%), whereas in the higher BMI population (>30 kg/m2) the prevalence of high liver fat was approximately 1 in 3. These data suggest that population screening to identify people with high PDFF is possible and could be cost effective. MRI based PDFF is an effective method for this. Finally, although cross sectional, this study suggests the utility of the PDFF measurement within UK Biobank, particularly for applications to elucidating risk factors through associations with prospectively acquired data on clinical outcomes of liver diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

]]>
<![CDATA[Feature Learning Based Random Walk for Liver Segmentation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da82ab0ee8fa60b9b277

Liver segmentation is a significant processing technique for computer-assisted diagnosis. This method has attracted considerable attention and achieved effective result. However, liver segmentation using computed tomography (CT) images remains a challenging task because of the low contrast between the liver and adjacent organs. This paper proposes a feature-learning-based random walk method for liver segmentation using CT images. Four texture features were extracted and then classified to determine the classification probability corresponding to the test images. Seed points on the original test image were automatically selected and further used in the random walk (RW) algorithm to achieve comparable results to previous segmentation methods.

]]>
<![CDATA[Imaging Radiation-Induced Gastrointestinal, Bone Marrow Injury and Recovery Kinetics Using 18F-FDG PET]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da8cab0ee8fa60b9e617

Positron emission tomography using 18F-Fluro-deoxy-glucose (18F-FDG) is a useful tool to detect regions of inflammation in patients. We utilized this imaging technique to investigate the kinetics of gastrointestinal recovery after radiation exposure and the role of bone marrow in the recovery process. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were either sham irradiated, irradiated with their upper half body shielded (UHBS) at a dose of 7.5 Gy, or whole body irradiated (WBI) with 4 or 7.5 Gy. Animals were imaged using 18F-FDG PET/CT at 5, 10 and 35 days post-radiation exposure. The gastrointestinal tract and bone marrow were analyzed for 18F-FDG uptake. Tissue was collected at all-time points for histological analysis. Following 7.5 Gy irradiation, there was a significant increase in inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract as indicated by the significantly higher 18F-FDG uptake compared to sham. UHBS animals had a significantly higher activity compared to 7.5 Gy WBI at 5 days post-exposure. Animals that received 4 Gy WBI did not show any significant increase in uptake compared to sham. Analysis of the bone marrow showed a significant decrease of uptake in the 7.5 Gy animals 5 days post-irradiation, albeit not observed in the 4 Gy group. Interestingly, as the metabolic activity of the gastrointestinal tract returned to sham levels in UHBS animals it was accompanied by an increase in metabolic activity in the bone marrow. At 35 days post-exposure both gastrointestinal tract and bone marrow 18F-FDG uptake returned to sham levels. 18F-FDG imaging is a tool that can be used to study the inflammatory response of the gastrointestinal tract and changes in bone marrow metabolism caused by radiation exposure. The recovery of the gastrointestinal tract coincides with an increase in bone marrow metabolism in partially shielded animals. These findings further demonstrate the relationship between the gastrointestinal syndrome and bone marrow recovery, and that this interaction can be studied using non-invasive imaging modalities.

]]>
<![CDATA[Monitoring Radiofrequency Ablation Using Ultrasound Envelope Statistics and Shear Wave Elastography in the Periablation Period: An In Vitro Feasibility Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da26ab0ee8fa60b80a1f

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive method for treating tumors. Shear wave elastography (SWE) has been widely applied in evaluating tissue stiffness and final ablation size after RFA. However, the usefulness of periablation SWE imaging in assessing RFA remains unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the correlation between periablation SWE imaging and final ablation size. An in vitro porcine liver model was used for experimental validation (n = 36). During RFA with a power of 50 W, SWE images were collected using a clinical ultrasound system. To evaluate the effects of tissue temperature and gas bubbles during RFA, changes in the ablation temperature were recorded, and image echo patterns were measured using B-mode and ultrasound statistical parametric images. After RFA, the gross pathology of each tissue sample was compared with the region of change in the corresponding periablation SWE image. The experimental results showed that the tissue temperature at the ablation site varied between 70°C and 100°C. Hyperechoic regions and changes were observed in the echo amplitude distribution induced by gas bubbles. Under this condition, the confounding effects (including the temperature increase, tissue stiffness increase, and presence of gas bubbles) resulted in artifacts in the periablation SWE images, and the corresponding region correlated with the estimated final ablation size obtained from the gross pathology (r = 0.8). The findings confirm the feasibility of using periablation SWE imaging in assessing RFA.

]]>
<![CDATA[Performance of Real-Time Elastography for the Staging of Hepatic Fibrosis: A Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da97ab0ee8fa60ba239b

Background

With the rapid development of real-time elastography (RTE), a variety of measuring methods have been developed for the assessment of hepatic fibrosis. We evaluated the overall performance of four methods based on RTE by performing meta-analysis of published literature.

Methods

Online journal databases and a manual search from April 2000 to April 2014 were used. Studies from different databases that meet inclusion criteria were enrolled. The statistical analysis was performed using a random-effects model and fixed-effects model for the overall effectiveness of RTE. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was calculated for various means. Fagan plot analysis was used to estimate the clinical utility of RTE, and the heterogeneity of the studies was explored with meta-regression analysis.

Results

Thirteen studies from published articles were enrolled and analyzed. The combined AUROC of the liver fibrosis index (LFI) for the evaluation of significant fibrosis (F≥2), advanced fibrosis (F≥3), and cirrhosis (F = 4) were 0.79, 0.94, and 0.85, respectively. The AUROC of the elasticity index (EI) ranged from 0.75 to 0.92 for F≥2 and 0.66 to 0.85 for F = 4. The overall AUROC of the elastic ratio of the liver for the intrahepatic venous vessels were 0.94, 0.93, and 0.96, respectively. The AUROC of the elastic ratio of the liver for the intercostal muscle in diagnosing advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis were 0.96 and 0.92, respectively. There was significant heterogeneity in the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) for F≥2 of LFI mainly due to etiology (p<0.01).

Conclusion

The elastic ratio of the liver for the intrahepatic vein has excellent precision in differentiating each stage of hepatic fibrosis and is recommend to be applied to the clinic.

]]>
<![CDATA[Characterization of CC-531 as a Rat Model of Colorectal Liver Metastases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da05ab0ee8fa60b757e0

Purpose

Surgical resection of colorectal liver metastases is not achievable in more than 70% of the cases. Although the liver directed therapies have become a part of the stand of care, lack of a preclinical model impedes the assessment of toxicity and therapeutic benefits attributed several candidate drugs or treatment regimens that can be designed. In the present study we aim develop and characterize a rat colorectal liver metastasis model.

Materials and Methods

Growth characteristics of CC-531 cells were determined in vitro followed by subcapsular liver implantation in syngeneic WAG/Rij rats. Tumor growth progression was followed over 3 weeks by ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Growth characteristics were also assessed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry in harvested tumor tissues.

Results

The doubling time of CC-531 cells was found be under 24hrs and all the implanted rats grew tumors. US imaging showed hypoechoic masses and MRI showed contrast enhancement representing complex tumor microenvironments. Hematoxylin and Eosin staining confirmed tumor growth and uniform CD31 staining in tumor confirmed even vessel density.

Conclusion

CC-531 can be used as a metastatic rat tumor colorectal liver metastases model with well-defined characteristics that can be readily followed by imaging whilst having a therapeutic window for interventions.

]]>
<![CDATA[Histogram Analysis of Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced MRI for Quantitative Hepatic Fibrosis Measurement]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f2ab0ee8fa60b6efea

Purpose

The diagnosis and monitoring of liver fibrosis is an important clinical issue; however, this is usually achieved by invasive methods such as biopsy. We aimed to determine whether histogram analysis of hepatobiliary phase images of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide non-invasive quantitative measurement of liver fibrosis.

Methods

This retrospective study was approved by the institutional ethics committee, and a waiver of informed consent was obtained. Hepatobiliary phase images of preoperative gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI studies of 105 patients (69 males, 36 females; age 56.1±12.2) with pathologically documented liver fibrosis grades were analyzed. Fibrosis staging was F0/F1/F2/F3/F4 (METAVIR system) for 11/20/13/15/46 patients, respectively. Four regions-of-interest (ROI, each about 2 cm2) were placed on predetermined locations of representative images. The measured signal intensity of pixels in each ROI was used to calculate corrected coefficient of variation (cCV), skewness, and kurtosis. An average value of each parameter was calculated for comparison. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and linear regression.

Results

The cCV showed statistically significant differences among pathological fibrosis grades (P<0.001) whereas skewness and kurtosis did not. Univariable linear regression analysis suggested cCV to be a meaningful parameter in predicting the fibrosis grade (P<0.001, β = 0.40 and standard error  = 0.06). For discriminating F0-3 from F4, the area under ROC score was 0.857, standard deviation 0.036, 95% confidence interval 0.785–0.928.

Conclusion

Histogram analysis of hepatobiliary phase images of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI can provide non-invasive quantitative measurements of hepatic fibrosis.

]]>