ResearchPad - gastrointestinal-renal-hepatic-systems https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Silencing of LncRNA PVT1 inhibits the proliferation, migration and fibrosis of high glucose-induced mouse mesangial cells via targeting microRNA-93-5p]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9222 Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the regulatory role of long non-coding RNA plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) on high glucose (HG)-induced mouse mesangial cells (MMCs).

Methods: PVT1 expression in diabetic nephropathy (DN) mice and HG-induced MMCs was detected by qRT-PCR. EdU and Colony formation, Annexin V-PI staining, Muse cell cycle, Scratch, and Transwell assays were performed to detect the cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, migration, and invasion, respectively. The contents of fibrosis factors in cell-culture supernatants were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot was performed to detect the expression of factors involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, migration and invasion, fibrosis, and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The targeting relation between miR-93-5p and PVT1 was predicted by StarBase3.0 (an online software for analyzing the targeting relationship) and identified by Dual-luciferase reporter (DLR) assay.

Results: PVT1 was overexpressed in DN kidney tissues and HG-induced MMCs. HG-induced MMCs exhibited significantly increased EdU-positive cells, cell colonies, S and G2/M phase cells, migration and invasion ability, and contents of fibrosis factors, as well as significantly decreased apoptosis rate compared with NG-induced MMCs. HG significantly up-regulated Bcl-2, CyclinD1, CDK4, N-cadherin, vimentin, Col. IV, FN, TGF-β1 and PAI-1, and down-regulated Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, and E-cadherin in MMCs. Silencing of PVT1 eliminated the effects of HG in MMCs and blocked PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. MiR-93-5p was a target of PVT1, which eliminated the effects of PVT1 on HG-induced MMCs.

Conclusions: PVT1 silencing inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion and fibrosis, promoted the apoptosis, and blocked PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in HG-induced MMCs via up-regulating miR-93-5p.

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<![CDATA[Hereditary hemochromatosis disrupts uric acid homeostasis and causes hyperuricemia via altered expression/activity of xanthine oxidase and ABCG2]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9170 Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is mostly caused by mutations in the iron-regulatory gene HFE. The disease is associated with iron overload, resulting in liver cirrhosis/cancer, cardiomegaly, kidney dysfunction, diabetes, and arthritis. Fe2+-induced oxidative damage is suspected in the etiology of these symptoms. Here we examined, using Hfe−/− mice, whether disruption of uric acid (UA) homeostasis plays any role in HH-associated arthritis. We detected elevated levels of UA in serum and intestine in Hfe−/− mice compared with controls. Though the expression of xanthine oxidase, which generates UA, was not different in liver and intestine between wild type and Hfe−/− mice, the enzymatic activity was higher in Hfe−/− mice. We then examined various transporters involved in UA absorption/excretion. Glut9 expression did not change; however, there was an increase in Mrp4 and a decrease in Abcg2 in Hfe−/− mice. As ABCG2 mediates intestinal excretion of UA and mutations in ABCG2 cause hyperuricemia, we examined the potential connection between iron and ABCG2. We found p53-responsive elements in hABCG2 promoter and confirmed with chromatin immunoprecipitation that p53 binds to this promoter. p53 protein was reduced in Hfe−/− mouse intestine. p53 is a heme-binding protein and p53-heme complex is subjected to proteasomal degradation. We conclude that iron/heme overload in HH increases xanthine oxidase activity and also promotes p53 degradation resulting in decreased ABCG2 expression. As a result, systemic UA production is increased and intestinal excretion of UA via ABCG2 is decreased, causing serum and tissue accumulation of UA, a potential factor in the etiology of HH-associated arthritis.

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<![CDATA[Bacterial association and comparison between lung and intestine in rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N79a28e01-0c89-4ad0-9dcc-f43071225fa5 The association between lung and intestine has already been reported, but the differences in community structures or functions between lung and intestine bacteria yet need to explore. To explore the differences in community structures or functions, the lung tissues and fecal contents in rats were collected and analyzed through 16S rRNA sequencing. It was found that intestine bacteria was more abundant and diverse than lung bacteria. In intestine bacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroides were identified as major phyla while Lactobacillus was among the most abundant genus. However, in lung the major identified phylum was Proteobacteria and genus Pseudomonas was most prominent genus. On the other hand, in contrast the lung bacteria was more concentrated in cytoskeleton and function in energy production and conversion. While, intestine bacteria were enriched in RNA processing, modification chromatin structure, dynamics and amino acid metabolism. The study provides the basis for understanding the relationships between lung and intestine bacteria.

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<![CDATA[Anti-apoptosis mechanism of triptolide based on network pharmacology in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N409d00df-bdc9-40d1-b0a2-a6055e43bdc2 Triptolide (TPL), the active component of Tripterygium wilfordii, exhibits anti-cancer and antioxidant functions. We aimed to explore the anti-apoptosis mechanism of TPL based on network pharmacology and in vivo and in vitro research validation using a rat model of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). The chemical structures and pharmacological activities of the compounds reported in T. wilfordii were determined and used to perform the network pharmacology analysis. The Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database (TCMSP) was then used to identify the network targets for 16 compounds from Tripterygium wilfordii. Our results showed that 47 overlapping genes obtained from the GeneCards and OMIM databases were involved in the occurrence and development of FSGS and used to construct the protein–protein interaction (PPI) network using the STRING database. Hub genes were identified via the MCODE plug-in of the Cytoscape software. IL4 was the target gene of TPL in FSGS and was mainly enriched in the cell apoptosis term and p53 signaling pathway, according to Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses. TPL inhibited FSGS-induced cell apoptosis in rats and regulated IL4, nephrin, podocin, and p53 protein levels via using CCK8, TUNEL, and Western blot assays. The effects of IL4 overexpression, including inhibition of cell viability and promotion of apoptosis, were reversed by TPL. TPL treatment increased the expression of nephrin and podocin and decreased p53 expression in rat podocytes. In conclusion, TPL inhibited podocyte apoptosis by targeting IL4 to alleviate kidney injury in FSGS rats.

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<![CDATA[Low efficacy of vaccination against serogroup B meningococci in patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N063b6d00-2073-4190-8d9a-fb913cdb54b6

Abstract

Background: The C5 complement inhibitor eculizumab is first-line treatment in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) going along with a highly increased risk of meningococcal infections. Serogroup B meningococci (MenB) are the most frequently encountered cause for meningococcal infections in Europe. Efficacy of the protein-based MenB-vaccine Bexsero in aHUS has not been determined and testing is only possible in patients off-treatment with eculizumab as a human complement source is required.

Methods: Patients with aHUS were vaccinated with two doses of the protein-based MenB-vaccine Bexsero. Serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers against factor H binding protein (fHbp) of MenB were determined in 14 patients with aHUS off-treatment with eculizumab.

Results: Only 50% of patients showed protective human serum bactericidal antibody (hSBA) titers (≥1:4) against MenB following two vaccinations. Bactericidal antibody titers were relatively low (≤1:8) in three of seven patients with protective titers. While 71% of patients were on immunosuppressive treatment for either thrombotic microangiopathy or renal transplantation at either first or second vaccination, all four patients not receiving any immunosuppressive treatment showed protective bactericidal antibody response. Time between second vaccination and titer measurement was not significantly different between patients with protective titers compared with those with non-protective titers, while time between first and second vaccination was significantly longer in patients with protective titers going along with a tendency for reduction in immunosuppressive treatment.

Conclusions: Efficacy of vaccination against MenB is insufficient in patients with aHUS. Response to vaccination seems to be hampered by immunosuppression. Therefore, implementation of adequate antibiotic prophylaxis seems pivotal.

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<![CDATA[HbA1c may contribute to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease even at normal-range levels]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N79720057-3c41-4601-a216-3cccc89bc09d

Abstract

Previous clinical studies highlighted nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as a hepatic facet of metabolic syndrome, which progresses toward Type 2 diabetes along with an elevation of HbA1c in the blood. Longitudinal observations were performed in a cohort of 2811 participants with no liver disease at inception. The rate of the conversion into NAFLD was 15.7% (440/2811), with a steady increase in prevalence observed in sub-cohorts with increasing HbA1c levels. Moreover, regression analysis indicated that HbA1c levels serve as the risk factors for NAFLD after multiple adjustments (odds ratio: 1.58, P-value < 0.004). When HbA1c-related molecular networks were investigated using natural language programming algorithms, multiple genetic/small molecular (SM) pathways were highlighted as connectors between the HbA1c levels and the development of NAFLD, including ones for nitric oxide, hypoxia and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Our results suggest that increased levels of HbA1c may contribute to the progression of NAFLD either directly, by stimulating RAGE or indirectly, through the promotion of hypoxia and suppression of the release of NO. Further studies are needed to test the impact of HbA1c on the development of the chronic liver disease.

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<![CDATA[MicroRNA files in the prevention of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury by hydrogen rich saline]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N62eb9d1e-5d10-4284-bc17-5627e8920055

Abstract

Background: Hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) has been proven effective against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, knowledge on the underlying signaling events remain poor. Having recent highlight of microRNAs (miRNAs) in mediating intestinal I/R injury, we hypothesized that HRS may protect intestine against I/R injury by regulating miRNAs.

Method: Mice were given intraperitoneal injection of saline or HRS once daily for five consecutive days before undergoing intestinal I/R that was induced by 60-min ischemia followed by 180-min reperfusion of superior mesenteric artery. The intestine was collected for histopathological assay, miRNA microarray profiling, Real-Time PCR, and Western blotting. Next, miR-199a-3p mimics or inhibitors were transfected into IEC-6 cells to explore the relationship between HRS treatment and miR-199a-3p.

Results: I/R-induced mucosal injury and epithelial cells apoptosis were attenuated by HRS pretreatment. A total of 64 intestinal I/R-responsive miRNAs were altered significantly by HRS pretreatment, in which we validated four novel miRNAs with top significance by Real-Time PCR, namely miR-199a-3p, miR-296-5p, miR-5126, and miR-6538. Particularly, miR-199a-3p was drastically increased by I/R but reduced by HRS. Computational analysis predicts insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) regulatory subunit 1 as targets of miR-199a-3p, suggesting involvement of the pro-survival pathway, IGF- 1/PI3K/Akt/mTOR. In in vitro experiment, HRS treatment reduced miR-199a-3p level, increase IGF-1, PI3K and mTOR mRNA expression, restore IEC-6 cells viability, and this protective effects were reversed under miR-199a-3p mimics treatment.

Conclusion: Collectively, miR-199a-3p may serve a key role in the anti-apoptotic mechanism of HRS that contributes to its protection of the intestine against I/R injury.

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<![CDATA[RCAN1.4 mediates high glucose-induced matrix production by stimulating mitochondrial fission in mesangial cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf1969b5b-fdb5-4108-bdef-6f37c3b5d961

Abstract

High glucose (HG)-induced mitochondrial dynamic changes and oxidative damage are closely related to the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Recent studies suggest that regulators of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial function in different cell types, so we investigate the role of RCAN1 in mitochondrial dynamics under HG ambience in rat glomerular mesangial cells (MCs). MCs subjected to HG exhibited an isoform-specific up-regulation of RCAN1.4 at both mRNA and protein levels. RCAN1.4 overexpression induced translocation of Dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1) to mitochondria, mitochondrial fragmentation and depolarization, accompanied by increased matrix production under normal glucose and HG ambience. In contrast, decreasing the expression of RCAN1.4 by siRNA inhibited HG-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and matrix protein up-regulation. Moreover, both mitochondrial fission inhibitor Mdivi-1 and Drp1 shRNA prevented RCAN1.4-induced fibronectin up-regulation, suggesting that RCAN1.4-induced matrix production is dependent on its modulation of mitochondrial fission. Although HG-induced RCAN1.4 up-regulation was achieved by activating calcineurin, RCAN1.4-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation and matrix production is independent of calcineurin activity. These results provide the first evidence for the HG-induced RCAN1.4 up-regulation involving increased mitochondrial fragmentation, leading to matrix protein up-regulation.

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<![CDATA[Efficacy and safety of Chinese patent medicine (Jinlong capsule) in the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N16ef582b-a988-433b-8655-d4d07857b67e

Abstract

Jinlong capsule (JLC), a type of herbal medicine, is considered to be a promising adjuvant therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HC). Although an analysis of the published literature has been performed, the exact effects and safety of JLC are yet to be systematically investigated. Therefore, a wide-ranging systematic search of electronic databases to draw conclusions was performed. Data from 29 trials, including 2488 patients with advanced HC, were analyzed. The results indicated that, compared with conventional treatment alone, the combination of conventional treatment and JLC markedly improved overall patient response (odds ratio (OR) 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.71–2.49]; P<0.00001), disease control rate (DCR) (OR 2.17 [95% CI 1.74–2.71]; P<0.00001) and quality of life (QoL) (OR 2.71 [95% CI 2.05–3.58]; P<0.00001), and significantly prolonged 6- (P=0.01), 12- (P<0.00001), 24- (P=0.001) and 36-month (P<0.0001) overall survival (OS) rates. The immune function of patients was also significantly enhanced after combined conventional therapy and JLC treatment, indicated by clearly increased percentages of CD3+ (P<0.0001), CD4+ (P<0.00001) and natural killer (NK) cells (P=0.0003), and CD4+/CD8+ ratio (P<0.00001). The incidence of leukopenia (P<0.00001), hepatotoxicity (P=0.005), and myelosuppression (P=0.0007) was lower in HC patients injected with JLC, whereas other adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups (P>0.05). In summary, results of this meta-analysis suggest that the combination of conventional treatment and JLC is more effective for the treatment of HC than conventional treatment alone.

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<![CDATA[Survival and prognostic factors of patients with esophageal fistula in advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf4fd42f2-71e4-40c3-9974-5d77e3150970

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate the survival and prognostic factors of patients who were with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and developed an esophageal fistula. The data from 221 patients with advanced ESCC developed esophageal fistula from January 2008 to December 2017 at the Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital was retrospectively analyzed. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by the Cox proportional hazard models. The median survival time after a diagnosis of the esophageal fistula was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. We found that the pathogens infected by patients are common bacteria in nosocomial infection. Besides, the incidence rate of esophagomediastinal fistula was the highest (54.2%) in the lower third of the esophagus. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed a median survival time of 11.00 months and a median post-fistula survival time of 3.63 months in patients who developed esophageal fistula in advanced esophageal cancer. In the univariate analysis, gender, therapies for ESCC before the development of fistula, type of esophageal fistula, treatment of esophageal fistula and hemoglobin (Hb) level were the factors with significant prognostic value. Gender, type of esophageal fistula and Hb level were identified as independent prognostic factors in further multivariate analysis. In summary, our study demonstrated that several factors are significantly related to patients with esophageal fistula and should be concerned about in clinical practice.

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<![CDATA[Metabolomics study of fasudil on cisplatin-induced kidney injury]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbecd5d86-324e-4e00-a8ca-6d3f7e08fed8

Abstract

Fasudil is a derivative of 5-isoquinoline sulfonamide, which is a Rho kinase inhibitor, a wide range of pharmacological effects. Fasudil has been shown to attenuate kidney injury caused by certain substances. In the present study, metabolomic analysis of mouse kidney tissues ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to determine the metabolomic changes in cisplatin-induced kidney injury and the fasudil-induced attenuation of cisplatin-induced kidney injury. Metabolomic profiling of kidney tissues revealed significant differences in metabolites between the control group and the cisplatin group and between the cisplatin group and the fasudil-intervention group. With metabolomic approach, 68 endogenous differential metabolites were found, and multivariate statistical analysis, accurate molecular weights, isotope tracers, mass-spectrometry secondary-fragment information, and standard-reference comparisons were used to identify these substances. Based on these differential metabolites, a metabolic-pathway network was constructed and revealed that fasudil primarily attenuated cisplatin-induced renal injury by modulating lipid and amino-acid metabolism. These results further demonstrate that kidney injury can be induced by cisplatin and, moreover, suggest that fasudil can be used to reduce kidney injury at early stages in patients treated with cisplatin.

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